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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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rates (430-338), Ijxcus (420-348), Demosthenes
(about 385-322), ^schines (389-314), were re-
nowned masters of this art. We still possess
the admired masterpieces of several of these
orators. How near rhetoric was then to tri-
umphing over poetry is manifested in Euripides,
and there is no question that it had a consider-
able influence on Plato and Thucydides. Math-
ematics was now cultivated, and geography
served to illustrate history. Astronomy is in-
debted to the Ionic school, arithmetic to the
Italic, and geometry to the Academic school
for many discoveries. As mathematicians, Me-
ton, Euctemon, Archytas of Tarentum, Eu-
doxus of Cnidus, were celebrated. Geography
was particularly enriched by voyages of dis-
covery, which were occasioned by commerce;
and in this view Hanno's voyage to the western
coast of Africa, the Periplus of Scylax (a de-
scription of the coasts of the Mediterranean),
and the discoveries of Pytheas of Massilia in
the northwest of Europe, deserve mention. The
study of nature was likewise pursued by the
philosophers ; but the healing art, hitherto prac-
tised by the Asclepiadae in the temples, consti-
tuted a distinct science, and Hippocrates (about
460-357) became the creator of scientific med-

The following period is usually called
the Alexandrine, and might be characterized as
the systematizing or critical period, Athens did
not, indeed, cease to sustain its ancient reputa-
tion ; but during the greater part of the period
Alexandria was in reality the leading Greek
city. From this and other causes the spirit of
Grecian literature necessarily took another turn.
Greece was now under a foreign yoke; great
creative geniuses no longer arose either in the
home country or in the colonies ; and the use of
an immense library tended to make erudition
triumph over the free action of mind, which,
however, could not be immediately overborne.
In philosophy, Plato's acute and learned disciple,
Aristotle (384-322), appeared as the founder of
the Peripatetic school, which gained distinction
by enlarging the territory of philosophy, and by
its spirit of system. He separated logic and
rhetoric, ethics and politics, physics and meta-

physics, and applied philosophy to several
branches of knowledge; thereby producing eco-
nomics, pedagogics, and poetics. He invented
the philosophical syllogism, and gave philosophy
the form which it preserved for centuries. His
disciple Theophrastus (died 287 B.C.) followed
his steps in the investigation of philosophy and
natural history. But the more dogmatic was
the philosophy of Aristotle, the more caution
was requisite to the philosophical inquirer, and
the spirit of doubt was salutary. This was par-
ticularly exhibited in the system of skepticism
which t originated with Pyrrho of Elis (330).
A similar spirit subsisted in the middle and new
academics, of which Arcesilaus (241) and Car-
neades (155) were the founders. The Stoic
school, founded by Zeno of Citium in Cyprus
(342-370), and the Epicurean, of which Epi-
curus (299-279) was the founder, were chiefly
remarkable for the effect that they had in the
development of moral speculation in opposite di-
rections, which gradually brought about a great
difference in the practice of the adherents of
the opposite schools. Mathematics and astron-
omy made great progress in the schools at Alex-
andria, Rhodes, and Pergamus. And to whom
are the names of Euclid (323-283), Archimedes
(287-212), Eratosthenes (276-196), and Hip-
parchus (160-145) unknown? The expeditions
and achievements of Alexander furnished abun-
dant matter to history; but, on the whole, it
gained in extent, not in value, since a preference
for the wonderful over the actual had now be-
come prevalent The more gratifying, therefore,
is the appearance of Polybius of Megalopolis
(204-122), who is to be regarded as the author
of the true method of historical exposition, by
which universal history acquired a philosophical
spirit and a worthy object. Geography, which
Eratosthenes made a science, and Hipparchus
united more closely with mathematics, was en-
riched in various ways. To the knowledge of
countries and nations much was added by the
accounts of Nearchus Agatharchides and others.
With respect to poetry many remarkable
changes occurred. In Athens the middle com-
edy gave place not without the intervention of
political causes to the new which approaches to
the modern ^comedy of manners.* (See
Drama.) Among the many poets of this class
Menander (342-291) and Philemon (330) were
eminent. To this period also belong the cele-
brated idyllic poets Theocritus (270), and his
contemporary Bion, as well as Moschus, who
lived about 20 years later. The other kinds of
poetry did not remain uncultivated; we may
mention the learned poetry of Callimachus and
of Lycophron, the epic of Apollonius Rhodius,
the didactic of Aratus and Nicander; but all
these labors, as well as the criticisms of poetry
and the fine arts, point to Alexandria; and we
shall therefore pass them over in this place.
(See Alexandrian School.) The Septuagint
(q.v.) or Greek translation of the Old Testa-
ment was a work of scholars of the Alexan-
drian school. The period subsequent to 146 ax.
is known as the Graeco-Roman. Polybius may
be placed here as well as the other historians,
Diodorus Siculus and Dionysius of Halicarnas-
sus; while in the Christian era we have Jose-
phus, Arrian, Appian, Herodian ; the biographies
of Plutarch, Diogenes Laertius, and Philo-
stratus, the geographies of Strabo and Pau-
sanias ; the astronomy and geography of Ptolemy;

