Wilfrid Richmond.

The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

. (page 181 of 185)
Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 181 of 185)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


dignified independence. He was quick to rec-
ognize the advantages of the peaceful and es-
tablished order of things which Augustus had
brought about, and he celebrates it in many of
his odes: but he did not hesitate to decline the
position of private secretary which the emperor
offered him. This he did without giving offense,
for Suetonius quotes extracts from letters of
Augustus which indicate a cordial and even an
intimate friendship. Horace also preserved his
independence in his relations with his bene-
factor Maecenas, as appears from several pas-



Digitized by



Google



HORACE



tages in his works, although he showed a proper
gratitude for his many favors.

In the year 35 Horace issued his first book
of satires, to which he himself gave the title of
< Sermones, > or familiar talks. On this branch
of literature, which the Romans claimed as
their own creation, see Satire. He took as his
model Lucilius, and at first seems to have fol-
lowed him closely, but he soon found himself
out of sympathy with the earlier poet's severity
in invective and disregard of form. In the
fourth and tenth Satires he subjects the work
of his predecessor to a thorough criticism, and
defines his own ideal of what satire should be.
This book was complete in itself, and begins
with an essay addressed to Maecenas. That the
reception given to his first effort, which did
not lack serious defects, was not wholly favor-
able, and that Horace had not satisfied himself,
is evident from the poet's own words in the
introductory essay of the second book, which
seems to have appeared in the year 30. This
book marks a great advance on the first, from
which it differs in its externals in having no
formal dedication and in being cast almost
wholly in dialogue form, whereas in the first
book Horace himself had been the chief speaker.
In the following year, urged by Maecenas, Hor-
ace published his first collection of lyrics, some
of which doubtless represent his earliest at-
tempts at verse. It was a volume of 17 Epodes,
or < Iambi, ) as he himself named them. He chose
as his model the Greek iambic poet Archilochus,
and followed him closely in form. His work,
however, has little of the bitter invective for
which the Greek poet was notorious, and Hor-
ace shows no little originality both in his choice
of themes and in his treatment of them. Six
years later Horace, now a man of 42, published
the first three books of the Odes, which form a
work complete in itself, opening with a dedi-
cation to Maecenus and closing with an epilogue
in which he predicts his own immortality. In
his choice of metres he followed especially
Akaeus and Sappho, from whom he also took
many of the subjects of his odes. But he shows
the influence of many other Greek poets, as
well as considerable independence. Although
this work did not wholly escape hostile crit-
icism, it at once placed Horace in the front rank
of Roman poets. This position was formally
recognized in 17 b.c. through his appointment
by Augustus to write the ode, the well-known
c Carmen Saeculare,* which was sung at the cel-
ebration of the secular games in that year.

His next work was a return to the field of
satire, for the < Epistles > belong with the ( Ser-
mones ) to that branch of literature in the Ro-
man sense of the term. They differ from the
c Sermones ) in their greater finish and in their
external form. Horace regarded the hexameter
as the conventional form for satire, and the
poetic epistle represents his third and final
choice of form for his essays in that measure.
The first book was apparently issued in the year
20. Horace was then a mature man, who had
made his mark, and his tone is more assured
and his self-appreciation is greater, though with-
out any trace of egotism. The practical philos-
ophy of life seemed to him the thing most
worthy of serious consideration, and to teaching
this he proposed to devote the rest of his Hterary
work. This book, which consists of ao letters,



of which some are genuine and some fictitious,
is also dedicated to Maecenas. The second book
is devoted wholly to literary criticism, a subject
which lay within the domain of satire and had
already been handled in some of the ^Sermones.*
The chronology of the book is somewhat diffi-
cult. It was probably published in the year 14.
Whether the Ars Poettca' formed the third let-
ter of the second book or not is uncertain. It
has been assigned to various years from 20 to 8
b.c, and if it really belongs to the latter date,
it must have been published separately, perhaps
after Horace's death, and is the latest of his
works. The title which Horace gave it seems
to have been <Epistula ad Pisones,* but it re-
ceived its present designation at an early period.
The second book of epistles begins with a letter
addressed to Augustus, who is said by Suetonius
to have taken Horace to task for dedicating none
of his works to him. In his epistles, Horace
had formally renounced lyric poetry. Never-
theless, at the express request of the emperor,
he published a fourth book of odes in 13 b.c.
This collection, though admirable in form and
containing some of Horace's best work, is char-
acterized by a certain perfunctoriness and lack of
spontaneity. It was not addressed to Maecenas,
but is without a formal dedication. This was.
however, not due to any diminution of his regard
for his patron, but to the fact that the book was
published by the special request of Augustus.

