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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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olics of Italy, of the Graeco-Romaic rite, and of
the Bulgarians. These several Churches retain
their several Greek or Oriental liturgies and
sacramental rites and most of the usages and
ceremonies of the Eastern schismatical Churches
from which they are sprung.

The Melchites represent those Churches of
Syria and Egypt which, in 1686 and later, se-
ceded from jurisdictions of the Monophysite
patriarchs of Antioch ? Jerusalem, and Alexan-
dria. Their number is small, perhaps not ex-
ceeding 50,000 souls, but they have three patri-
archs, with bishops subordinate to them.

Digitized by



The Ruthenian United Church is an offshoot
of the Russian Greek Church by secession; the
membership of this Church in Russian Poland
and in the Austro-Hungary monarchy comprises
probably 1,000,000 souls.

The United Greeks of Italy, mostly in Cala-
bria, are estimated at 30,000.

The Graeco-Romaic Church of Hungary and
Transylvania has about 1,000,000 adherents.

The United Bulgarian Church dates from
i860, when several bishops with a considerable
following of their people were received into the
communion of the Church of Rome.

All these Churches retain the ancient Greek
liturgies of the Eastern Churches from which
they seceded, and to a great extent their ancient
systems of discipline. The priest, as in the
<jreek orthodox and in the Russian orthodox
Church, must be married, and the bishops must
he celibates; hence the bishops are usually
chosen from the monastic order. The widowed
priest is not permitted to contract a second mar-
riage. In short, these Churches retain, of the
religious practices and of the discipline of the
several Eastern Churches from which they se-
ceded, whatever is not inconsistent with alle-
giance to the supreme pontiff in matters of

The language of the Ruthenian United
Church's liturgy is Old Sclavonic, and translated
from one of the ancient Greek liturgies. The lit-
urgy of the Melchkes is that of St. John Chrys-
ostom, and on certain occasions that of St.
Basil, both in the original Greek. The liturgy
of the Bulgarian Church is also of Greek origin,
but translated into an ancient Sclavic idiom.

Greek Fire, a combustible composition
made probably of naphtha, sulphur and nitre,
which was first used in 673 a.d. by the Greeks
of the Byzantine Empire against the Saracens.
Its invention has usually been ascribed to Callin-
icus of Heliopolis, and to the year 668 a.d. The
mixture appears to have been highly inflam-
mable, and to have been difficult to extinguish;
was poured out, burning, from ladles on be-
siegers, projected out of tubes to a distance,
or shot from balistae, burning on tow tied to ar-
rows. At Constantinople the process of making
Greek fire was kept a secret for several cen-
turies; but the knowledge of its composition
and the use of it, gradually spread to the West.
It was in use for a short time after the inven-
tion of gunpowder. Combustibles of a similar
kind were used at the siege of Charleston in
1863, composed of sulphur, nitre, and lamp-
black; and naphtha in shells was also tried.

Greek-letter Societies, or College Frater-
nities, are found in nearly all leading educa-
tional institutions, particularly the great uni-
versities* in the United States. Branches of the
various societies are known as "chapters,* and
are found in nearly every college as well as in
every large city m the country. No society has
more than one chapter in any one college. While
these societies are secret in character there is
neither ritual nor mystery in their conduct, the
protection of meetings, constitution and mottoes
being all the secrecy involved. The Greek alpha-
bet is generally used in naming a fraternity, or
a chapter. There are three types of badges worn
by members, the name badge, monogram badge,
and sywbol badge. In the latter a key, skull, or
scroll is usually employed.
Vol. 10 — 15

The oldest of these literary and social broth-
erhoods was established as early as 1776, and
continued the sole society of its kind for 50
years. There were in 1902 more than 800 chap-
ters of these societies in American colleges, with
a membership including the alumni, of more than
100,000. It has become quite the practice for stu-
dents of a particular fraternity to reside together
during their college course in their "chapter*
house. In 1901 there were 70 such houses in the
United States owned by the "chapters," and 200
other houses rented by them. Princeton is the
only prominent college in the country where the
fraternal society is prohibited, and the fact that
all the other leading institutions permit these
organizations to exist affords strong presump-
tion that they are regarded with favor, and that
their influence is for good rather than for evil.
In 19 10 there were 33 of these societies for men
and 17 for women, in the universities and col-
leges of the United States.