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the informatory works of Athenaeus, jElian, and
Stobaeus ; che medical works of Galen ; the satir-
ical works of Lucian; and the Greek romances
"best represented in Keliodorus, Achilles Tatius,
atnd Chariton. See Byzantine Literature.

The following are among' fhe best works on
Greek literature: K. O. Mulleins < Geschichte
•der griechischen Litteratur > (4th ed. 1882-4) ;
Bergk's < Griechische Litteraturgeschichte )
(1892-4) ; Bernhardy's < Grundriss der griech-
ischen Litteratur > (new ed. 1892) ; Mure's
i Critical History of the Language and Litera-
ture of Ancient Greece > (1854-00) ; Mahaffy's
Classical Greek Literature > (1890) ; Jevons'
^History of Greek Literature * (1890) ; Croiset's
"TOistcire de la litterature grecque (1889-95) ;
Susemihl's ( Geschichte der griechischen Lit-
teratur in der Alexandrine rzeit ) (1891-2).

Greece, Modern (Greek Hellas), a king-
dom in the southeast of Europe, bounded on
the north by Turkey, and on all other sides by
the sea— the Ionian Sea on the west, the Med-
iterranean proper on the south, and the jEgean
Sea on the east. The mainland forms two chief
portions, united by the narrow Isthmus of Cor-
inth; a northern, called Northern Greece or
Livadia, and a southern peninsula, called the
Peloponnesus or Morea. By far the largest
island is Eubcea, only separated from the main-
land of Livadia by the narrow channel of Eu-
ripo. The other islands form several groups:
The northern Sporades on the northeast of
Eubcea including # Skiathos, Skopelos, Khilio-
•dromia, Pelagonisi, Sarakinon or Peristeri, and
Skyros; the western Sporades, chiefly in the
Gulf of Egina, or between it and the Gulf of
Nauplia, including Hydra, Spetsae, Poros, Egina,
and Salamis or Koluri, the Cyclades; and the
Ionian Islands. (See Greece^ Ancient.) The
capital and largest town is Athens.

Physical Features. — See Greece, Ancient.

Divisions. - ' Greece is politically divided into
16 nomarchies, which are again subdivided into
•eparchies, and these again into demes. The fol-
lowing table gives the names of the nomarchies,
their area and population in 1008:


Area in

sq. m.



' Attica and Boeotia . . .

Phocis and Phthiotis .

i Arcanania and Aitolia

1 Argolis

1. 901






























Achaia and Elis





| Eubcea





L Cephalonia




. Larissa

Other Nomarchies . . .




By the law of 17 July 1899 there is a new di-
-vision into 26 nomarchies, namely: Attica,
Boeotia, Phthiotis, Phocis, MtoYtz and Acar-
nania, Eurytania, Larissa, Magnesia, Trikkala,
Karditsa, Arta, Achaia, Elis, Eubcea, Cyclades,
Kerkyra (Corfu), Leucas, Kephallenia (Cepha-

lonia), Zacyuthos (Zante). These are sub-
divided into 69 districts and 442 communes.

Climate. — In general the first snow falls in
October and the last in April. During the sum-
mer rain scarcely ever falls, and the channels of
almost all the minor streams become dry. The
air is then remarkably clear, and a month will
sometimes pass away without a cloud being seen.
A sudden change, however, takes place toward
the end of harvest. Rain becomes frequent and
copious; and the streams which had been dried
up not only fill their channels, but frequently
overflow them, and lay considerable tracts under
water. In this way stagnant pools and marshes
are occasionally formed, which give rise to in-
termittent fevers. Compare Greece, Ancient

Vegetation, Agriculture, etc.— The cultivated
land in Greece has recently been estimated at
rather more than 5,563,100 acres. There are be-
sides 5,000,000 acres of pasture land, and
3,000,000 acres of waste hind. The draining of
Lake Copais redeems 60,000 acres of land, which
the company divides into holdings of from 5 to
50 acres. English agricultural machinery is
being introduced, but still agriculture is in a
backward state.

