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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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with the unusual wealth of minerals, has largely
aided the rapid growth of the city. There are a
number of falls here; one, Great Falls, gives
name to the city. Its rapid growth has been
largely the result of its natural resources. Its
chief manufactures are flour, furniture, mining
and agricultural instruments, wagons, carriages,
and woolen goods. The first settlement was
made in 1884, and in 1888 Gfleat Falls was in-
corporated. Municipal affairs are administered
by a mayor, elected biennially, and a city coun-
cil of two chambers. Minor officials are nomi-
nated by the executive and confirmed by the
council. The water-works are owned and oper-
ated by the city. The population increased
from (1890), 3.079 to (1910) 13,94a

Great Fish, or Black River, a river in
Mackenzie and Keewatin territories, Dominion
of Canada. It rises in a small lake near the
northern shore of Lake Aylmer, flows in a
northeasterly direction through lakes Beechy,
Pelley and Garry, and enters the Arctic Ocean
by a wide estuary. King William Land is near
its mouth. The Great Fish River is about 500
miles in length. Sir George Back, the Arctic
explorer (1796-1878) explored the- river in
1834-5 and followed it to the ocean. He de-
scribed Ah-hel-Dessy, or Parry Falls, on one
of the tributaries, as more grand than Niagara
in splendor of effect. See Back ( Narrative of
the Arctic Land Expedition to the Mouth of
the Great Fish River > (1833-5).

Great Fish River, a river in Cape Colony,
South Africa, which rises in the Sneeuwberg,
or Snowy Mountains, and after a southeasterly
course of 330 miles, enters the Indian Ocean at
lat. 33° 25' 5*. and long. 27 &, about five miles
northeast of Port Alfred.

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Great Horned Owl. See Eagle Owl.

Great Island, (i) A small island at the
entrance to Portsmouth Harbor, N. H. It has a
lighthouse 90 feet high. (2) An island in Bass
Strait, between Tasmania and Australia. It is
about 40 miles long and 12 miles broad Pop.

Great Kanawha, ka-na'wa, a tributary of
the Ohio River, has its rise between the Blue
Ridge and Iron Mountains in the northwestern
part of North Carolina, flows northeast by north
through the southwestern part of Virginia, then
changes its .course northwest and west into
West Virginia, and flows into the Omo^River'
at Point Pleasant. • It receives the Gauley River
in Fayette County, West Virginia, and from
thence to its mouth is known by the name of
Great Kanawha. The river, at a cost of over
$4,000,000, has been made navigable from th
Ohio to Great Kanawha Falls, about three miles
from the mouth of the Gauley River. It is about
450 miles in length.

Great Kanawha, Battle of. See Point

Great Lakes, the name given to the chain
of lakes on the northern border of the United
States. They include Lakes Superior, Michigan,
Huron, Saint Clair, Erie, and Ontario ; Michigan
only lying wholly within the United States, and
no one of the lakes wholly > within > the. territocy
of the Dominion of Canada. Their area is about
90,000 square miles; elevation, Lake Superior
600 feet above the sea, and Lake Ontario 250
feet The fall of Lake Superior to Lake Erie is
about 40 feet No large river flows into the
Great Lakes; the Saint Lawrence River is the
outlet The basin of the Great Lakes averages
in width about 100 miles north and south of the
north and south shores respectively. The com-
bined coast lines in the United States have a
shore line of about 3,075 miles. These great
inland seas constitute the largest body of fresh
water in the world. Like all large bodies of wa-
ter they affect the climate of the surround-
ing country. Good farms, extensive forests, and
valuable minerals are found along the coast
On the southern shore of Lake Superior (q.v.)
are found masses of ore and low mountains ap-
parently of eruptive origin. The Great Lakes
have been the means of developing to a consid-
erable extent the Northwest, as they are the main
thoroughfares by which the products of the
large farms, the cattle ranches, the mines, and
the forests have been brought to eastern markets.
Coal and manufactured products of the east pass
over the lakes to western markets. The bitumi-
nous coal tonnage of the lakes for 1899 was
9,000,000 tons. In the same year the net freight
tonnage of Sault Ste. Marie's Falls canal was
over 25,000,000 tons, or three times the amount
which passed through the Suez Canal. The iron
ore tonnage for 1900 was 20,000,000 tons. There
are 20 individual ports on the Great Lakes which
have a registered tonnage ranging from
1,000,000 to over 5,000,000 tons. Cleveland's ton-
nage alone, in 1902, was '5,037,282 tons; and the
same year New York's tannage was 8,982,767
tons. The line of cities around, the Great Lakes
are (1903) increasing in commercial importance
and population with more rapidity than any
group of cities in any other part of the world.
Some of those lake ports, all terminals of rail-
road trunk lines, are Toledo, which increased 61