Phi Beta Kappa. — This, the oldest organiza-
tion, is composed of 71 college chapters, and
was founded 5 Dec. 1776, at William and Mary
College, Williamsburg, Va. A chapter was
formed at Yale, in New Haven, in Dec. 1779,
and soon after at Harvard, Dartmouth, Bowdoin
and Amherst. The society in 1910 had a mem-
bership of 15,500. The national council meets
trienmally. The badge of the society is a golden
key. Among prominent members are T. W.
Higginson, Seth Low, Joseph H. Choate, and
H. W. Mabie.

Kappa Alpha.— Founded in 1825 at Old
Union College by four members of the Phi
Delta Kappa. It likewise had a golden key as
a badge design. The first branch of this society
was established at Williams College. The so-
ciety had 1,200 members in 1910, prominent
among them being Wheeler H. Peckham, John
Boyd Thatcher, L. Clark Seelye, and Edward S.

Sigma Phi. — Founded at Union College,
Schenectady, N. Y., 4 March 1827, the society
established branches at Hamilton, Williams, Ho-
bart, Lehigh, Cornell and the Universities of
Michigan and Vermont. It had a membership
of 1,475 in l 9 10 - The badge of the society is
of the monogram type; the colors are light blue
and white. Among Its members are Elihu Root,
Andrew D. White, and John H. Post.

Delta Phi. — Founded at Union College, 17
Nov. 1827, this societv established branches at
Columbia, Rutgers, Harvard, Johns Hopkins,
Cornell, and other colleges. The badge is in the
form of a Maltese cross; colors blue and white.
The fraternity had, 1910, 3,750 members, among
them John Jacob Astor, Ernest Howard Crosby,
and R. O. Doremus.

Alpha Delta Phi. — Founded at Hamilton
College, Clinton, N. Y., in 1832, the society es-
tablished chapters in 29 other colleges and had
a membership of 7,372 in 1910. There were 24
houses owned by the society and 24 active chap-
ters. The badge is of green and white, with the
star and crescent as symbols. Among prominent
members are W. R. Day, Bartow S. Weeks,
Henry Clews, Jr., Jas. K. Hackett, and H. E.

Psi Upsilon. — Founded at Union College, 24
Nov. 1833, this society had 4 of its original
founders still living in 1002. The membership of
the organization was (1910) 11,661, with 23 chap-
ters in various colleges. The badge is of gold, dia-

Digitized by



mond-shaped; colors garnet and gold. Among
its members are Chauncey M. Depew, Wm. C.
Whitney, G. R. Schieffelin, and Herbert L.

Delta Upsilon.— Founded at Williams Col-
lege in 1834, and had in 1910 chapters in 30, col-
leges and universities, with a membership of
10,000. It is an open, non-secret organization
and owns 24 chapter houses. Among its promi-
nent members are David Starr Jordan, Rossiter
Johnson, W. H. P. Faunce, and Rev. Charles
M. Sheldon. .

Beta Theta Pi. — Founded at Miami Univer-
sity, Oxford, Ohio, in 1839, this was the pioneer
society of the Middle West. It had a member-
ship of 17,028, with 73 active chapters. The
badge is a shield wit\ 8 sides curved inward;
the colors are light pink and blue. Among its
prominent members are Foster L. Backus, Paul
Wilcox, and W. R. Baird.