Thessaly is the richest portion of Greece
agriculturally. The condition of the agricul-
tural population is said to be very satisfactory.
The principal cereal crops are wheat, barley,
and maize, but the quantity raised is not suffi-
cient* and much grain is imported. All the
fruits of the latitude are grown — figs, almonds,
oranges, citrons, melons, etc. — in abundance
and of excellent quality, without receiving any
great share of attention. The vine also grows
vigorously, and considerable quantities of wine
are made, some of the sorts being of high qual-
ity. But a much more important product of
Greece, especially on the coasts of the Pelopon-
nesus, and in the islands of Cephalonia, Zante,
Ithaca, and Santa Maura, is the Corinthian
grape or currant, the export of which has in-
creased in value from $8,238,118 in 1900 to
$8,910,000 in 1908. Another important object of
cultivation is the olive, for which both the soil
and the climate are alike favorable. The culture
of the mulberry for the rearing of silk-worms
is carried on to some extent. Some good to-
bacco is grown. The forests contain, among
other trees, the oak (Quercus &gilops) which
yields the valonia of commerce. The live stock
are neither numerous nor of good breeds. The
raising of artificial grasses for their mainte-
nance may be said to be unknown, and the scanty
herbage which natural pasture affords must be
of little avail. Asses and mules are more
numerous than horses; cattle are comparatively
few; and the chief animals from which dairy
produce is obtained are the sheep and the goat.
The quantity of wool produced is considerable,
but most of it is of a coarse description.

Manufactures, Trade, Communications. etc.-~
The manufactures are limited, but with all other
branches of industry in Greece are increasing,
and are furthered by high duties on imported
goods. The employment of the steam-engine in
manufacturing industries dates from about
1868, and is yet only developed to a small extent.
Piraeus is the chief industrial centre, having
spinning and weaving factories for cotton, silk,
and wool, machine-shops, paper-works, dye-
works, etc. Other centres are Syra, Corinth,

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Nauplia, Patras, Larissa. Still, cottons and
other textiles form by far the most important
part of the imports of manufactured goods.
Leather manufactures form an important branch
of industry. Marble has been worked from the
most ancient period in the quarries of the island
of Paros. In 1871 the working of the ancient
argentiferous lead mines of Laurion in Attica
was resumed with good success; and quantities
of manganese iron ore and zinc ore are also
raised in this district. The most important
branch of manufacturing industry is ship-build-
ing, which is carried on at various places. Much
of the trade carried on is merely coasting, but
the foreign trade also is of considerable extent.
A large part of the foreign shipping of Greece
is that which deals with the import of the manu-
factures of England, Germany, etc., into Greece,
Turkey, and the Levant generally. In regard to
this branch, the peculiar advantages which the
Greeks possess in their knowledge of the lan-
guages, and acquaintance with the habits and
wants, of the people of these countries, have
been greatly in their favor. The chief ports of
Greece are Piraeus (population 42,169, the port
of Athens), Syra, and Patras (population
37*958). The principal export is currants (very
largely to Britain) ; but wine, olive-oil, dried
figs, raisins, silver, lead, zinc ore, and manganese
iron ore, tobacco, sponges, and other articles are
also exported ; the principal imports are cereals,
coals, and cotton and woolen goods. The imports
in 190 1 were $27,773,010; in 1908 the imports
were $29,733,300; the exports $21,282,200. The
greatest hindrance to the development of
Greece is the want of good roads, which are pe-
culiarly necessary in so mountainous a country.
Attention, however, has been directed to the
supplying of this want, and there are now over
2,043 miles of roads. Among other public
works which have engaged the energies of the
Greeks are the construction and restoration of
harbors, the erection of lighthouses, the execu-
tion of drainage works, etc. 'In 1883 there were
only 58 miles of railways open, but in 1906 845
miles were open, and 100 were under construc-
tion. A ship canal across the isthmus of Corinth
(4 miles) was opened in 1893.

