Wilfrid Richmond.

The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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ery, and People 5 (1867) ; <The Office, and Work
of the Christian Ministry * (1869) ; homiletics*
(1881); < Pastoral Theology* (1889); < The
Early Renaissance* (1892) ; and i Greek Art on
Greek Soil* (1897).

Hoppner, hop'ner, John, English portrait
painter: b. London 4 April 1758; d. 23 Jan.
18 10. He entered the schools of the Royal Acad-
emy in 1775; and became a fashionable portrait
painter and the rival of Lawrence. He was a
member of the Royal Academy in 1795. His
paintings have suffered from his use of bad
mediums; but his repute has risen, and in 1896
a portrait by him was sold for 1,800 guineas.

Hopps, John Page, English Unitarian
clergyman: b. London Nov. 1834. He was
educated at the Baptist College in Leicester, and
first entered the Baptist minstry. Becoming a
Unitarian, he held pastorates in Unitarian
churches in Sheffield, Dukinfield, Glasgow,
Leicester, and Croydon. He was a member of
the first school board of the city of Glasgow.
He was proprietor and editor of <The Truth-
seeker,* 1863-87, and became editor of ( The
Coming Day* in 1891 ; he has written Pilgrim
Songs* ; ( A Scientific Basis of Belief in a Fu-
ture Life* ; <The Alleged Prophecies concern-
ing Jesus Christ in the Old Testament* ; <The
Plain Truth about the Bible*; < First Principles
of Religion and Morality.*

Hops (Humulus lupulus) are a climbing
plant, often met with in the wild state in north-
ern Europe and in North America. The hop
belongs to the hemp family (Cannabinaceai)
and it is the sole representative of its genus, but
is cultivated in many varieties. It is a dioecious
plant, that is, the pistillate (female) and stam-
mate (male) infloresence is borne by different
plants. In American and English hop-gardens
it is customary to grow a sprinkling of male
plants, but these are rigorously excluded on the
Continent. In the former case the pistillate in-
florescence becomes impregnated and forms seeds,
in the latter they do not. In good hops the
seeds are scarce, small, shrunken and sterile,
that is incaji -ble of propagating the plant. Many
believe that he formation of seed ought to be
prevented, a the seeds are useless to the brewer,
the main consumer of hops, and besides they only
add weight to the hops. Hop-plants are not
raised from seeds, but are propagated by cutting
off and transplanting portions of the under-
ground stem or root. Only the pistillate plant
is cultivated, because ks ripe flower is the part
of the hop-plant used in brewing. It has been
introduced into Brazil, Australia and the Hima-



The hop ia a perennial herbaceous plant,
which produces each year several long twisting,
striated stems, 15 to 20 feet in length, which
clamber over hedges, brush, etc., with ease. The
leaves are stalked, opposite, three to five lobed,
and coarsely serrate. They are, like the stem,
rough to the touch. The male inflorescence
forms a panicle ; the flowers enclose five stamens



in a small greenish five-parted perianth. At an
early stage the female inflorescence is less con-
spicuous. The strobile or catkin consists of
several small acute bracts or leaves at whose
base are situated two sessile ovaries, each sub-
tended by a rounded bractlet. These bracts are
attached te the extremity of the stem in such
a way as to form a cone, and are shaped similar
to roofing tiles, being one half to three quarters
of an inch long.

The ovary and the base of the bracts are
covered with a yellowish powder, the tf hop-
meaP or lupulin, which is the active principle
of the plant.

Only a very slight amount of hops is used in
medicine, being chiefly employed as a stomachic
in dyspepsia; a pillow stuffed with hops is said
to induce sleep. Nevertheless by far the largest
portion of the hops produced is used in the
manufacture of various beers, so that here this
subject is treated with that idea in view.

The pistillate plant alone is cultivated, be-
cause hop growers on the Continent, especially
Germany and Austria, find that unfertilized pis-
tillate plants produce strobiles richer in aroma,
more plenteous in lupulin, and in general better
than where the plants were fertilized through the
pollen of the staminate plant. In the United
States we always find the strobiles containing
much seed, while the choice imported Bohemian
and Bavarian hops are seedless. The pistillate
plant flowers in August, and its strobiles are
ready for harvesting during September.