Chi Psi. — Founded at Union College, in 184 1,
this was the first Eastern society to establish
chapters in the West, extending its organization
to the Universities of Michigan and Minnesota.
It had a membership in 191O of 5,260 with 17
active chapters. The chapter house at Cornell
was the finest fraternity house in this country.
The society is more secret than most of its fel-
lows: The badge is a jeweled monogram.
Among its members are Willis J. Abbot, Francis
M. Scott, and Allan Lee Smidt.

Delta Kappa Epsilon, — Founded at Yale Col-
lege, New Haven, Conn., 22 June 1844, by 15
members of the junior class. The society es-
tablished 53 chapters and had a membership in
1910 of 17,475 — the second strongest numerically
of college fraternities. Among prominent mem-
bers of the society are President Roosevelt, John
D. Long, Whitelaw Reid, Howard Gould, Julian
Hawthorne, Cyrus C. Adams, John DeWitt
Warner, M. G. Hyde, Julius Chambers, and
G. R. Hawes.

Zeta Psi.— -Founded at the New York Uni-
versity, 1 June 1847, this society established 34
chapters, and had a membership in 19 10 of 5,500.
The badge is a monogram ; the color white, with
which each chapter blends its college colors.
Among prominent members are Augustus Van
Wyck, Wm. Shrady, Harrison Grey Fiske, and
H. W. Bookstaver.

Delta Psi. — Founded at Columbia College,
New York, in Jan. 1847; had 8 chapters and a
membership of 2,600. The badge of the so-
ciety is a St. Anthony cross, bearing a shield
of blue enamel. Among its prominent members
are Thomas Nelson Page, W. Seward Webb,
F. W. Vanderbilt, Brander Matthews, Wm. E.
Curtis, and D. S. Appleton.

Theta Delta Chi. — Founded like several of its
predecessors at Union College, this society was
organized in 1848 ; had, 1910, 27 chapters and 6,-
000 members. The badge is a monogram; the
colors black, white and blue. Among its mem-
bers are John Hay, J. W. Griggs, H. H. Hanna,
S. Fred Nixon, and Rev. David Gregg.

Phi Gamma Delta. — Founded at Jefferson
College, Canonsburg, Pa., in May 1848, this so-
ciety established 57 chapters and had, 1910, a
membership of 12,469. The badge is a diamond-
shaped shield on a field of black, bound by a
golden cord; the color royal purple. Among
its members are Gen. Lew Wallace, Edward
Eggleston, S. S. McClure, Leigh H. Hunt, and
R. Lloyd Jones.

Phi Delta Theta. — Founded at Miami Uni-
versity, Oxford, Ohio, 26 Dec. 1848, this society
established 92 chapters; had, 1910, a member-
ship of 17,860. The badge is a shield, bearing
a scroll; the fraternity colors are argent and
azure. Among its members are C. P. Bassett,.
Irving R. Bacon, C. P. Van Alen, and Rev.

E. A. Dent.

Phi Kappa Sigma. — Founded at the Univer-
sity of Pennsylvania, 16 Aug. 1850; established
43 chapters; had a membership, 1910, of
4,000. The badge is a gold Maltese cross, with
a skull and crossbone centre; the colors are old
gold and black. Its membership includes H. C.
King, J. R. Paxton, M. J. Asch, Geo. G. Battle,,
and Wm. McClure.

Phi Kappa Psi — Founded at Jefferson Col-
lege, Canonsburg, Pa., 19 Feb. 1852; estab-
lished 44 chapters which had, in 1910, 11,000
members. The badge is a shield of gold; the
colors pink and lavender. Prominent among its
members are Henry T. Scudder, F. E. Hamlin,.
W. L. Stoddard and Thos. A. Nelson.

