Wilfrid Richmond.

The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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was everything, a Man, the individual man, each
for himself, is the measure of all things.* The
Sophists were the first skeptics, but a new epoch
rose with Socrates (469 b.c). He was the most
remarkable man in all the Greek world; for his
love of disputation he was classed by some with
the Sophists, for his ridicule of traditional views
in religion and physics, he was condemned to
death — yet he succeeded in substituting morals
for physics as the subject of philosophy. He first
gave to philosophical methods the definition and
the inductive argument, or reasoning by analogy.
One of his disciples, Aristippus of Cyrene, while
ne followed the method of his master, founded
the Cyrenaic school which taught that pleasure
was the criterion of the true : Socrates had
taught that the good as judged by the individual
conscience was that criterion. Then followed the
Cynics, under Antisthenes, who went to the op-
posite extreme to Aristippus, became an ostenta-
tious ascetic, and in this was followed by Di-
ogenes of Sinope, who made his home in a cask
or tun, and tried to set the example of a rugged
virtue, which is misanthropic, but triumphant
over bodily appetite. It was left to Plato to ex-
hibit the complete adoption and application of the
Socratic method. He believed that in each man
resided the power of detecting the truth, from
having seen the perfection of things, in an ideal
world during a previous state of existence; he
could judge of the good and the beautiful here
from his memory of what their perfect arche-
types were. His voluminous writings enable us
to judge both of his ethical and political system,
but they both fail in practicality. His most
famous pupil was Aristotle (384 B.C.), a man of
encyclopedic mind, the first scientific observer,
the inventor of the syllogism. Plato was an
idealist and a rationalist; Aristotle a materialist
and an empiric. The one trusted to reason, the
other to experience. Aristotle always argued
against the ideal theory of his master, and de-
duced his conclusions from things as he saw
them. He invented grammar as well as logic,
and was in himself an epitome of the philosophic
learning of his predecessors. But by reasoning
from experience he had opened the way for the
skeptics, of whom the first was Pyrrho, who
taught that there is no criterion of truth. Phe-
nomena are mere appearances, how can we prove
they are anything else? This was what in
modern times is called agnosticism, for we can-
not prove and therefore cannot know the truth
of anything we see. But after this suicide of
philosophy in the school of Pyrrho, she revived
again as a moral mentor in the person of Ep>-



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GREEK THEATRE — GREELEY



euros, of Samos (342 B.c). He taught the high-
est good is pleasure; this is the moral end of
existence. He was controverted by the Stoics.
Zeno was their leader, a man of stern unbend-
ing character and abstemious life, whose aim was
to show that virtue consisted in manhood, and
manhood in the power to endure hardness and
to despise the body. Skepticism, indifference,
sensuality and epicurean softness were not to
be combated by the vague dreams of Plato, or
the cumbrous system of Aristotle. The .Stoic
attempted to meet the growing decadence by an
exactly opposite self-denial and impassive re-
serve. But Stoicism was egotistic; its aim was
the repression of feeling, It was apathy, death
in life. The last struggle of Greek philosophy
to dominate the mind of society was witnessed
in the rise of the New Platonists and their New
Academy. Carneades (213 b.c) was their most
illustrious representative, and he was the type
of a school that took up the doctrines of Plato,
expanded and enlarged them until the time when
Christianity appeared, and faith, not reason, as in
the old days seven hundred years before, dom-
inated the world of opinion. See Philosophy,
History of.

Greek Theatre, First in America, the gift
of William R. Hearst to the University of Cali-
fornia, is exactly similar in its proportions to the
famous theatre of Dionysus at Athens.

The structure was used for the first time at
the University of California commencement 1903
when President Roosevelt was the orator of the
day. It was then learned that every one of the
8,000 spectators seated in the theatre could hear
with perfect distinctness.

No roof shuts out the sunlight or starlight
from the audience. Situated right in the heart
of magnificent scenery, tall trees towering up
above the walls on all sides and the building
itself being an architectural gem, it will readily
be seen tnat very little stage scenery will be
needed when presenting the early plays which
will be given by university students and the lead-
ing actors of the world as soon as all is ready.

The entire structure is white; the hangings
will be a blending of the Greek and Roman
colors; but there will be very few decorations
used aside from architectural carvings, the splen-
dor of the place being in its dimensions and
simplicity.