The continental European growers always
strive to have early, medium and late hops, so
that there the hop-picking begins late in August
and lasts through the early part of October. In
the United States the picking is usually over in
two weeks. The time at which the strobile is
fit to pick is indicated by the change of color
from a light golden to a somewhat deeper hue,
also by the closing up at the tips and making
a rustling sound when touched. The seeds
should be firm and dark in appearance before
the hops are gathered. Much loss can occur by
too early picking, while too late harvesting is
also detrimental to the value and quality of the
product

For about 1,000 years hops have been added
to beer or wort, in former times to prevent its
spoiling and also to give it its pleasant and
characteristic flavor and aroma; and its cul-
tivation has progressed as the manufacture of
beer became more widespread. Germany and
England ' had hop gardens in the 8th and 9th
centuries, but the cultivation was not rationalized
until the 16th century, and at the present is a
very important agricultural product.

Abroad the finest hops are raised in Bohemia,
its a Saazer* hops being known throughout the
world. Next to this ranks the Bavarian ^Spalter
hops,* and the product of the so-called ft Hal-
lertau.* As a rule the Bavarian hop is stronger
than the Bohemian, but somewhat inferior in
quality. Wiirtemberg, Saxony, Baden, Prussia
and Alsace also raise a good quality of hops;
and Belgium, northern France and Burgundy
cultivate it on a large scale. England's most
famous hops are the *Famhams,** the tf Golony*
and •Grape** varieties. Owing to the high im-
port taxes, Russia has also begun to raise hops.
Of all these only the •Saazer® and the a Spalter*
are imported to the United States. The follow-



Digitized by



Google



HOPS



ing table gives an idea of the size of the world's
production during the years 1905 and 1909 :

world's production of hops in pounds.



Countries


1905


xoog


United States


5S.S36.ooo
64,500,000
40,080,000
11,065,000
11.439.000
14,500,000
77,046,000
2,194,000


36,000,000

23.356.000

18,300,000

3,000,000

2,658,000

8,125,000

24,022,000

2.475.000


German Empire


Austro-Hungary


France . . . . T. . .'


Belgium and Holland. .........


Russia


Great Britain


Australasia.






277,260,000


107,936,000



In the United States, the culture of hops
was introduced as early as 1625 in New Nether-
lands, and 23 years later in Virginia, but al-
though encouraged by special legislation in 1657,
never assumed its present important agricultural
role until 1800. During the first half of the
19th century Vermont produced seven eighths
of the entire United States crop; since then
New York has held first place. It has always
been the tendency of hop cultivation to con-
centrate in well-defined districts, but in spite
of this accumulative tendency, the centre of cul-
tivation has slowly but surely moved westward.
At first Massachusetts, Vermont and Maine
were the chief hop States, but as the quality of



the New York hops was far superior, and tht
quantity three times as great, the former Statet
soon abandoned hop culture. The result was
that during 1850-65 a small portion of New
York, lying south of the New York Central
Railroad between Rochester and Albany, mo-
nopolized the hop raising of the Unhed States.
Small patches were planted in Wisconsin and
Michigan in i860 and in 1866, when the New
York crop was completely destroyed by vermin,
Wisconsin hop-growers obtained exorbitant
prices for their excellent product, which induced
many to plant hops, expecting to realize a for-
tune in a few years, but the prices speedily de-
clined owing to an overproduction. During 1870
and 1880 New York again was at the head, bat
at that time fresh competition began to develop
on the Pacific coast. The a Russian River* hops
of California were a marvel; their texture was
a fine as silk* ; their color ^bright golden* ; they
were *clean picked®; their ^contents of lupulin*
second only to the best German brands, so that
it was no wonder that hop-culture there ad-
vanced quickly to 40,000 bales, the yield of 1902.
The first of the three following tables shows the
yield in pounds of the various States from 1849
to 1899. The next table gives a comparison be-
tween the acreage, yield and value of the hop
crop for 1809, 1889, and 1879; and in the third
table this comparison has been calculated to



Stat*


1809


1889


1879


1869


1859


1849


New York


1 7,332,34©

6,813.830

10,124,660

X4.67S.577

165,346

97.951

49,209,704


20,063,029

8,313.280

6.547,338

3.613.9*6

4*8.547

205,350

39,171,270


21,628,931

703.377

1,444.079

244.371

1,966,827

55f.895

26,546,378


X7,558.68i

6,162

625,064

9.745

4*630,155

2,626,862

25.456,669


9,671,931

ft
493

1,183,861
10,991,996


2,S36.*99




California




Oregon •


8


Wisconsin ............


I5*f30

944.79*

3.497,029


AU other States

Total U. S





State



New York

Washington . . .