per cent from 1890 to 1900; Chicago, which in-
creased in the same time 54 per cent; Cleveland*
46 per cent ; Milwaukee, 3p per cent ; and Buff alo r
37 per cent The question of locating a dam
at the outlet of Lake Erie so as to benefit nav-
igation has been under consideration, and efforts
are being made (1903) to have commissioners
appointed by the governments of the United
States and Great Britain who will work together,,
and report upon the conditions and uses of the
waters adjacent to the boundary lines between
the United States and Canada. In June 1903, the
.Congress of the, United. Stages took action re-
garding the matter, arid empowered the Presi-
dent to appoint three American Commissioners 7
one to be an engineer officer of the army; an-
other, a civil engineer, a well versed in the hy-
draulics of the Great Lakes ;* the third, a lawyer
ft of experience in questions of international and
riparian law.* The necessity of such a commis-
sion to examine even the variations in the levels*
of the waters of this great thoroughfare is man-
ifest when the levels of Detroit River, Lake
Saint Clair, Saint Clair River, and Saint Mary's
River have been lowered by the Government
twenty-one-foot channels from Duluth and Chi-
cago to Buffalo. The Chicago Drainage Canal
(see Chicago) has helped to lower Lake Michi-
gan. The Consolidated Lake Superior Company
is taking water out of Saint Marys River. Other
causes- are making -a* change of level, and the
increased transportation on all the lakes, will
mean better channels to the ocean. For canals
connecting the Great Lakes with rivers and the
two around water-falls, see articles on the re-
spective lakes.

Great Meadows, Pa*, Engagement at, a&

May 1754; Washington's first fight. When the
French built Fort Duouesne (now Pittsburg),,
driving off an English force which had begun to-
fortify the same spot, it was evident that the de-
cisive struggle for mastery of the American.
a hinterland 1> was to begin; and the commander
of the nearest English force, a Virginia militia
officer of 22, named George Washington, at once
sent a messenger to Gov. Dinwiddie and
wrote letters to the governors of Pennsylvania
and Maryland, urging all to send troops and ex-
pel the French. Meantime he set out with his
force to build a fort on the Monongahela where
Brownsville, Pa., now stands. Constructing a
road as he went, he halted at the Great Meadows,
of the Youghiogheny, a bushy field at the foot
of Laurel Hill, — a good camping-place and de-
fensible position. Hearing from his scouts that
the French had learned of the English activity,.
and sent out a party to engage any English band
they met, he cleared the field of bushes and threw
up an intrenchment behind a ravine crossing the
field; but instead of waiting an attack, took 40*
men for a night surprise of the French, guided
by Indian allies. It was raining hard, the path
was often lost, and he did not reach the French
camp till morning. They were an advance party
of 32, sent out to reconnoitre and. hearing of
Washington's advance, they had hidden in a
rocky hollow and sent back f6r reinforcements,
but attempting defense when surprised, the com-
mandant—Ensign Jumonville — and nine men
were killed, and die rest captured and taken to*
the camp at Great Meadows. Washington lost
one killed and three wounded. The sequel is
told under Fort Necessity.

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Great Pacificator, a name, given Henry
Clay (q.v.), on account of his efrorts to recon-
cile the conflicting interests of North and South,
especially in connection with the Missouri Com-

Great Pedee, a river which has its rise in
the mountains of the northwestern part of North
Carolina, flows south and east across the State,
and enters South Carolina at Marlboro County,
in the northeastern part of the State, then flows
southeast into Win$aw* r Bay, an inlet of % the At-
• lantic. In North Carolina the river is called
Yadkin. About where the Little Pedee joins the
Great Pedee, and south to its mouth, there are
several quite large islands. The river is nav-
igable for a distance of about 150 miles from
Winyaw Bay.