Though this theatre is modeled in a general
way after the ancient classic buildings of a sim-
ilar character, no single historic example has
been literally followed. The theatre at Epidau-
rus, in Greece, however, offers many points of
similarity, notably in the difference of slope be-
tween the upper tiers of seats and the inner and
lower portions of the auditorium. The new
theatre is of approximately the same size as the
larger theatre at Pompeii.

The building is, as a whole, made up of two
separate and distinct parts, namely, the stage,
corresponding to the ancient logeion, and the
auditorium.

The floor of the stage is 133 feet wide and 28
feet deep. It is entirely open toward the audi-
torium and surrounded on the other three sides
by a wall 42 feet in height. This wall, which
corresponds with the ancient skene, is enriched
by a complete classic order of Greek Doric col-
umns with stylobate and entablature, the ends of
the side walls toward the auditorium forming
two nnassive pylons. Five openings pierce the



wail, the entrance m the centre of the back of
the stage being the most important — the so-
called royal door of the ancients. This is flanked
by two minor doors to the right and left, the two
remaining openings occurring on the return walls
at either end of the stage.

The auditorium or theatre proper is semi-
circular in form, 254 feet in diameter, and is di-
vided into two concentric series or tiers of seats.
The first series is arranged about a level circle
50 feet in diameter and $ l /% feet below the stage,
which corresponds to the space anciently devoted
to the chorus, orchestra, etc.

From this circle the receding rows of seats
step u^ gradually until the stage level is reached
at a circle corresponding in diameter with the
terminal pylons of the stage wall. This line is
marked architecturally by a passage, anciently
named the diazoma or diodos, running around
the semicircle of seats midway between the
orchestra and the topmost circle. The diazoma
is protected on its outer side by a wall, beyond
which the seats step up more steeply, approxi-
mately at an angle of 30 degrees with the hori-
zontal, to the outer limit of the theatre.

It is estimated that more than 7,000 persons
can be seated in the theatre proper. The stage
will accommodate some 600 more, a number
which can be readily added to by the temporary
extension of the stage floor toward the auditor-
ium.

Greeley, Horace, American journalist: b.
Amherst, N. H., 3 Feb. 181 1; d. Pleasantville,
N. Y., 29 Nov. 1872. More than 30 years after
his death, Horace Greeley's name remains at the
head of the roll of American journalists. Suc-
cessors in the primacy of current discussion may
surpass him, as doubtless some o\ them already
have, in consistency and learning, but hardly in
the chief essentials of a journalistic style; others
may exert a more salutary influence, if not so
personally diffused: but in the respect of high
ideals, courage, intellectual force, and personal
magnetism, the qualities which impel a man of
letters to be also a man of action, Horace Greeley
was of heroic mold. He was no pop-gun jour-
nalist firing from a sky-sanctum, but a face-to-
face champion in the arena of public affairs, lay-
ing about him with pen and speech like an
ancient Bayard with his sword. The battles he
fought for humanity, and the blows he gave and
received, have made him for all time the epic
figure of the American press.

Born in rural New Hampshire ? of English
and Scotch-Irish descent, he epitomized his
heritage and his attainment in the dedication o£
his autobiography a To our American boys, who,
born in poverty, cradled in obscurity, and early
called from school to rugged labor, are seeking
to convert obstacle into opportunity, and wrest
achievement from difficulty.*

Though physically a weak child, his intellect
was strong, and when near his tenth year his
father removed to Vermont, the boy took with
him the reputation of a mental prodigy ; so, with
little schooling and much reading, he was
thought when 14 to be a fit apprentice to a
printer, setting forth four years later as a jour
neyman. His parents had moved to western
Pennsylvania, and he followed ; but after a desul-
tory practice of his art he came to the metropolis
on August 17, 1831, with $10 in his pocket, and
so rustic in dress and manners as to fall under
suspicion of being a runaway apprentice. Later



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GREELEY



Id life, at least, his face and his figure would
feave lent distinction to the utmost elegance
of style : but his dress was so careless even after
the long period of comparative poverty was
passed, that the peculiarity became one of his
distinguishing features as a public character;
and to the last there were friends of little dis-
cernment- who thought this eccentricity was
studied affectation : but manifestly his dress, like
his unkempt handwriting was the unconscious
expression of a spirit so concentrated on the in-
tellectual interests of its life as to be oblivious
to mere appearances.