Of the remaining years of the poet's life we
know very little. Suetonius says that he died
27 Nov. 8 B.C., and there seems to be no ground
for rejecting this testimony. No authentic por-
trait of Horace has come down to us. From
his own allusions to his personal appearance,
and from a letter of Augustus, quoted by Sue-
tonius, we learn that he was stout and short,
with dark eyes, and hair, but prematurely gray.
He further tells us that he was quick to anger,
but easily appeased. He never married, and of
all the loves of which he sings, Canara alone
seems to be other than imaginary.

It is probably safe to say that Horace has
been the most widely read of all Roman writers,
not excepting Vergil, and that he has appealed
to a more varied circle of readers than any of
his countrymen. This statement applies espe-
cially to his odes, since it is to them that his
popularity with the general public is for the
most part due. It has been said that the odes
are not poetry of the highest type, and that
when they are analyzed and their contents sub-
jected to searching criticism, the sum total of
poetic material is scanty. This is unquestion-
ably true, yet it is equally true that their influ-
ence and popularity have none the less been
great. This is due in part to the personality
of the man and the sympathetic feeling which
he rouses in his readers on account of his
broad humanity; and in part to the fact that
the very simplicity of the odes and their ease
of comprehension appeal to readers of all classes.
As Mackail says, he realized that limited as was
his own range of emotions, that of mankind at
large was still more so. In some cases, notably
in the love poems and the convivial odes, we are
conscious that he did not always feel even the
emotions which he describes. In spite of all
criticism, the one undoubted fact remains, that
the odes of Horace have pleased readers of
all epochs and all sorts and conditions of men.



Digitized by



Google



HORJE — HORATII



Horace's claim to originality is greater than
is usually admitted. In his day the question
of imitation of Greek models had ceased to
exist, and the question was, rather, which model
to choose. In the Augustan Age we find two
schools, those who followed the Alexandrine
writers, and those who went back for their
inspiration to the Greeks of the classical period.
Horace belonged to the latter class. His con-
tempt for the followers of Alexandria is out-
spoken, and so undiscriminating as to include
such really great poets as Calvus and Catullus.
He certainly knew how to make what he bor-
rowed his own, and many of his odes are so
thoroughly national in character that they can
have owed little except their external form
to Greek sources. In his Satires, in spite of his
avowed imitation of Lucilius in the beginning,
his originality is far greater, and these are in
reality his greatest works. While less popular
with the general reader, they are of great inter-
est for the light which they throw on Horace's
life, personality, and habits, as well as for the
vivid pictures which they set before us of the
complex Roman life. In his daily walks about
the city, Horace used his powers of observation,
and drew material from all sides and from all
classes of society. Above all we can trace in
them his own self-improvement and the devel-
opment of his character, and the gradual growth
of that sound judgment and good taste which
characterize the work of his mature years. The
Satires are further characterized by a genial and
good-natured humor. Like Dickens, he chose
appropriate names for many of his characters —
such as Novius, or Newman, for the parvenu,
though, like those of Dickens, they were not
always of his own coinage. The Satires also
abound in the familiar phrases of every-day life,
in puns and plays upon words, in proverbs and
homely fables and stories.

Horace's works, as he himself humorously
predicted, became school text-books at an early
period. Juvenal implies that this was the case
in his day. This fact and his general popularity
led to the numerous commentaries on his works,
which began to appear as early as the days of
Nero, of which those of Porphyrio, of the early
part of the 3d century, and the collection falsely
attributed to Helenius Acron, have come down
to us. The great number of manuscripts which
exists testifies to his popularity in the Middle
Ages. His fame at that time was, however,
much less than that of Vergil, and, though he
also was regarded as a magician, it was only at
Palestrina and at Venusia that such legends
were current. In modern times his influence
on French and English satire has been great, as
well as on modern poetry in general.