Chi Pi. — Founded at Hobart College, in Dec.
1854, has organized 19 chapters with a member-
ship of 4,700. The fraternity was reorganized
in 1896. The badge is a monogram. Geo. S.
Hobart, H. C. Piatt, F. A. Mandeville, and

F. C. Weber are among its prominent members.
Sigma Chi. — Founded at Miami University,

Oxford, Ohio, 20 June 1855; organized 62
chapters with, 1910, 11,200 members. The badge
is a cross of gold and white enamel ; the colors
are blue and gold. Among its members are
Thos. Ewing, Jr., Wm. E. Quimby, H. W. Chat-
field, and Henry A. Potter.

Sigma Alpha Epsilon. — Founded at the Uni-
versity of Alabama in 1856; organized 72 chap-
ters; had, 1910, 13,362 members. Among its
prominent members are Charles B. Harvey,
F. K. Knowlton, T. W. Beach, and H. P. Nash.

Delta Tau Delta. — Founded at Bethany Col-
lege in i860; organized 52 chapters and has,
1910, a membership of 10,100. The colors are
purple, gold and white.

Alpha Tau Omega. — Founded at the Virginia
Military Institute, 11 Sept. 1865; organized 60
chapters; had, 1910, a membership of 8,500.
Among its prominent members are Irving Bach-
el ler, Hugh S. Thompson, E. B. South worth
and Walter H. Page.

Kappa Sigma. — Founded at the University
of Virginia in 1867; established 77 chapters; had*
1910, a membership of 9,500. The badge is a
crescent and star; the colors old gold, maroon
and blue.

Sigma Nu. — Founded at the Virginia Mili-
tary Institute, 1 Jan. 1869; organized 65 chap-
ters ; a membership of 8,000. The badge is de-
signed after that of the Legion of Honor of
France; the colors are black, white and gold.

Phi Sigma Kappa. — Founded at the Massa-
chusetts Agricultural College, 15 March 1873;
organized 23 chapters; a membership of 4,025.
The colors of the society are silver and ma-
genta. Among its members are Wm. H.
Bishop, S. C Thompson, J. W. Goff, Jr., and
M. C. Valentine.

Among the Greek-letter Societies of women
are the Alpha Chi Omega, Alpha Phi. Chi
Omega, Delta Delta Delta, Delta Gamma, Kappa
Alpha Theta, Kappa Kappa Gamma, and Pi Beta
Phi. The Alpha Phi was founded in 1872; had.igio,
15 chapters and 2,080 members. The Delta Delta

Digitized by



Delta was founded in 1888; had 33 chapters jn
1910 with a membership of 4,000.

In October 1903 there was organized at the
Indiana University the first negro Greek-letter
society in the United States. It is known as the
Alpha Kappa, with a charter membership of 10.

Greek Music, the theory and practice of
melody and harmonics among the ancient inhabi-
tants of Hellas. The subject of Greek music is an
obscure and difficult one, but there are enough
data extant to afford us a general idea of the
Greek musical scale, of the use of instruments,
and employment of the voice in solo and chorus
among the Greeks. The earliest notion of music
was derived* from the necessity of keeping time
in the dance. This at first would be effected by
merely clapping the hands. The use of instru-
ments of percussion would follow, and the drum
and cymbal came into use. The cymbal orig-
inated in Egypt, and reached Greece as a per-
manent element in the practice of music The
rustle of the wind through the reeds, sometimes
with a shrill whistling vibration, suggested the
application of the human breath to hollow pipes,
and what is still called the Pan's pines was in-
vented. Wind instruments of various kinds
came afterwards into vogue, the flute, and the
double flute were employed, and seem generally
to have been blown as accompaniments to the
elegy and the love song. These pipes were of
various kinds and were considered as good ac-
companiments to the recitations of the poet, as
well as for regulation of movement in a dance.
They were employed in the ceremonies of the
mysteries, and Plato speaks of an often recur-
ring thought as resembling *the sound of the
flute in the ear of the mystic 19

