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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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from whom alone % the vacancies that occur
among the academicians can be supplied It
supports and manages schools for the training
of painters, sculptors and architects, the in*
struction in which is gratuitous. The cost ot
these schools during the last 30 or 40 years has
averaged from £5,000 to £6,000 a year. The
total number of students admitted between 1760
and 1900 was 4,697, giving an average of about
36 a year. The distribution of charitable funds
is confined to its own members or to exhibitors
at its annual summer exhibitions. The average
annual amount distributed among its mem*
bers «has been latterly,* to quote a semi-official
statement made in 1900, «about £2,000*; the
donations to distressed artists who have been
exhibitors at the Academy, their wives, and chil-
dren under the age of 21. has averaged from
£1,200 to £1,500. The whole of the funds at the
disposal of the Academy are derived from the
profits on the annual exhibitions, to which
about ij2oo non-members contribute works and
about 65 members and associates. The fact
that the Academy is thus forced to put the # mak-
ing of a large profit out of their exhibition in

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the forefront of their activity may possibly ac-
count for the disfavor into which they have
fallen with a number of the more serious of the
younger artists.

The neglect of the art of engraving and of
what are often called *the minor arts* of design
by the Academy induced the government to
open a school of design at Somerset House,
London, in 1837, and in 1840 grants were made
to establish similar schools in five of the more
important provincial towns. Jn 1852 a Depart-
ment of Practical Art was instituted,' and the
formation of a museum was begun which de-
veloped into the present Victoria and Albeit
Museum at South Kensington. About 1880 a
growing conviction of the inadequacy of the
governmental schools led to the establishment
of new technical schools in the principal towns.
The municipality of Birmingham established a
singularly well-equipped and organized school,
as did also the municipalities of Manchester,
Glasgow and Leicester.

The British National Gallery, though the col-
lection is small and modern, is among the most
representative of European state galleries. It
was founded in 1824, by the acquisition of the
Angerstein collection. Its accessions are gov-
erned by a parliamentary grant of £5,000 to
£10,000 a year, but it benefits by a large number
of gifts and legacies, the most important of
which have been the Vernon gift in 1847, the
Turner bequest in 1856, and the Wynn-Ellis
legacy in 1876. The galleries contain few poor
works and all schools are well represented,
with the single exception of the French school.

The National Gallery of British Art (known
as the Tate Gallery) is devoted to modern
British pictures. The Victoria and Albert
Museum has also a number of British pictures,
especially in water color. The National Por-
trait Gallery was founded in 1856, the National
Gallery of Scotland in 1850, and the National
Gallery of Ireland in 1854. There are also
important municipal galleries at Birmingham,
Glasgow, Liverpool, etc., and few large towns
are without a permanent gallery of some descrip-

Bibliography.— A history of British Art
showing the place it has occupied in the life of
the people is a work which has not yet been
undertaken, at least with any considerable
degree of success; the details of the private
lives of the artists have generally attracted
more attention than the effects of their works.
The only moderately successful attempt to pre-
sent a reasoned account of the vital influence
exerted by the national art is to be found in
Richard Muther's ( Geschichte der Malerei im
XIX. Jahrhundert* (3 Bde., Miinchen, 1893-4),
of which an English translation has been
published (London 1895-6) ; the parts dealing
with British art have also been brought to-
gether and slightly amplified and published sep-
arately under the title <Geschichte der Eng-
lischen Malerei > (Berlin 1003). Much valuable
information is to be found in Ernest Ches-
neau's <The English School of Painting> (Eng.
Tr. 1885), R. and S. Redgrave's <A Centurv of
Painters of the English School* (London 1^66),
*nd D. S. McColl's 'Nineteenth Century Art>
(Glasgow 1902).

A large number of volumes dealing sep-
arately with the works of all the more promi-

nent artists, or with particular schools or periods
have, however, been published. The most pen-
etrating criticisms of Reynolds's work are to be
found in Northcote's Memoirs of Sir Joshua
Reynolds * (London 1813-15) ; Conversations
of James Northcote > by William Hazlitt (Lon-
don 1830), and Conversations of James North-
cote, R. A., with James Ward,* ed. by Ernest
Fletcher (London 1901) ; for details of the
artist's life, the <Life and Times of Sir Joshua
Reynolds,> by C. R. Leslie and Tom Taylor
(London 1865), should be consulted.