California

Oregon

Wisconsin

All other States
Total



Acres under Cultivation



1899



27.53*

5.296

6,890

15.433

342

120

55,6i3



1889



36,670

5.113

3,974

3,130

967

358

$0,212



1879



39,07*
534

1,119
304

4.439
53*
8eo



i,33
46,80



Yield of Hops in Pounds



1899



17.332,240

6,813.830

10,124,660

14,675.577

165,346

97,951

49,209,704



1889



20,053,029

8,313,280

6,547.338

3,613,726

4*8,547

205,350

39,171,270



1879



21,628,931

703.277

1,444,079

244.371

1,966.827

558.895

26,546,378



State



New York ....
Washington . . .
California ....

Oregon

Wisconsin ....
All other States
Total



Average Yield in Pounds
per Acre



1899



629.33
1,286,41
1,468.02
950.9*
48347
816.06
884.85



1889



547.12

1.625.91

1.047.S4

1,154-52

443.17

537-6o

780.11



1879



553-56
1,3X6.99
1,290.50
803.85
443.09
412.09
567.*3



Value of Total Yield



1899



$1,600,305

589,582

925,319

937,513

18,020

11,190

4,081,929



1889



$2,210,137

841,206

605,842

322,700

5i,9§3

27,983

4,059,697



1879



$6,488,678
210,983
433,223
73,3xi
590,048
167,668

7*963,9x3



Value of Crop per Acre



1899



$ 58.30
111.32
X37-o6
60.75
56.19
9325
7339



1889



$ 60.30

164.5*

152.40

103.09

53.78

58.li
0.65



1879



$166.08
395-09
387.13
240.15
130.67
125.12
170.17





1899


1889


1879


State


Per cent

of
Acreage


Per cent

of
Yield


Per cent

of

Value


Per cent

of
Acreage


Per cent

of
Yield


Per cent
of

Value


Per cent

of
Acreage


Per cent

of

Yield


Per cent
of

Value


New York


49-5
95
12.4

0.65
0.25


35-2
13.8

20.|
29.8
0.4S
0.25


39-3

I4 i

22.6
22.8

,°:2


730

IO.I

6.2
1.8
0.7


51.2

21.2

16.7

9.2

1.0

0-7


54$

20.8

14.9

79

1.2
0.7


83.4
1.3

1%
2:1


81.4
*-7
54
0.9
75

2,1


81.7

2.6


Washington • .


California


5-3
• 9
74

2.1


Oregon


Wisconsin


All other States ......



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HOPS



percentages of the total United States crop, in
order to give a clearer idea of the hop industry
during these years.

New York hops are almost entirely con-
sumed in the United States, while the greater
amount of the Pacific coast hops (especially
Oregon) is exported. The English production
is scarcely ever sufficient for its needs, so that
Great Britain must import some and mostly takes
Oregon hops, because they are especially adapted
to the English ale brewer's requirements.

The hop plant is subject to many diseases,
, due mostly to parasites, among which are the
hop plant-louse (Phordon hutnuli), the hop-
grub (Gortyna immanis), the hop- vine snout-
moth (Hypena hutnuli), the hop-merchants
(Polygonia intetrogationis) , the zebra cater-
pillar (Mamestra picta), the common woolly
bear caterpillar (Spiltsonma virginica), the
saddle-back caterpillar (Empretta stimulea), hop
vine leaf-hopper (Tettigonia confluenta); va-
rious beetles, the *red spider* or spinning mite,
and the needle-nosed hop-bug (Cafocoru fulmo-
maculatus), which mostly produce red smut,
etc., and even destroy entire crops. Fungus pest,
blight and mold (black smut), are extremely
rare in the United States, although widespread
in England and Europe. It is almost impossible
to eradicate these pests, except v by extreme
measures. The best remedies for the destruc-
tion of the animal parasites is the use of bisul-
phide of lime or a heavy spraying of soap and
tobacco emulsion. Sulphur in any form is a
good remedy, and a spray of kerosene soap emul-
sion, to which a small quantity of flowers of
sulphur is added, is generally effective. In
extreme cases the affected plants are cut down
and burned to prevent a spread of the disease.

The elements also play havoc with the de-
velopment of the tender hop-vine. High winds
will tear the vine from its support; drouth will
tend to change the color of the light yellow
strobile to the objectionable a pole redness*; and
too much water will produce a lack of lustre,
when the hops are said to be ^blind.* This is
due to the fact that the entire energy of the
plant is spent in the formation of leaves, the
strobile being scarcely developed.