After 18 months of dubious success in New
York as a journeyman, in his 21st year, he joined
a friend in setting up a modest printing-office,
which on March 22, 1834, issued the < New
Yorker,* a literary weekly in the general style
of Willis' < Mirror, > under the firm name of H.
Greeley & Company. For four years the young
printer showed his editorial aptitude to such
good effect that in 1838 he was asked to con-
duct the < Jeffersonian, > a Whig campaign paper.
This was so effective that in 1840 he was en-
couraged to edit and publish the c Log-Cabin,*
a weekly which gained a circulation of 80,000,
brought him a reputation as a political writer,
and active participation in politics with the
Whig leaders, Gov. Seward and Thurlow
Weed. It contributed much to the election of
Gen. Harrison, but very little to the purse of
the ambitious editor. On April 10 of the fol-
lowing year, 1841, he issued the first number of
the New York Tribune, as a Whig daily of in-
dependent spirit. He was still editing the ( New-
Yorker > and the ( Log-Cabin, } both of which
were soon discontinued, the c Weekly Tribune )
in a way taking their place. Though the ( New-
Yorker* had brought him literary reputation, it
had not been profitable, because of uncollectible
bills which at the end amounted to $10,000.
Still, at the outset of the Tribune he was able to
count $2,000 to his credit in cash and material.
He was then 30 years of age, and for 30 years
thereafter the paper grew steadily in circulation,
influence, and profit, until, a few weeks after his
death, a sale of the majority interest indicated
that the ^good-wilP of the Tribune, aside from
its material and real estate, was held to be worth
about a million dollars. The Greeley interest,
was then small, since he had parted with most
of it to sustain his generous methods of giving
and lending.

He had great capacity for literary work, and
when absent for travel or business was a copious
contributor to his paper. To his rather delicate
physical habit was perhaps due his distaste for
all stimulants, alcoholic or otherwise, and his
adherence through "life to the vegetarian doc-
trines of Dr. Graham ; another follower of the
latter being his wife, Mary Young Cheney, also a
writer, whom he married in 1836. His moderate
advocacy of temperance in food and drink,
coupled with his then unorthodox denial of
eternal punishment, helped to identify him in the
public mind with most of the *isms* of the time,
including Fourierism and spiritualism; when in
fact his mind and his paper were merely open
to free inquiry, and were active in exposing
vagaries of opinion wherever manifested. Pro-
tection to American industry, and abolitionism,
were the only varieties which he accepted with-
out qualification : and while the pro-slavery party



detested him as a dangerous agitator, it is pos-
sible at this day even from their point of view
to admire the moderation, the candor, and the
gentle humanity of his treatment of the slavery
question. In all issues concerning the practical
affairs of life, like marriage and divorce, he was
guided by rare common-sense, and usually his
arguments were scholarly and moderate; but in
matters of personal controversy he was dis-
tinctly human, uniting with a taste for the in-
tellectual fray a command of facts, and a force
and pungency of presentation, which never seem
admirable in an opponent

He was in great demand as a lecturer and as
a speaker at agricultural fairs, his addresses al-
ways being distinguished by a desire to be help-
ful to working humanity and by elevated
motives. Though not a jester, genial humor and
intellectual exchange were characteristic of his
social intercourse. His books, with one or two
exceptions, were collections of his addresses and
newspaper articles. His first book, <Hints
Toward Reforms,* appeared in 1850, and was
followed by: <Glances at Europe* (1851) ; <A
History of the Struggle for Slavery Extension
or Restriction > (1856) ; <The Overland Jour-
ney to California* (1859) \ <An Address on
Success in Business* (1867) ; Recollections of
a Busy Life,* formed on a series of articles in
the New York < Ledger* (1869); < Essays De-
signed to Elucidate the Science of Political
Economy* (1870) ; < Letters from Texas and the
Lower Mississippi, and an Address to the Farm-
ers of Texas' (1871) ; < What I Know of Farm-
ing* (1871) ; and <The American Conflict,' writ-
ten as a book, the first volume appearing in
1864 and the second in 1867. This work on the
Civil War is remarkable, when considered in the
light of his purpose to show <( the inevitable
sequence whereby ideas proved the germ of
events 9 ; but it was hastily prepared, and while
strikingly accurate in the large sense, will not
bear scrutiny in some of the minor details of
war history.