Great Salt Lake, a body of water in the
northwestern part of Utah, the principal dram-
age centre of the Great Basin (q.v.) ; bounded
on the east by the Wasatch Mountains, on the
west by the (jreat Salt Lake Desert. It is about
4^00 feet above sea-level, 80 miles long and
from 20 to 32 miles wide. Its chief inlets are the
Bear, Ogden, and Weber, and the Jordan which
brings the fresh waters of Lake Utah. Great
Salt Lake has no apparent outlet save evapora-
tion. In 1850 the amount of saline matter held
in. solution was ,22.4, per cent, in 1869 only 14$
per cent Between these dates the amount of
water flowing in annually exceeded the evapora-
tion, and the lake increased in area from 1,700
to 2,360 souare miles. Since 1869-70 the lake has,
been receding. One cause of the water diminish-
ing in volume is the amount used for irrigation;
but the amount of water contributed by the inlets
has decreased since 1870. At one time Great Salt
Lake was much larger than it is now. The bars,
cliffs, and beaches formed by the waters of the
ancient lake (called Lake Bonneville) are plainly
visible along the base of the mountains. Lake
Bonneville had an area of 1&800 square miles
and a depth of 1,100 feet Its depth near where
the great Mormon Temple now is was about
850 wet Its dry bed is now occupied by nearly
200,000 people. The waters of Lake Bonne-
ville reached the ocean through Columbia River.
Geological investigations show that there have
been at least two moist periods with intervening
and subsequent periods of dryness. A change
from the present dry climate and scant rainfall
to a moist climate would result in a great. in-
crease in area of the waters in the lakes and
rivers and a return to former water areas. Great
Salt Lake has several islands the largest of
which Antelope, is 18 miles long. No fishes
seem to exist, but several species of insects and
brine-shrimps have been found in the waters;
and water-Fowls in large numbers frequent the
shore. The first mention of Great Salt Lake ap-
peared in a report made by the Franciscans, m
1776. Father Escalante and companions seem
to have traveled from Mexico to this region. A
report made also by the Franciscans early in
tjie 17th century mentions the large rivers and
lakes and the niineral wealth of this section. In
184J Fremont ' explored and described this
region, and a thorough survey was made in
1840-59 by Howard Stansbury, captain in the
United States Army. (See Utah.) Consult:
<Tesuit Relations>; Bancroft, <Utah> ; U. S.
Reports and Surveys.

Great Slave Lake, a body of water in the

Canadian Northwest Territory, lat 62 N. ;
greatest length about 300 miles, greatest breadth
50 miles. Estimated area, 10,100 square miles.
By the Great Slave River it receives the waters
of Lake Athabasca; and the outlet is the Mac-
kenzie River which flows into the Arctic Ocean.

Great Slave River, in Canada, is the outlet
of Athabasca Lake and flows into Great Slave
Lake (q.v,), by two mouths, near Fort Resolu-
tion. ' A ^number 'of falls and rapids are in its
upper course, but the descent becomes more
gradual near its mouth. Length about 300 miles.

Great South Bay, an arm of the Atlantic
Ocean on the southern coast of Suffolk County,
Long Island N. Y. ; 50 miles long, from one and
one-naif to five miles wide, Great South Beach,
which is about 35 miles long, has Fire Island
lighthouse on the western extremity, and sepa-
rates the bay from the ocean.

Great Stone Face, one of Hawthorne's
short stories relating to the a 01d Man of the
Mountain" in the White Mountains, in <Snow
Image and Other Twice Told Tales> (1852).

Greatorex, grar/6-reks, Ehza Pratt, Ameri-
can artist: b. Manor Hamilton, Ireland, 25 Dec
1819; d. Paris, 9 Feb. 1897. She studied art in
New York and Paris. Her work began in land-
scape/painting, but pen and ink work and etch*
ing subsequently absorbed her efforts. In t86£
she was elected associate of the National Acad-
emy. In 1870 she visited Germany and in 1871
published < The Homes of Oberammergau.* Her
principal works are * Summer Etchings in Colo-
rado* (1873) and <01d New York from the
Battery to Bloomingdale' (1876).

Grebes, grebz, a well-defined group of
water-bird (Cofytnbidtt or Podicipida) com-
prising 25 species, spread over practically the
whole world. The grebes are peculiar in having
the legs placed very far back, m their flattened
tarsi and lobed (not webbed) toes, each digit
being flattened and bordered by an extension of
horny skin. They are expert swimmers and pre-
eminent as divers. They nest in secluded ponds
and bogs, piling up a mass of vegetable matter
upon some floating foundation, and deposit
chalky white eggs. When the female leaves
the nest she usually covers the eggs over with
vegetable matter. The little grebes are expert
swimmers and divers from the time they are
hatched, and in their soft downy plumage are ex-
ceedingly beautiful. During migrations grebes
are found frequently along our rivers and sea
coasts, and are often shot by duck hunters in
tl)e autumn and winter. Though they have no
stiffened tail feathers, and have relatively very
small wings, they are able to fly long distances.
The body plumage is soft and compact, and
that of the under surface is a beautiful silvery
white, which makes a grebe-breasts* a very de-
sirable article in the millinery trade. The best-
known species in eastern North America are the
horned grebe (Coiymbus aurtius) which has a
peculiar ruff of black and rusty feathers about
the head ; and the pied-billed grebe {Podilymbur
podiceps) a 'rather more heavily built bird with-
out a ruff and with a thicker. and shorter bill.
Both are popularly known as a hell-divers,* In
Europe the common species are the horned grebe,
the great crested grebe (C. cristatus) and the
dabchick (C. fiuviaUlis).