The standard work for the earlier periods of
British Art is Horace Walpole's ( Anecdotes of
Painting in England* (1st ed., 1762^71, 5
vols.) For the lives and works of the principal
artists the following volumes will be found
useful; ( William Hogarth > by H. Austin Dob-
son (London 1902) ; c Gainsborough and His
Place in English Art* by Sir Walter Armstrong
(London 1898) ; <Romney* by Humphrey Ward
and W„ Roberts (London 1904); <Sir Henry
Raeburn* by Sir W. Armstrong, with Intro-
duction by R. A. M. Stevenson (London 1901):
( Sir Thomas Lawrence* by Lord Ronald
Gower, with Catalogue of the artist's works,
compiled by A. Graves (London 1000) ; <The
Life of J. M. W. Turner, R. A.> by W. G.
Thornbury (London 1862), and c Turner> by
W. Cosmo Monkhouse (London 1879) ; < Con-
stable and His Influence on Landscape Paint-
ing, > by Prof. C J. Holmes (London 1002), and
Memoirs of the Life of John Constable, 5 ed.
by C. R. Leslie (London 1843) ; <Dante Gabriel
Rossetti as Designer and Writer,* by W. M.
Rossetti (London 1899), and Rossetti Papers,
1862 to 1870,* compiled by W. M. Rossetti
(London 1903) ; ( Memoir of Madox Brown*
by F. M. Hueffer (London 1896) ; < Pre-Raphael*
itism and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood,* by
W. Holman Hunt (London 1905) ; etc.

Black and White Works- J. W. Gleeson
White, <English Illustration* (London 1807).

Water Color. — J. L. Roget, <A History of
the Old Water-Color Society (London 1891 ) ;
W. Cosmo Monkhouse, ( The Earlier English
Water-Color Painters* (2nd ed. London 1897) 5
A. J. Finberg, <The English Water Color
Painters* (London 1896).

Sculpture. — Sir Walter Armstrong, < Alfred
Stevens' (London 1881) ; M. H. Spiel mann,
( British Sculpture and Sculptors of To-day >
(London 1901).

Architecture. — James Ferguson illustrated
Handbook of Architecture* (1855), and <A
History of Architecture* (London 1865) ; B.
and B. F. Fletcher, < History of Architecture*
(London 1896) ; R. Blomfield, <A History of
Renaissance Architecture in England*; F.
Bond, ( Gothic Art in England* (1,254 illustra-
tions) (London 1905) ; T. G. Jackson, < Reason
in Architecture* (London 1906).

Art Institutions. — Report from the Select
Committee on Arts and their connection with
manufactures (1836) ; Report of the Commis-
sioners appointed to inquire into the present
position of the Royal Academy in relation to
the Fine Arts (1863) ; Report from the Select
Committee of the House of Lords on the
Chantrey Trust (1904). Official catalogues and
reports of the various galleries, etc.

A. T. Finberg,
Author of < English Water Color Painters?

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35. Great Britain — English Newspapers.

The English newspaper has scarcely so long a
pedigree as some others in Europe. Several
German towns had their news-sheets or news-
letters in the 15th century, and the Venetian
Republic started its official gazette in the middle
of the 16th century. There are legends of an
* English Mercurie* published in 1588 under
Queen Elizabeth's patronage, but the < Weekly
News* and the ( London Weekly Courant,* both
produced in 1622, and after these the numerous
€ Mercuries * published by various parties during
the civil war are the real beginnings. The cen-
sorship of the Restoration killed independent
journalism for the next 30 years, and left the
field clear to the official < London Gazetted A
crop of new journals aTose on the abolition of
the Press Licensing Law in 1695, ami in 1702
the first daily newspaper, the < Daily Courant,*
a small sheet printed on one side, made its ap-
pearance. But, though the censorship was with-
drawn, governments retained the weapon of
taxation, and for the next 130 years tlie history
of English journalism is that of a perpetual
struggle against heavy and arbitrary imposts.
At the beginning of the 18th century, many
news-sheets were sold for a halfpenny; in the
year of Waterloo (1815) and for nearly 20
years afterward the taxation was four pence
a copy, and the usual price to the public six
pence or seven pence. Newspapers in those
days had a great many readers per copy. News
agents let them out for a penny an hour, and
sold them in the provinces at a reduced price*
when a few days old. In 1836 the stamp-duty
was reduced to one penny the sheet, and in 1855
it was abolished, together with the advertise-
ment tax, which was scarcely less oppressive.
The paper duty was also diminished during
these years, and its final repeal was achieved
by Mr. Gladstone in 1861 after a memorable
struggle with the House of Lords. It was this
complete relief from taxation which in Mr.
Gladstone's words 'called into vivid, energetic,
permanent, and successful action the cheap press
of this country.*