Instrumental music attained its highest de-
velopment in the invention of the lyre. The
Egyptians attributed this invention to their god
Thoth. In Greece Hermes is celebrated as the
inventor of the lyre, which became henceforth
the instrument of the epic poet and the rhapsode
or reciter. It had originally four strings, which
it is said were suggested by the tendons stretched
over the shell of a tortoise. The first Greek
philosopher to attempt a scientific theory of
musical scales and intervals appears to have
been that profound and versatile man Pytha-
goras (585 b.c). The Greeks did not use the
word music in application to the art which we
so name. Music to them comprised everything
which the Muses inspired, and even history and
astronomy as well as poetry were music What
we mean by the term was called by the Greeks
harmonics, which means the art of fitting, that
is, adjusting the intervals in a scale, in the
strings of a lyre. The scale of Pythagoras had
seven notes, corresponding with the seven strings
of his lyre, and he professed to derive his idea
of music from the music of the spheres. The
sun revolving round the earth was to him the
chief planet, and was represented by the middle
string of the lyre which was considered the key-
note, corresponding with A in the modern scale.
On one side were strings representing Mercury,
Venus and the Moon, on the other side three
more corresponding with Mars, Jupiter and
Saturn. It is said that Pythagoras discovered
the ratios of the perfect intervals from hearing
blacksmiths striking an anvil with hammers of
different weights. Aristoxenus (b.c 300) dis-
covered the difference between the major and

minor tones and has been called *the father of
temperament.* Claudius Ptolemy (b.c 150)
demonstrated the musical axiom which obtains
in modern thnes that the major tone should be
below the minor.

The Greeks had four modes or scales, the
Dorian, the Phrygian, the Lydian, and the Mito-
Lydian. The Dorian was set in the key of F
natural, and the rest were distinguished by-
analogous differences.

The ancient Greeks were passionately fond
of music, and elaborate treatises were written
by them on the science and art They did not
understand harmony, and Aristotle (384 b.c>
speaks of the only chorus singing known as that
of men singing a melody an eighth lower than
it was sung by boys, which of course would be
unison. Music was employed at Athens by
wandering epic minstrels; it was also common
in religious ceremonies, and to regulate the
movements of the army. It formed part of the
drama. We are told that ^Eschylus, the father
of tragedy, composed the music for his own
dramas and that Sophocles accompanied on the
lyre the performance of one of his plays.

Greek Philosophy, the various speculations
of the ancient Greeks with regard to the origin
of things. This is but a partial description of
the intellectual efforts made by the keen and
powerful minds of the ancient world to solve
those problems which science now-a-days is so>-
eagerly investigating. The origin of Greek
philosophy was the gradual disbelief that had
seized men's minds as to the truth of the ancient
poetical cosmogonies, and antique mythologies
of religion. Faith was dead and reason had
awakened. In the 7th century before our era r
in the flourishing city of Miletus, capital of
the Ionian colony, the first Greek philosopher
propounded the question which is still being
put, What is the basic substratum of all phe-
nomena? In our own days Huxley called it
protoplasm; Herbert Spencer said it was force.
Thales of Miletus (636 b.c.) declared it was
water, which to him seemed to permeate and
give life to all things. Thales was the first of
the Greek physicists, or materialists, and was
considered one of the Seven Wise Men of
Greece. He was the founder of the Ionian
School of Philosophy. He was succeeded irt
the long line oi philosophical inquirers by Anax^
imenes (529 b.c.) : who looking for the first ele-
ment, the first cause, found it in air. Air was
universal and must be the parent of all things*-
It was the breath of life and must therefore
be the source of it. Diogenes of Apollonia
(460 B.c) fixed upon a higher notion as the first
cause of things. He saw the ruling race of man-
kind prevailed over nature by their intelligence-
He decided that intelligence was the cause and
foundation of all things. In these speculations
as to the nature of the universe and its origin;
we come upon two remarkable men, Anaxt-
mander of Miletus (610 b.c) and Pythagoras^
who invented the word philosophy. The former
taught that all existence came from the infinite
-—a vague term, which did not mean the infinite
intelligence but the infinite existence. Pytha-
goras said that number was the first thing, from
which all else proceeded — a metaphysical ab-
straction, which almost defies analysis. Aristotle*
says the Pythagoreans ^taught that number was
the beginning of things, the cause of their mate*