Hops contain hop-oil, hop-resins, acids, hop-
tannin, hop-bitter, hop-wax, nitrogenous bodies,
carbohydrates and mineral substances. Dias-
tase (an enzyme) has also been found, which is
especially valuable in ale brewing. Hop-oil, the
principal constituent of the lupulin, present in
0J2 per cent to 0.8 per cent, is obtained by dis-
tilling the hops with water. It is colorless and
hardly soluble in water. The characteristic
agreeable aromatic flavor of the hops depends on
this oil. If exposed to air the oil turns to resin,
passing to valerianic acid, to which the cheesy
odor of old hops can be traced. According to
Hayduclc there are three resins in hops, the
a, J8, ana 7, of which the first two are soft and
the latter hard. The preserving, antiseptic
effect of hops is due to the two soft resins, as
they are distinctly prejudicial to the growth of
butyric acid and many other bacteria, but do not
have much effect on acetic acid bacteria and
sarcina. In old hops valerianic acid, malic acid,
citric acid and succinic acid are present Hop-
tannin is chiefly stored in the leaves of the stro-
bile and is a pale brown amorphous powder
soluble in dilute alcohol, which through oxida-



tion passes into phlobaphen. The hop-bitter is
obtained from the two soft resins, and imparts
a pleasant bitter taste to the beer, without which
it would be flat and insipid. Hop-wax is present
in considerable proportions in hops, but, since
it is insoluble in water and even in 90 per cent
alcohol, it has no value in beer. Nitrogenous
constituents of hops are about 2 per cent to
4 per cent, which calculated to albumen are
12 per cent to 24 per cent, of which 0.75 per
cent to 1.6 per cent are soluble. Bungerer
maintains that 30 per cent of the nitrogenous
substances are asparagin. Behrens says that
trimethylamin and free ammonia are also pres<
ent Griess and Harrow have discovered cholin
in hops. Brown and Morris have shown the
presence of an enzyme similar to diastase, which
will saccharify starch, that is, change it
into sugar. This enzyme is chiefly accumu-
lated in the seeds. The carbohydrates contained
are cellulose, sugar, dextrin. According to
Brown and Morris there is present 1.55 pt cent
dextrose and 2.10 per cent levulose, together
3.65 per cent of inverted sugar. According to
Tha using hops contain 5.3 per cent to 15.3 per
cent of ash and an average of 7.54 per cent, of
which oyer one third is potash, one sixth
phosphoric acid, one sixth silica, and some
sodium, lime, magnesia, iron oxide, sulphuric acid
and chlorine. The presence of an alkaloid in
the seed has been ascertained by Dr. Ernst
Hantke, but research on this point is still pro-
gressing.

Although it is possible to estimate with a
fair degree of accuracy the several constituents
of hops, it has not been so far found possible
to establish any definite relation between the
value of the hops and the amounts of hop-oil,
resins, tannin, etc., which they contain. Con-
sequently up to the present time, chemistry has
not afforded much assistance in this direction.
Hence the value of hops is still judged according
to its general properties. The color, size and
appearance and lustre of the strobile, the quan-
tity and color of the lupulin, the amount of
seed, the odor, taste and cleanliness, are the
essential points in the valuation of hops.

Fine hops possess a silky lustre which is
lacking in inferior grades. The color is greenish
yellow, varying with the origin. New York
hops have a somewhat paler color of a stronger
greenish shade, while the Pacific coast hops have
a more pronounced yellowish color. A reddish
tint may indicate pole-redness, or, what is worse,
that the hops have become overheated in the
bale, which implies a darker coloration of the
lupulin and deterioration of quality. The form
and size of the strobile is also characteristic of
the origin. Small strobiles are preferable to
big ones, as they contain on an average more
lupulin; and the fewer the seeds the better.
The bracts ought to lap over one another and
hold firmly together, whereby the lupulin is
kept in better. The odor and aroma should be
strong, fine, free from any off-smell such as
odors of fruit, garlic, etc. Only very slight
amounts of stems, foliage, or stripped cones
should be present, as they impart a coarse taste
to the beer. The amount of lupulin present in
the strobile is an indicator of the value of the
hops, because it contains those resins, volatile
oils and bitter substances, which are so essen-
tially valuable to the brewer. In fresh hops.