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or Typhrestus (now Mount Velukhi), two
chains proceed in an easterly direction, the
northernmost of which, Mount Othrys, runs
almost due east, and attains at some points a
height of from 7,000 to 8,000 feet, while the
southern one runs rather in a southeasterly
direction, attaining at one point a height of
8,240 feet, and terminates at the celebrated pass
of Thermopylae. The Cambunian Mountains on
the north, the range of Pindus on the west, and
Othrys on the south, enclose the large and
fertile vale of Thessaly, forming the basin of the
Peneus (now Salambria), and the ranges of
Othrys and Oeta enclose the smaller basin of the
Sperchius (Hellada). Another range of moun-
tains branches off from Mount CEta and runs
still more to the south. This is the celebrated
Parnassus, which, at its highest point, exceeds
3,000 feet. The peaks of Cithaeron, Paynes,
Pentelicus, and Hymettus lie in the same direc-
tion, but are more distinguished for their classic
celebrity than for their height The range in
which these peaks are found is continued to the
southeast point of continental Greece, and the
islands of Ceos, Cythnos, Seriphos, and Siphnos
(now Kea, Thermia, Serpho, and Siphanto)
may be regarded as continuations of it. This
range on the south and that of CEta on the north
enclose the basin of the Cephissus, with Lake
Copais (now Topolia). Another chain of moun-
tains strikes south westward from the central
range of continental" Greece, under the names of
mnapitea t>y some inracian, Co4 ™ and Taphiassus. The chief rivers on
X11 y nan . tr * b ^ Pindus chain are the

S^iSlr^ iSS^^c ^^ Arachtttis (now Arta) and the Achelous (now
^« « .c o v « Aspropotamo).

The chief feature in the mountain system of
the Peloponnesus is a range or series of ranges
forming a circle round the valley of Arcadia in
the interior, having a number of branches pro-
ceeding outward from it in different directions,
dividing the rest of the Peloponnesus into sev-
eral other valleys. The loftiest part of the
mountainous circle round Arcadia is that lying
to the north, with the peak of Cyllene (Ziria),

western. The southern part consists rather of
a series of heights than a chain of mountains.
The highest range which branches off from the
circle around Arcadia, and, indeed, the highest
range in the Peloponnesus, is Mount Taygetus
(Pentedactylon), which strikes southward, sep-
arating the ancient divisions of Messenia and
Laconia, and terminating in the promontory of
Taenarum (now Cape Matapan). The other
chains are of no importance. The only rivers
in the Peloponnesus of any consequence are the
Eurotas (Iri), draining Laconia on the south-
east; the Pamisus (Pirnatza), draining Messenia
on the southwest; the Aloheus (Ruphia), drain-
ing Arcadia and Elis ; and the Peneus (Gastuni)
draining Elis on the west.

The rock most largely developed in the
mountains of Greece is limestone, which often
assumes the form of the finest marble. Granite
and gneiss are found only in the north, in the
eastern ramifications of the Pindus. Tertiary
formations prevail in the northeast of the
Peloponnesus; and in the northwest, along the
shores of Elis, are considerable tracts of al-
luvium. Volcanic rocks are not seen on the

Greece* Ancient, the European penin-
sula which was bounded on the north by Mace-
donia and Illyria; on the east and southeast by
the ALgtan and Myrtoan, and in the west, and
southwest, by the Ionian seas. Its length from
the borders of Macedonia to Cape Tacnaxum
was. about 262 miles. The name of Grwcia
originated in Italy, and was probably, derived
from Pelasgian colonists, who, coming from
Epirus to Magna Graecia, in southern Italy, and
calling themselves Greet, occasioned the applica-
tion of this name to all the people who spoke
the same language with them. In earlier times,
for example, in the time of Homer, Greece
had no general name among the natives. Aris-
totle was the first Greek to call his countrymen
Tpaucol, Greeks. It afterward received the
name of Hellas, and still later, after the country
was conquered by the Romans, it was divided
into two provinces: the Peloponnesus being
.known as Achaia, and the remaining regions
to the north as Macedonia. The Grecian tribes
were so widely dispersed that it is difficult to
determine with precision the limits of Greece,
properly so called. The name perhaps is prop-
erly applied only to the country lying to the south
of Macedonia, with the adjacent islands; but it
has sometimes been given in a modern sense
by geographers to the whole territory lying to
the south of Mount Haemus, Mount Scomius,
and the Illyrian Alps* or the whole series of
mountains now called the Balkan, so as to
include regions inhabited by some Thracian,
(Macedonian, and "" *
'mainland of the

the name of Hellas is properly confined is above
55,000 square miles. The whole of Greece nat-
urally divides itself into three parts: Northern
Greece, including Epirus and Thessaly; Central
Greece, which comprises what was known as
Hellas ; and the Peloponnesus.