Certain of the great English newspapers,
notably the < Times > (1778) and the < Morning
Post* (1772) have been continuously in exist-
ence since the last years of the r8th century, and
their proprietors, especially Mr. John Walter
of the ( Times, * rank high among the pioneers
of modern journalism. The ^imes* was first
printed by steam as early as 1814, and greatly
improved its position by its enterprise in this
respect. Happily the abolition of the a taxes on
knowledge 9 came in the nick of time to enable
the English press to take full advantage of the
development of railways and telegraphs. In
later days the organization of the press has fol-
lowed much the same lines in England as in
America, a leading feature in both countries
being the establishment of agencies for the joint
collection of general news. The leading English
newspapers have, however, shown great enter-
prise in foreign, special, and war correspond-
ence. No English journalists have made a more
conspicuous mark or are better remembered!
than the chief correspondents in these various
departments, such as Sir William Russell and
M. de Blowitz of the <Times> ; Mr. Archibald
ForLes, Mr. Laurence Oliphant, and Mrs. Craw-

ford of the < Daily News.* The English news-
papers, like the American, have been able to
spend lavishly on their news and correspond-
ence by reason of the large revenues which they
have drawn from advertisements. Herein they
have the advantage of French, Italian, and even
German newspapers, which have not succeeded
in developing that side of their business to any-
thing like the same extent. For this reason
British and American newspapers greatly re-
semble each other and differ from all others in
their large sheets, numerous pages, and heavy
proportion of telegraphed matter,

English newspapers are accustomed to de-
scribe themselves as a organs of opinion** and
have always taken pride in their power of in-
fluencing opinion through their leading articles.
Men of great ability and literary accomplishment
were employed on this part of their work dur-
ing the last half of the 19th century, and the
chief morning papers regularly presented their
readers with three or four leading articles, each
a column long and in the conventional form of
three paragraphs to each article. The centre
page containing these articles was perhaps the
most characteristic feature of Victorian journal-
ism. The principle of anonymity was jealously
guarded during this period. No one knew the
names of the leader-writers, and it was contrary
to the etiquette of the profession for any writer
to claim the authorship of his article. The opin-
ions expressed were accepted by the public as
the opinions of the journal and not the opinions
of any individual member of the staff. The
aim of the writer under these conditions was to
be grave and well-informed, rather than lively
or brilliant. The exclusion of the personal ele-.
mcnt and the constant use of the editorial "we*
compelled a rather ponderous pose, and the
rigidity of the form and length for all subjects,
whatever their importance, led to a certain dif-
fuseness and monotony of treatment. In spite
of these defects, the journalism of opinion was
never more powerful than in this period
and no newspapers ever had a steadier or
more continuous influence on public affairs than
the i Times,* the ( Morning Chronicle,* the
( Standard,* and the < Daily News* during the
middle years of the last century. The leader-
writing tradition is still powerful, but the old
hard and fast conditions have been relaxed. In
the last 30 years of the last century, two or
three powerful individuals, notably Mr. Fred-
erick Greenwood, first editor of the <Pall Mall
Gazette,* and subsequently editor of the ( Saint
James's Gazette,* Mr. John Morley, who fol-
lowed him as editor of the ( Pall Mall Gazette,*
and Mr. Stead, who followed Mr. Morley on
the same journal, obtained a personal influence
which broke through the anonymous tradition.
These writers still used the anonymous form,
but there was a quality in their writing which
revealed them and gave new life and color to
the leading article. At the same time the
< Daily Telegraph* was breaking through the
solemnity of morning journalism and bringing
a great many subjects, previously thought too
trivial for treatment by responsible newspapers,
within its range. Mr. L. A. Sala invented a
new kind of leading article to which nothing
human was alien, while Mr. Andrew Lang (in
the < Daily News*) wrote of books and litera-