W eights 9 Measures, and Money. — The
French metric system of weights and measures
has been introduced into Greece by the govern-
ment, but the people still adhere to the old system.
In the latter the standard lineal measure was the
piki, equal to three quarters of an English yard ;
the standard square measure was the stremma,
nearly equal to .242 of an English acre; the
standard weight was the o£# = 2.8o pounds
avoirdupois: 44 okes were equal to 1 cantar, or
about 124 pounds avoirdupois. The weights
and measures of the metric system are called
royal, to distinguish them from the old weights
and measures. In this system the French mea-
sures of length, millimetre, centimetre, decimetre,
and metre are called respectively gramma, dak'
tylos, palame, and pScheus (cubit). The kilo-
metre is called a stadion, and the myriametre
skoinis. The new or royal measures of surface
are the square pecheu s = the square metre, and
the stremma = the are. The measures of capa-
city are the kybos, mystron, kotyU, litra, and
koilon, respectively equal to the millilitre, centi-
litre, decilitre, litre, and hectolitre. The weights
for gold, silver, and precious stones are the
kokkos, obolos, and drachme, respectively equal

to the centigramme, decigramme, and gramme*
The commercial unit of weight is the mna =
1,500 drachmes= 1 J4 kilogramme. The talan-
ton is equal to the quintal, and the tonos equat
to the tonneau.

In 1875 Greece entered the monetary league
of which the other members are France, Italy,.
Switzerland, and Belgium, and all the members
of which have a monetary unit equal to the
franc in value. The name of the Greek unit is
the drachma, divided into 100 lepta, nominally
equal to a franc but varying considerably in:

Government and People. — As settled by the
present constitution the throne is hereditary ac-
cording to the law of primogeniture in the
family of King George. The king must ue a
member of the Greek Orthodox Church. He at-
tains his majority at the age of 18. The legis-
lative authority is vested in a single chamber,
called the Boule, the members of which (pro-
portioned in number to the amount of the popu-
lation) are elected for four years by ballot by-
manhood suffrage. It meets every year on 1
November, unless called at an earlier date for
special business. The executive power is exer-
cised by the king through a responsible ministry-
The Greek Orthodox Church alone is estab-
lished, but all other forms of religion enjoy
toleration. The highest ecclesiastical authority,
subject to the king, is vested in a permanent
synod, which sits at Athens, and consists of
five members appointed by the king from the
highest dignitaries of the Church. There is 1
metropolitan, who has his seat at Athens, 21
archbishops, and 29 bishops, who are presented
and ordained by the synod, and confirmed and
invested by the king. Justice is administered,
on the basis of the French civil code, by a
supreme court (Areios Pagos), which has its
seat at Athens; five higher courts, one at
Athens, one at Nauplia, one at Patras, one
at Larissa, and one at Corfu ; and a number of
courts of primary resort (Protodokeia), in the
principal towns. The public revenue, derived
chiefly from direct taxes, customs, stamps, ex-
cise, monopolies, the rent of national property,
etc., was estimated for 1910 at $26,251,204, and
the expenditure at $27,277,152. Revenue for
1902 was estimated at $23,621,675, and expendi-
ture at $23,621,680. Greece has a very large
public debt. In 1909 the amount of their gold
debt was $136,621,490. A considerable portion
of the debt incurred in recent years has been
in the way of raising loans for the making of
railways. Of the foreign debt one loan is guar-
anteed by Great Britain, France, and Russia,
which have latterly had to pay the dividends on
it, and which are now accordingly heavy claim-
ants on Greece. The payment of the interest
on its public debt has long been with Greece a
matter of difficulty. Every male Greek on at-
taining the age of 21 years is liable to military
service, his term being 2 years with the
colors, 10 with the reserve, 8 in the national
guard, and 10 in the national guard reserve. The
army in 1910 numbered about 23,000 on a peace
footing, expanding easily to 50,000 in time of
war. The navy in 1908 consisted of 3 armor-
clad ships, 12 torpedo-boats, besides several un-
protected gun-vessels and cruisers. The popula-
tion # contains a considerable intermixture of
foreign stocks, among which the Albanese, or
Arnauts, are the most numerous; but the great

Digitized by



i. The Academy at Athens. 2. The University at Athens.