The date of the first edition is uncertain, but
is earlier than 1471. Since then the editions of
Horace's works, or of parts of them, have been
legion. Of these may be mentioned as epoch-
making that of Richard Bentley (Cambridge
1711), which has often been reprinted (the
reprint at Berlin in 1869 contains a word-index
by C Zangermeister) . The standard critical
text is that of O. Keller and A. Holder (Leip-
sic 1864-70, a second edition of the first vol-
ume containing the < Odes, ) < Epodes, ) and
barmen Sceculare,* appearing in 1899). A com-
mentary on this edition is furnished by Keller's
<Epilegotnena zu Horaz> (Leipsic 1879-60).



Of editions with notes may be mentioned:
J. G. Orelli, 4th ed. by W. Hirschfelder
and W. Mewes (Berlin 1886-92), containing a
complete word-index; A. Kiesshng (Berlin, 2d
ed. 1890-8) ; H. Schutz (Berlin 1880-3) ; these
two appear in new editions from time to time;
L. Muller, <Odes* (Leipsic 1900), 'Satires and
Epistles* (Leipsic 1891-3) ; E. C. Wickham,
<Odes and Epodes* (3d ed. Oxford 1896),

< Satires and Epistles' (Oxford 1891) ; Page,
Palmer, and Wilkins (London and New York
1896). The edition of the <Odes and Epodes>
by P. Shorey (New York 1896) is of special
interest to the general reader on account of its
large number of parallel passages from English
poetry.

The simplicity and directness of Horace's
thought have been a constant temptation to
translators, and the number of English versions,
particularly of the 'Odes,' is very great. But
his care in composition and his inimitable skill
in the use of words, his curiosa felicitas, as
Petronius terms it, make him exceedingly dif-
ficult to translate, and, while some brilliant
successes have been achieved with single odes,
no one has done justice to him as a whole.
Many of the attempts which have been made
are reviewed in two articles in the * Quarterly
Review> (Vol. CIV„ 1858, and Vol. CLXXX.,
1895). The following may be mentioned: Lord
Lytton, <Odes and Epodes* (London 1869);
Cooper, Horace's Odes Englished and Imitated
by Various Hands * (London 1880) ; Martin,

< Works of Horace* (Edinburgh 1888) ; Coning-
ton, <Odes and Epodes* (3d ed., London 1885),
Satires and Epistles> (London 1892) ; Glad-
stone, ( Odes> (New York 1894) J Green, <Odes
and Epodes ) (London 1904). An edition of
Horace's works, in six volumes, containing both
text and translations, has recently been issued
by the Bibliophile Society of Boston. To give
an adequate literary criticism of Horace is
nearly as difficult as to translate him, and is
out of the question within the limits of a brief
article. Consult: the various histories of Ro-
man literature, especially that of Mackail (New
York 1900) ; Sellar, < Roman Poets of the Au-
gustan Age — Horace and the Elegiac Poets*
(London 1892) ; Nettleship, < Lectures and
Essays* (Oxford 1885); Patin, <Etudes sur la
poesie latine* (3d ed., Paris 1883) ; Tyrrell,

< Latin Poetry* (Boston 1895); Boissier, <The
Country of Horace and Virgil* (London 1896) ;
Lang, ( Letters to Dead Authors* (London
1886).

John C. Rolfb,
Professor of Latin Language and Literature,
University of Pennsylvania.

Horse, hd're, in Greek mythology, god-
desses of the seasons. They were generally
regarded as attendants of the gods, and guard-
ians of the Olympian gates. Their character-
istics, however, varied, and their number was
variously represented as two, three, or four.
Hesoid names three — Euxomia (good order),
Dike (justice), and Eirene (peace), and thus
makes prominent their attributes as also guard-
ians of social and political conditions.

Horatii. hG-ra'shH, three Roman brothers,
who, in the reign of Tullus Hostilius, en-
gaged the same number of Alban brothers (the
Curiatii), in order to decide the contest between
the two nations. A sister 6f the Horatii was



Digitized by



Google



HOREB — HORN



betrothed to one of the Curiatii ; but both sides
forgot their private relations in the service of
their country. Two of the Romans soon fell.
The contest was unequal, but Horatius saw
his antagonists faint with the loss of blood.
In order therefore to separate them from one
another, he feigned flight, and, while they pur-
sued him as well as their wounds would permit,
at unequal distances, he suddenly turned and
slew one after the other. He was conducted
back to the city amidst the rejoicings of the
Romans, adorned with the spoils of the slain.
There he saw, in the crowd, his sister in tears
for the death of her betrothed. Angered that
her lamentations for her lover should mingle
with the rejoicings of the nation on his victory,
the brother plunged his dagger into her breast
He was condemned by the duumviri to be
scourged to death, but he was later pardoned.