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tare with a delicacy and skill which quickly took
the public fancy. In the early 8o's Mr. Stead
came on the scene as editor of the ( Pall Mall
Gazette* and introduced many new features, in-
cluding "the interview,* which were regarded
at the time as daring innovations from Amer-
ican journalism but most of which have since
been adopted by the older established news-

In the 10 years from 1890 to 1000 the changes
in the English press were many and rapid. The
cheapening of paper, the introduction of type-
setting machines, and the improvements in
Crinting machinery — many of them introduced
y American firms — led to the starting of
many new journals and the enlargement of most
existing journals. The <Daily Mail,* estab-
lished m 1896, set a new fashion in halfpenny
morning journalism which was quickly followed
in London and the provinces. Two of the old-
established morning papers, the <Daily News*
and the <Daily Chronicle ) subsequently reduced
their price from a penny to a halfpenny, and
there are now no less than six halfpenny morn-
ing journals published in London. In the prov*
inces the penny morning papers still hold the
chief position and are conducted with great
skill and enterprise, but the halfpenny evening
paper has an immense vogue with all classes.

The new conditions have to some extent
changed the character of the English press.
Sport, fashion, and business as well as amuse-
ments and entertainments of all kinds compete
powerfully with politics for the attention of the
reader. The old verbatim reports of Parlia-
ment and public speeches give way to short
summaries and descriptive sketches. The Par-
liamentary sketch-writer is a regular and most
important member of the staff. Editors of the
ola school, like Barnes and Delane of the
^imes,* who directed their journals primarily
with a view to influencing public affairs, have
grown scarcer in these days, and their succes-
sors are more often than not described as
"editor-managers.* They are expected to culti-
vate a £reat variety of interests and to be con-
stantly m touch with the business departments
of their journals. The question whether the in-
fluence of the press is not seriously diminishing
has been much debated in England during
recent years, but it is scarcely possible to an-
swer it in general terms. The word •press*
covers a great many types of journals and peri-
odicals. There are newspapers conducted with
the greatest skill and enterprise which aim
rather at reflecting than at influencing opinion
and which have great power in emphasizing the
prevailing sentiment in times of excitement.
But there are still a great many others which
directly influence statesmanship and adminis-
trative policy by serious, independent, and ex-
pert criticism on public affairs. In its literary
style the English press stands midway between
the American and the French press. The Eng-
lish journalist stops short of the vigorous popu-
lar manner of the American, and he scarcely
achieves the deftness and subtlety of the French.
But on the whole the standard of writing has
improved in spite of the introduction of popular
features. The newspapers tend to widen the
circle of their contributors and to rely less ex-
clusively on their own staffs. There is scarcely

any eminent man or woman of letters who is
not an occasional writer for the press, and
signed articles by experts fill a large space in
the daily newspapers. There follows a certain
competition of interests which somewhat de-
tracts from the old editorial unity of the Eng-
lish journal, but a greater variety of clever writ-
ing is now possible than in the old days when
an anonymous staff did all the work.

At the present time (1906) 18 morning
and six evening papers are published daily in
London, the former including three financial
and two sporting journals. In addition to
these 76 morning and 138 evening papers are
published in the provinces of the United King-
dom. The daily newspapers do not appear on
Sundays, their place being taken by special
Sunday journals.

Bibliography — Alexander Andrews, his-
tory of British Journalism > (to 185$), (Lon-
don 1859) ; H. R. Fox Bourne, * English News-
papers > (London 1887); Grant's Newspaper
Press, its Origin, Progress, and Present Con-
dition J (London 1882) ; Baker, <The Newspaper
World> (London 1800) ; Collet, <History of the
Taxes on Knowledge> (London 1899) J C. Pe-
body, ( English Journalism and the Men Who
Have Made It> (London 1882) ; John Okicastle,
journals and Journalism > (London 1880) ;
John Pendleton, < Newspaper Reporting in
Olden Times and To-day* (London 1890) ; Hunt
<Then and Now> (Hull 1887); Sells < World's
Press> (Annual) ; <Social England' (London
1904) ; Sir T. Wemyss Reid's Autobiography,*
edited by Stuart J. Reid (London 1005) ; PauU
< History of Modern England* (London 1003-
05) ; H. F. Bussy, < Sixty Years of Joumalism>
(Bristol 1906).