Digitized by


UnkUlMW, UCSanla Cruz20O1

Digitized by



majority, though not without some taint in their
blood, are of genuine Greek extraction, and,
both in physical and mental features, bear a
marked resemblance to their celebrated fore-
fathers. It is true that the degrading bondage
to which they were subjected for centuries has
sunk them far below their natural level, and too
often substituted sycophancy and low cunning
for the intellectual superiority which, in earlier
and better times, displayed itself in immortal
productions of the chisel and the pen; but that
the original elements of greatness still exist has
been proved by the noble struggles which they
have made for independence. The educational
J system of Greece, organized in 1834 by George
Gennadius, one of the leaders of the war of
independence, is very complete. There are three
grades of schools, the demotic or primary na-
tional schools, the Hellenic or secondary gram-
mar schools, and the gymnasia, in which, it is
asserted, the range and the level of the teaching
are much the same as in a German gymnasium
or in the upper parts of our public schools. In
all three grades of schools education is gratui-
tous, and in the primary schools it is compulsory
on all children between 5 and 12. There is a
university at Athens, attended by nearly 3,000
students, many of whom come from districts
under the rule of the Sultan. Thus far, how-
ever, education seems to be actually diffused
among the people only to a limited extent,
though the numbers that receive a university
education are so great that many such young
men find themselves without any proper sphere
of employment, and are obliged to adopt the
career of politician and place-hunter. Many of
these are now, however, said to be finding better
ways of turning their education to account
through the rapid development of trade and in-
dustry. The national dress of the Greeks re-
sembles the Albanian costume. In the men it
consists of a tight jacket, generally scarlet, a
white linen kilt in numerous folds, a bright-
colored sash round the waist, and embroidered
gaiters; in the women it consists of a vest or
jacket fitting close to the shape, and a skirt, on
the head a kind of fez or skull-cap.

History. — From the year 1715 (see preced-
ing article) till 1821 the Greeks were subject
to the domination of the Turks. In 1770, and
again in 1700, they made attempts at insurrec-
tion, which, however, were speedily frustrated.
In the early years of the 19th century a secret
society was formed for the purpose of effecting
their liberation from the galling yoke, and in
1821 they found an opportunity of breaking out
into another insurrection, which in the end
proved successful. In that year Ali, the pasha
of Janina, revolted against the Sultan Mahmoud
II., and secured the aid of the Greeks by prom-
ising them their independence. The rising of
the Greeks took place on 6 March, under Alex-
ander Ypsilanti, and on 1 Jan. 1822 they pub-
lished a declaration of independence. In the same
year Ali was assassinated by the Turks, but the
Greeks nevertheless continued the struggle that
they had begun, and in which they were encour-
aged by the sympathy of nearly all the nations
of Europe. Among the most distinguished of
their leaders were Marcos Bozzaris, Capo
d'Istria, Constantine Kanaris, Koiocotroni,
Miaulis, Mavrocordato, Mavromichaelis, etc. In
1823 they were joined by Lord Byron, who, dur-
ing the last year of his life, did all in his power

to further their cause by his wealth, as well as
by his active efforts on their behalf. Unfortu-
nately he died in April of the following year.
In 1825, the Turks having called to their aid
Mehemet-Ali, the pasha of Egypt, the latter sent
his son, Ibrahim Pasha, whose talents secured
them the success that they had hitherto been un-
able to attain. Tripolitza, the capital of the
Morea, was taken, as was also Missolonghi, in
spite of the valor of the Suliote mountaineers.
It was about this time that the Greek patriots
received the aid of the English admiral Lord
Cochrane, who organized their fleet, and of the
French colonel Fabvier, who instructed their
army in the system of European tactics. In spite
of this, however, the Turks continued to triumph
everywhere, and resisted all the pressure that
was put upon them by other European powers to
make concessions. A treaty was then concluded
at London (6 July 1827) between Britain,
France, and Russia, for the pacification of
Greece, and when the mediation of these three
powers was declined by the Sultan, their united
fleets, under Admiral Codrington, attacked and
annihilated the Turkish fleet off Navarino, 20
Oct. 1827. In the beginning of the following
year (1828) Count Capo dTstria became presi-
dent of the state, and later on in the same year
Ibrahim Pasha was forced to evacuate Greece.
At last, on 3 Feb. 1830, a protocol of the allied
powers ^declared the independence of Greece,
which was recognized Dy 'the Porte on 25 April
of this year. The new member of the states of
Europe received from the allies a monarchical
form of government, and offered the crown to
Leopold, Prince of Saxe-Coburg, and when he
refused it, to Otho, a young prince of Bavaria.
The latter accepted the offer, and was pro-
claimed king of the Hellenes at Nauplia, on 30
Aug. 1832. The power of the king was at first
almost absolute, and his arbitrary measures, and

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