Digitized by



rial existence, and of their modifications and
different states.*

The school of Eleatics is chiefly represented
by the poet Xenophanes (620 b.c). His phil-
osophic creed is thus described by Aristotle:
« Casting his eyes upward at the immensity of
heaven, he declared that The One was God.*
Reason and imagination led this thinker to be-
come at once a Monotheist and a Pantheist.
Parmenides who was born (536 B.C.) at Elea, a
city which gave its name to Eleatics, was the
first to make the great distinction between truth
and opinion, between the deductions of reason
and the impressions of sense. He made being
the basis of things, for non-being was impossible
—a discovery which at that stage in philosoph-
ical speculation was of great importance. Zeno,
another Eleatic, b. 500 b.c, who was the in-
ventor of logic, was persecuted and put to death
for free-thinking, and was a follower and dis-
ciple of Parmenides. Plato says that the mas-
ter proved the existence of the one ; the disciple
established the non-existence of the many. He
preserved his master's distinction between truth
and opinion. a Your senses,* he would say, € tell
you that there are many things existing; reason
avers that there is but one.**

A contemporary of Zeno was a man who be-
gan at Ephesus those speculations as to the
origin of the universe to which as preliminary
he added a theory on the origin of knowledge.
This was Heraclitus (503 b.c). He was a dis-
ciple of Xenophanes, and taught that fire is
the origin of everything, and there is no ex-
istence, but only change; things cannot be said
to be, but only to be becoming; processes and
not states formed the mode of existence. We
cannot know or name anything with truth, for
as we look at it, it changes, and is something
different from what we thought it.

Anaxagoras came from Clazomeroe to Athens
just when the age of Pericles was dawning; he
had indeed Pericles, Euripides, and Socrates as
his pupils. He attacked the patriotic religion
of the proud city and was banished to Lampsa-
cus. He thought that all sense — knowledge —
was delusive until corrected by reason. He be-
lieved that intelligence was the creative and reg-
ulating influence of the universe. Things as
they are were brought about by the concourse of
infinite atoms ; but these atoms were of all sorts,
and that like was united to like in an infinite
series of movement and combination; gold by
the union of gold atoms that had existed from
eternity, fires from fire atoms, air from atoms
of air. These atoms were the famous homceo-
meriae spoken of and condemned by Aristotle.
Empedocles (444 b.c.) was of the great city of
Agrigentum; in his views of knowledge he be-
longed to the Eleatics, and maintained that the
senses were fallible, while reason was a sure
guide to truth. He was a poet and declaimed
against anthropomorphic ideas of deity. He
gathered in one the doctrines of the Ionian
physicists declaring the primary elements were
four, namely, earth, air, fire and water. Love
was the formative principle of things, hate the
dissolver and destroyer. One was harmony, the
other discord, and God is the One, M a sphere
fixed in the bosom of harmony, rejoicing in calm

Democritus of Abdera (460 B.C.) was a rich
man who entertained Xerxes at his house. He

went one step further than Anaxagoras, and
almost entered the circle of our modern science
by teaching the atomic theory, namely that
everything in the world is the result of a fortui-
tous concourse of atoms, all of the same sub-
stance, but making various things through the
various forms they take in uniting. Color,
sweetness, cold, are the result not of substances
essentially differing; all is form.

All attempts had so far failed to solve the
problems of the material world, and of human
knowledge. Many theories were put forth, none
were universally accepted, although they were
each discussed. This brought the Sophists on
to the stage of philosophy — men who taught the
arts of discussion, not of investigation. One of
the greatest of them was Protagoras. He was
a disciple of Democritus, and taught that opinion

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