Horeb, hd'rSb, a mountain in the northern
part of Arabia, of the same ridge as Mount
Sinai, which lies not far distant from it, memo*
rable in the history of Moses. The monks on
Mount Sinai still point out the rock on Horeb
from which water issued at the blow of Moses.

Horicon, hdrl-kon. See Gsobgk, Lake.

Hori'zon. In its most familiar sense the
horizon is the line or circle around which earth
and sky seem to meet. On the ocean this cir-
cle is smooth and easily visible, and is then
called the sea horizon.

In astronomy the horizon is defined by a
plane at right angles to the direction of grav-
ity, extending out indefinitely on all sides, and
called the plane of the horizon. The circle in
which this plane cuts the celestial sphere is
called the astronomical horizon. All points of
it are apparently on a level with the eye of the
observer. Owing to the rotundity of the earth




the sea horizon is lower than this astronomical
horizon — a narrow strip of sky separating the
two. The angular distance between them is
called the dip of the horizon. The higher the
observer is above the ocean, the greater is the
dip. To an eye on the surface of the water,
the sea horizon and the astronomical horizon co-
incide, so that there is no dip. The geometrical
principle which determines both the dip and
the distance of the visible horizon, are seen in
the figure. The circular arc is here the surface
of the ocean. The eye of the observer is situ-
ated at the point E, a short distance above the
surface of tne water. A tangent drawn from
the eye to the surface meets the latter at the
visible horizon, H. Let a horizontal line E A





Distance of


Dip of


Horizon


Horizon


Miles


1.0


U


1.4


1.7


tt


2.0


2.9


4.0


3-9

4-9


u



be drawn from the eye, the angle A E H is then
the geometric dip of the horizon. The geom-
eter will readily see that this is equal to the
angle at the surface of the earth between O and
H. Since one minute of arc in the curvature
of the earth's surface corresponds to one nauti-
cal mile, it follows that, geometrically, the dip
of the horizon in minutes is equal to its dis-
tance in nautical miles. But, in the actual case,
the line of sight is curved in consequence of the
refraction of the air. The result of this is
that the actual horizon is further than given by
the geometric theory, and the dip somewhat
smaller. The following table shows the rela-
tion between the apparent dip and the height of
the eye above the water and the distance of the
sea horizon.

Hejgkt
in Feet

1
a
3

4

.!

On board a steamship the eye of an observer
on the promenade deck is generally from 15 to
20 feet above the water. It follows that the
distance of the horizon is about five miles. A
ship farther away than this will have more or
less of her hull below the horizon. At double
the distance the entire hull will be below the
horizon, and only smokepipe and masts visible.
As she goes vet further, these also will disap-
pear, as If sinking below the water.

Simon Newcomr

Horn, a tough, flexible, semi-transparent
substance derived from the epidermis, which
may be developed morbidly as a corn, or nat-
urally, as in the callosities on the legs of a
horse; or in connection with important func-
tions, as when it forms the outer sheath of the
outgrowths upon the heads of ungulate animals,
called •horns,* the •shell* of the tortoise, the
nails, daws, and hoofs of animals, the beak of
bird and turtle; and the hairs and feathers of
mammals and birds, or their modification into
spurs, scales, spines, bristles, whalebone, nasal
horns, etc. This epidermal tissue consists
largely of keratin, an albuminoid composed
mainly of carbon (about one half), oxygen,
nitrogen, and sulphur.

The horns of mammals are in effect modi-
fications of the hairy integument covering parts
liable to great wear, or needing to be hard and
sharp, especially the outgrowths of the skull
characteristic of male ruminants. Hollow horns
are usually unbranched and persistent, but in the
pronghorn (q.v.) they are shed annually while
the bony cores grow and their vascular cover-
ings persist and give rise to the new horns.
Hollow horns are found usually in both sexes,
but in some genera of antelopes only in the male.
In the pronghorn the horns of the female are
almost hidden in the hair of the head, and are
small, short, and unbranched. Such horns as
these are called hollow or sheath horns, and are
very different from antlers (q.v.). Another
form of true horn is that on the snout of the
rhinoceros (q.v,) where, when more than one
appears, the projections stand one behind the



Digitized by



Google



HORN — HORNBILL



other in a median line, and not side by side.
This nasal rhinoceros-horn is not a hollow
sheath clothing a bony core, but a solid mass
of coarse agglutinated hairs, arising from the
skin and supported by a thickening of the under-
lying bone.