Neither his political friends, nor his party,
nor the causes he espoused, could hold him to a
course of partisan loyalty contrary to his own
convictions of right and duty. As a member of
the Seward-Weed-Greeley ^triumvirate,* he
was often a thorn in the flesh of the senior
members; his letter of Nov. n, 1854, dissolving
a the political firm,* being one of the frankest
documents in the history of American politics.
During the Civil War he occasionally embar-
rassed Mr. Lincoln's administration by what
seemed then to be untimely cries of *On to
Richmond !* immediate emancipation, and peace.
On the whole, his influence for the Union cause
was powerful ; but when, the War being over, he
advocated general amnesty, and finally as an
object lesson went on the bail bond of Jefferson
Davis, he lost the support of a large body of his
most ardent anti-slavery admirers. The clamor
against him called forth a characteristic defiance
in his letter to members of the Union League
Club, who were seeking to discipline him. Hav-
ing further alienated the Republican party by
his general attitude in ^reconstruction* matters,
he became the logical candidate for the Presi-
dency, in 1872, of the Democrats at Baltimore
and the Liberal Republicans at Cincinnati, in op-
position to a second term for Gen. Grant
Though personally he made a brilliant canvass,



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GREELEY — GREEN



the influences at work in his favor were inhar-
monious and disintegrating! and the result was
a most humiliating defeat This he appeared to
bear with mental buoyancy, despite the affliction
of his wife's death, which occurred a week before
the election, he having left the stump in Sep-
tember to watch unremittingly at her bedside.
On November 6, the day after his defeat, he re-
sumed the editorship of the Tribune, which six
months before he had relinquished to Whitelaw
Reid. Thereafter he contributed to only four
issues of the paper, for the strain of his domestic
and political misfortunes had aggravated his
tendency to insomnia; on the 12th he was seri-
ously ill, and on the 29th he succumbed to in-
flammation of the brain. The last few months
of his eventful career supplied most of the ele-
ments essential to a Greek tragedy. On Decem-
ber 23, the Tribune having been reorganized,
with Mr. Reid in permanent control, there first
appeared at the head of the editorial page the
line ^Founded by Horace Greeley,* as a memo-
rial to the great journalist and reformer. A
bronze statue has been erected in the portal of
the new Tribune office, and another statue in the
angle made by Broadway and Sixth Avenue,
appropriately named *Greeley Square,* after the
man wh^ was second to no other citizen in
establishing the intellectual ascendency of the
metropolis. Clarence Clough Buel.

Greeley, Colo., city, county-seat of Weld
County; on the Cache la Foudre River, the
Union P. and the C. & S. Railroads; about 50
miles north of Denver. The place was settled
in 1870 by the ^Greeley Colony* (named after
Horace Greeley), made up mainly of New Eng-
land people. By irrigation they have made of
the almost barren region an excellent agricul-
tural country. It is the seat of a State Normal
School The chief manufactures are flour, beet-
sugar, and lumber. Its trade is in its manufac-
tured articles, also sheep, cattle, grain, and vege-
tables. Pop. (1910) 8,179.

Greely, Adolphus Washington, American,
Arctic explorer: b. Newburyport, Mass., 27
March 1844. After receiving a high school edu-
ction he enlisted as a private in the 19th Massa-
chusetts volunteer infantry, serving in the Civil
War from 1861 to 1865. He entered the regular
army in 1867 as second lieutenant and was ap-
pointed to the signal service. In 1881 he was put
m command of an Arctic expedition, organized
to carry out the plan of establishing circumpolar
stations in accordance with the recommendations
of the International Geographical Congress held
at Hamburg in 1879. The exploring party made
their headquarters for two years at Discovery
Harbor, Grinnell Land. In an expedition made
by a detailed party, the highest point north at-
tained up to that date, 83 24', was reached. On
his way back he reached Cape Sabine with great
•difficulty, and during the winter of 1883 lost,
through cold and famine, all but seven of his
•twenty-five companions. Meanwhile Com. Win-
Jield 5. Schley had been despatched on a relief
expedition, and in June 1884 rescued them at
Cape Sabine. From his services to geographical
science Lieutenant Greely was awarded the
Founder's Medal of the Royal Geographical So-
ciety, and the Roquette Medal by the Society de
Geographie of Paris. He was promoted cap-
tain in the United States Army, in 1887 be-
came chief signal officer, with the rank of brig-



adier-general ; in 1906 major-general; and re-
tired 27 March 1008. Consult: Greely * Three
Years of Arctic Service > (1886); Schley, <The
Rescue of Greely> (1885).