Editor of <The Westminster Gatetie?

36. Great Britain— The Trend of Thought
and Literature in the 19th Century. General
Characteristics. — An almost unprecedented de-
velopment or expansion of intellectual energy
characterized the opening years of the 19th cen-
tury in Great Britain. The emancipating in-
fluences, which had produced the French revolu-
tion, were then working in England at their
acme of strength, and were generating an in-
tellectual as well as a political and social refor-
mation, which steadily gathered force as the
century grew older. The new tide of thought
found at the outset its loftiest manifestation in
purely imaginative literature. The mighty re-
vival of imaginative literature, amid which the
century opened, is only comparable with that of
the age of Shakespeare. The highest intellectual
energy of the nation seemed to find, at the be-
ginning of the epoch, its complete and most con-
genial expression in the departments of poetry
and fiction. Between the years 1800 and 1825
the works of Wordsworth, Shelley, Byron, Cole-
ridge, Keats, Jane Austen and Sir Walter Scott
were the chief triumphs of the intellectual move-
ment which was clarifying man's mental vision
and remodelling his aspirations.

After the first quarter of the century the
creative literary activity of Enffland showed
some signs of exhaustion. But the ebbing was
then of short duration. The tide of intellectual
energy in the sphere of literary endeavor quickly
rose again. The torch that had been lighted by

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Wordsworth and Shelky, Byron and Scott,
Lamb and Cokridge, soon flamed anew in the
hands of Tennyson and Browning, of Dickens
and Thackeray, of Macaulay and Carlyle, of
Ruskin and Matthew Arnold.

With the sixth decade of the century, a radi-
cal change came over the intellectual horizon of
the nation. The intellectual spirit no longer
contributed the whole of its richest sustenance
to the field of great imaginative writing. It long
continued to nourish splendid imaginative
effort; only when the century closed did the
purely imaginative energy, which had flowed on
almost continuously from the first, grow slug-
gish and tame. But midway through the cm-
tury the intellectual spirit proved fertile enough
to produce in new glory and luxuriance a second
and a very different type of intellectual fruit
During the last five decades, the intellectual
spirit save a fresh and unexampled impetus to
scientific inquiry and to speculation concerning
the character and capacity of all animate and
inanimate nature. For a generation the poets
and novelists, the critics and historians, divided
the honors of intellectual exertion with scientific
investigators like Darwin, Wallace, Huxley and
Tyndall, and with philosophers like John Stuart
Mill, Herbert Spencer, Thomas Hill Green, and
Leslie Stephen.

When the century was reaching its end, the
spirit of scientific inquiry was producing no
triumphs so heroic as those associated in the
middle years with the names of Darwin and his
disciples. But scientific energy was at the close
of the epoch still giving notable proofs of
activity, while literary energy was comparatively
torpid. In the last half of the period science
and pure literature may fairly be credited with
having slowly changed their relative places in
the empire of the British intellect Pure litera-
ture which held the place of predominance at
the beginning of the era yielded it to science
before the end. The mass of available intellect-
ual energy which had gone at the outset to the
making of poetry and fiction, of history and
criticism, was ultimately diverted to the cause
of science. In general terms, the gradual and
peaceable succession of science to the throne
which had been occupied by imaginative litera-
ture may be said to mark the trend of British
thought and literature in the 19th century.

Homogeneity of the Imaginative Effort*—
For the purpose of detailed study of the litera-
ture of the century it might be convenient to
divide it into four chronological sections — each
corresponding with one quarter of the period
But there is an essential homogeneity about the
whole of the century's literary effort, which ren-
ders chronological division undesirable in a
brief survey. Specious grounds may be urged
for separating the century, in however rapid a
general view of its thought and literature, into
at least two periods, the one ending and the
other beginning at the accession of Queen Vic-
toria in 1837. In 1837 the literary giants of the
opening years of the century either were dead
or had ceased to write. Among poets, Byron
(1788-1824), Shelley (1792-1822), and Keats
0/95~i82i) had passed away. Wordsworth
(1770-1850) had ceased to be a poetic force,
save in the sight of admirers more zealous than
jliscreet Of writers of fiction, Jane Austen had

been dead 20 years and Sir Walter Scott five.
Among essayists whose work conferred on the
literature of the century one of its most distinc-

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 44 of 185)