Utility of Horn. — In their natural form, the
horn-sheaths of oxen, sheep and antelopes have
been put to a great variety of use, as weapons,
receptacles, handles, and musical instruments —
the latter surviving in certain ceremonial usages
and in the general term a horn* for a wind in-
strument. Cleaned and polished it served many
additional needs, forming the primitive drinking
cups; and it is from this ancient usage that
the general name of a horns B has been given to a
species of drinking cup, and its spirituous con-
tents. The horns of victims sacrificed to the
gods were often gilded by the Romans and
suspended in the temples, more especially in
those of Apollo and Diana. From the most
remote times the altars of the heathen divinities
were likewise embellished with horns, and such
as fled thither to seek an asylum embraced them.
Originally the horns were doubtless symbolical
of power and dignity, since they are the prin-
cipal feature of gracefulness in some animals,
and instrument of strength in others. Hence
these ornaments were frequently bestowed in
imagination and art upon gods, and were
actually worn by heroes. In more modern times
ox-horns have been used the world over for
carrying gunpowder; and museums abound in
quaint relics of this kind elaborately ornamented
by soldiers and hunters. Small bottles (ink-
horns) of this substance were the first recep-
tacles for ink, and are still used in the East,
where opium for smoking is usually kept in
horn-boxes. Before the general adoption of
glass panes in windows thin plates of horn were
often used, as they still are in barbarous parts
of Asia; lanterns were made of them; and the
faces of the mediaeval horn-books were so pro-
tected. The material now lends itself to manu-
facturing into many other articles by reason
of its toughness, pliability and capability of
being softened by heat and then molded. The
heat is applied in the form of hot water; and
splitting into thin sheets, or welding pieces
together, or molding fragments into various
forms, may all be accomplished under combined
moisture, heat and pressure. Both the natural
horn and the molded substance may be carved,
or impressed with a die, polished and dyed*
Hence an enormous variety of useful and orna-
mental articles may be made, and the horns of
cattle have commercial value.

Hon, a musical instrument, originally
formed, as the name denotes, from the horn of
an animal. The name includes a large family
of wind-instruments, many of which have fallen
into disuse. The hunting-horn was long the
chief form extant. The French horn consists of
a metallic tube of about 10 feet in length, very
narrow at top, bent into rings, and gradually
widening toward the end whence the sound
issues, called the bell, or in French the pavilion.
It is blown through a cup-shaped mouth-piece
of brass or silver, and the sounds are regulated
by the player's lips, the pressure of his breath,
and by the insertion of the hand in the bell of
the instrument. The compass of the instrument



is three octaves. Music for the horn is always
written on the key of C, an octave higher than
it is played, with the key of the composition
marked^ at the beginning of each movement.
Great improvements have been made in the
instrument by C. J. Sax of Paris, whose saxhorn
gives a greater volume of sound than the old
instrument The buglehorn is a tube of 3 feet
10 inches in length bent into small compass. It
is usually provided with keys, and has a range
of two octaves, and notes commencing with the
upper B of the bass clef.

Horn, Cape. See Cape Horn.

Horn-fly, a European fly (Hctmatobia ser-
rata), since about 1890 become widespread in
North America, which have a curious habit of
clustering in masses about the base of the horns
of cattle. It is closely related to the house-fly
and stable-fly, and although annoying does no
serious harm to the cattle or their horns.

Horn'aday, William Temple, American
naturalist: b. Plainfield, Ind., 1 Dec. 1854. He
studied zoology and in 1875-9 visited as a
zoological collector South American countries,
India, Ceylon, the Malay Peninsula, and islands.
In 1882-90 he was chief taxidermist of the
United States National Museum, and in 1896
was appointed director of the New York Zoolog-
ical Park. His publications are: <Two Years in
the Jungle* (1885) ; <Free Rum on the Congo >
(1887) ; < The Extermination of the American
Bison* (1887) ; < Taxidermy and Zoological Col-
lecting ) (1892) ; c The Man who Became a
Savage ) (1895).

Horn'beam (Corpinus), a genus of trees



Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 181 of 185)