Green, Alice Sophia Amelia (Stophord),
English historian: b. Kells, Ireland, 1849. She
was privately educated. In 1877 she was married
to J. R. Green (q.v.) the well-known historian.
She collaborated with him in C A Short Geogra-
phy of the British Islands* C1879), edited his
< Conquest of England 5 (1883;, prepared a re-
vised edition (1888) and, with Miss K. Norgate,
a finely illustrated edition (1892) of the < Short
History of the English People.* Her original
works are <Henry II. > (1888) and <Town Life
in the Fifteenth Century* (1894).

Green, Andrew Haswell, American law-
yer: b. Worcester, Mass., 6 Oct 1820; d. 13
Nov. 1903. He studied law, practised his pro-
fession in New York, and was there president of
the board of commissioners of education, and
comptroller (1871-6). In the latter capacity
he re-established the municipal credit, seriously
impaired by the embezzlements of die Tweed
ring. He originated in 1868 the plan for
Greater New York, executed in 1897, and also
devised the plan for the consolidation of the
Astor, Lenox, and Tilden foundations as the
New York Public Library. He also assisted in
establishing the American Museum of Natural
History and the Metropolitan Museum of Art,
and founded and became president of the New
York Zoological Society. He was shot by Cor-
nelius M. Williams, a negro, pronounced insane.
It developed that he lost his life through re-
semblance to another against whom the as-
sassin had a supposed grievance.

Green, Anna Katharine. See Rohlfs,
Anna K. G.

Green, Ashbel, American Presbyterian
clergyman: b. 6 July 1762; d. 19 May 1848. He
was graduated from the College of New Jersey
(now Princeton University) in 1783, and ap-
pointed tutor and subsequently professor of
mathematics and natural ohilosophy in that in-
stitution, which latter position he held for a year
and a half. In 1786 he was licensed to preach
and took up ministerial work in Philadelphia.
From 1792 to 1800 he was chaplain to Congress,
and m 1809 took a prominent part in forming
the Philadelphia Bible Society, the earliest insti-
tution of the kind in the United States. He
drafted the constitution of the Princeton theolog-
ical seminary, of which he was one of tie orig-
inators, and in 1812 was elected president of
Princeton College. In 1822 he resigned this
office and returned to Philadelphia to edit the ^
^Christian Advocated a religious monthly. For
half a century he waa one of the leading men in
the Presbyterian Church. Among his many
writings are discourse Delivered in the College
ot New Jersey, with a History of the College*
(1822) ; history of Presbyterian Missions > ;
< Lectures on the Shorter .Catechism. >

Green, Bartholomew, American publisher:
b. Cambridge, Mass., 1666; d. 1732. He pub-
lished the first newspaper that appeared in the
American colonies, and succeeding to his father's
business at Cambridge extended it at Boston,
where the office of the 'Boston News Letter*
was situated. The proprietor and editor was
John Campbell, postmaster of Boston. He event-



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GREEN



ually bought in the paper, which became notable
for outspokenness on topics of religion and pol-
itics.

Green, Beriah, American abolitionist: b.
New York State 1794 ; d. 1874. He was educated
at Middlebury College, Vermont, became pro-
fessor of sacred literature in Western Reserve
College in 1821, but was compelled to resign
in a few months through the opposition aroused
by his anti-slavery views. He was for many
years president of the Oneida Institute, Ohio.
He was a great friend 01 William Lloyd Garri-
son, and exerted a wide influence in abolitionist
circles. Among his writings are 'History of the
Quakers > (1823).

Green, Duff, American politician and jour-
nalist: b. Woodford County. Ky., 1791 ; d- Wal-
ton, Ga., 1875. He served with the Kentucky
militia in the War oi 1812; after the admission
of Missouri as a State was appointed State Sen-
ator (1823), and became editor and proprietor
oi the St. Louis Enquirer. In 1825 hr removed
to Washington, D C, where he purchased the
United States Telegraph. This became the ad-
ministration organ, and Green rose to high favor
with President Jackson. He was a member of
the "Kitchen Cabinet* After the rupture be-
tween Calhoun and Jackson, the Telegraph as
the organ of tin nullificationists bitterly attacked
Jackson. After some years spent in Europe he
returned to the United States (1844) and edited
a short-livec newspapei in New York. During
the latter years of his life he was actively en-
gaged in promoting the development of the



Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 61 of 185)