Physical Features.*— The first thing which
strikes the eye on looking at a map of Greece
is the comparatively great extent of its coast-
line, formed* by numerous gulfs which penetrate

into it in all directions, and give it a remarkably mja . ,-. . . -

broken and rugged appearance. Proceeding L7*9 feet high, at its eastern extremity,

the north- Erymanthus (Olonos), 7,207 feet high, at

round the coast from the northwest to the north-
east we are presented m succession with the
Ambracian Gulf (now Gulf of Arta), Corin-
thian Gulf (the mouth of which is now called
the Gulf of Patras, while the name of Gulf of
Corinth is reserved for the inner part of it).,
the Cyparissian (now Arcadian) Gulf, and the
Messenian, Laconian, Argolic, Saronic, Maliac,
and Pagasaean gulfs, now called respectively
Koron, Marathon* Nauplia, Athens, Lamia, and
; Volo. The Corinthian Gulf on the east, and the
Saronic Gulf on the west, which nearly meet at
the Isthmus of Corinth, divide Greece into a
•continental and a peninsular portion, the latter
called the Peloponnesus (now Morea). An-
other striking feature is the mountainous char-
acter of the interior. The whole country was
bounded on the north by a range of mountains,
the western half of which was called Mount
Lingon and the eastern half the Cambunian
Mountains, with Mount Olympus at their eastern
extremity. From about the middle of this range
a lofty chain, called Mount Pindus, strikes
southward and runs almost parallel to the
eastern and western coasts of Greece. At a
point in this chain called Mount Tymphrestus

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mainland, but form considerable masses in some
of the islands. Attica was rich in silver and
marble. The quarries of Pentelicus and the
mines of Laureium were famous. Gold and ser-
pentine were found in Siphnos; there was tin in
Ceos, and copper near Chalcis in Euboea. In
manv of the islands iron abounded.

uivisions. — On the northwest of the main-
land of Greece was the mountainous region of
Epirus, which was never more than half Greek;
and to the east of that district, separated from
it by the chain of Pindus, lay Thessaly, a re-
gion of fertile plains. To the south, lay a
series of small independent states. Reckoned
from west to east, there were Acarnania, jEtolia,
Doris and Locris, Phocis with Mount Parnassus,
the seat of the Muses, and the sacred Delphi,
regarded by the Greeks as the navel of the earth ;
Boeotia, with Helicon, another mountain sacred
to the Muses, and with the cities of Thebes and
Plataea ; Megaris, containing the city of Megara ;
and Attica with its capital Athens, Piraeus, the
port of Athens, and the city of Eleusis, the seat
of the mysterious worship of Demeter. In the
'middle of the Peloponnesus was Arcadia, with
the towns of Mantinea, Tegea, and Megalopolis,
the last founded by Epaminondas. In the
north lay Sicyon and Corinth, the latter situated
on the isthmus connecting the Peloponnesus
with the rest of Greece ; and to the west of that
Achaia. To the southwest of Achaia lay the
rich province of Elis, with the plain and sacred
grove of Olympia, celebrated on account of the
Olympic games, which were held . here eai^ry
fourth year. To the south of Elis, in ihe south-
west corner of the Peloponnesus, lay the prov-
ince of Messenia, with the famous stronghold
of Ithome, a one of the horns of the Pelopon-
nesus,* the fort of Pylos, and later the capital
town of Messene, founded by Epaminondas 369.
Separated from Messenia by the range of Tayge-
tus was the province of Laconia, occupying the
southeast corner of the Peloponnesus, and con-
taining the renowned city of Sparta, long the
rival and ultimately the conqueror of Athens.
Lastly, to the north of Laconia, the east of
Arcadia, and the south of Sicyon, lay the prov-
ince of Argolis, with the capital Argos, and the
cities of Mycenae and Tiryns, all remarkable for
the remains of gigantic works of masonry, com-
monly known as Cyclopean works. x

The islands of Greece are partly scattered
over the iEgean Sea and partly contained in
the Ionian Sea on the southwest of the mainland.

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 53 of 185)