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HORACE



slight pressure will force out the contents of the
strobile in a transparent droplet, but in old hops
the contents of the lupulin granule will not flow,
due to resinification, and the expressed juice is
more syrupy, wax-like and opaque. In short,
the preparation of the strobiles for the market
should be as follows: After the crop has been
harvested, it is dried. The largest part of the
German crop is merely air-dried or sun-dried,
and it is claimed that this ^natural cure* pre-
serves far more of the essential oils and other
active principles than is possible by the artifi-
cial hot-air cure used in the United States and
England, and that this at least in part accounts
for the peculiarities of Spalt hops that command
such extraordinary prices. The kiln in which
the hops are dried resembles in some respects
the drying kiln of the maltster. This process
requires great care, as much of the hops may be
easily damaged. When the moisture has been
completely removed, sulphur is placed on the
fire, which has the effect of brightening the
color; the evolved sulphurous acid also acts as
an antiseptic, destroying to some extent the
germs of mould-fungi and other organisms.
After drying, the hops are stored three or four
days, whereupon they are baled and are then
ready for the market. They are easily affected
by warmth, moisture, air and light, and for this
reason must be protected in storage against these
influences. For brewing purposes it is almost
impossible to pass off a substitute for hops, al~
though lupulin and hop-extract are now manu-
factured. The lupulin is separated from the
strobile, and inasmuch as it contains the essen-
tial constituents for which hops are used in
brewing, it can be better utilized, although it is
impracticable and impossible to replace the en-
tire quantity of hops with lupulin alone because
it contains very little tannin, which also is es-
sential. The same remark is applicable to hop-
extract. Dr. Ernst Hantke,
President of the Industrial Chemical Institute
of Milwaukee.

Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus), Ro-
man poet of the Augustan Age: b. Venusia,
Italy, 8 Dec. 65 b.c. ; d. Rome 27 Nov. 8 B.C.
Our information about Horace's life is derived
in the main from his own writings, which are
supplemented in a few details by a brief biog-
raphy attributed to Suetonius. He was born at
Venusia, a small town in Apulia, near the
boundaries of Lucania and Samnium. His
father was a freedman, and, according to Hor-
ace's own statement, followed the trade of a
coactor, or collector. He seems to have pros-
pered, for he was able to purchase a small
farm. He was not satisfied to send the boy to
the local school of Flavius, which was patronized
by the aristocracy of Venusia, but moved to
Rome to give his son the best possible educa-
tional advantages. It is to his credit that he
did this, not that Horace might better his posi-
tion in life, but for the sake of the education
itself. At the capital he supplied his son with
the means of making a creditable appearance,
and he himself accompanied him to and from
his classes, giving him moral instruction in a
shrewd and homely way by pointing out men
who offered examples to be followed or shunned.
To this training Horace owed both his habit of
self-examination and his consequent temperance



and self-control, and that keen observation of
men and things which is one of his marked
characteristics. He nowhere makes mention of
his mother, who very likely died while he was
an infant

At Rome Horace pursued the usual gram-
matical studies under the notorious ^flogging
Orbilius,* and doubtless supplemented them by
more advanced work in rhetoric and literature.
It is, however, in marked contrast to the fulness
of our information about the other details of
his life, that we know little or nothing about
the masters who influenced him or about the
particulars of his education, except that he im-
plies that he attended the classes of several
teachers. We may, however, infer something
from the results. He certainly acquired a taste
for reading, both in the literature of Greece
and that of his native land, a habit which he
continued to follow throughout his life. Some-
where about 46 b.c, in his 19th year, Horace
went to Athens to study philosophy but he
does not seem to have been especially at-
tracted by any particular school. In his eariy
life he leaned toward the Epicurean doctrine,
but as time went on he turned more and more
to that of the Stoics, without, however, com-
mitting himself to either sect. The assassination
of Caesar and the arrival of Brutus in Athens
in September 44 b.c, put an end to his quiet
student life. He joined the army of the liber-
ators, and received a commission as tribune,
though he was in no way fitted for the post
At Philippi he fled from the field with the rest
of the routed forces, and, as he himself says,
•left his shield behind* His humble estate was
confiscated, but on his return to Rome in 41,
when a general amnesty was granted by Oc-
tavian, he in some way secured a position as
clerk in the quaestor's office, which furnished
him the means of livelihood.

Horace freely admits that it was lack of
money which first led him to write verse, and
it was to his efforts in this line that he owed his
advancement. He soon made the acquaintance
of Vergil and of Varius, by whom he was in-
troduced to Maecenas. After a delay of several
months, during which the astute statesman
doubtless took the young man's measure, his
position was established by his admission to
the select circle of Maecenas* literary friends.
This honor, as he says with pardonable pride,
was due not to high birth, but to his personal
character. In 33 he received from his patron a
small estate, the famous Sabine farm, situated in
the valley of the Digentia, a small stream flow-
ing into the Anio, about 30 miles northeast of
Rome. Through Maecenas he became intimate
with the most eminent men of the day, both in
literary and in political life, including Augustus.
Toward the emperor his attitude was one of



Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 180 of 185)