Wilfrid Richmond.

The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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South, and was one ot the founders of the town
of Dalton. Ga.

Green, Hetty Howland Robinson, Ameri-
can financier: b. New Bedford, Mass.. 21 Nov.
1835. She is the richest woman in America and
probably the boldest and ablest woman financier
of her time. Although she has an interest in
nearly every large corporation and important
enterprise in the world, she manages personally
her own property in stocks, bonds, and real es-
tate in Chicago, New York and elsewhere.

Green, Jacob, American Presbyterian cler-
gyman: b. Maiden, Mass., 1722; d. 1796. He be-
came president of the College of New Jersey in
1757, and in 1775, as a member of the New Jer-
sey Provincial Congress, was chairman of the
committee chosen to prepare a State Constitu-
tion. He suggested in print a scheme for the re-
demption of the Continental currency, closely re-
sembling that which Congress later adopted.

Green, John Cleve, American merchant
and philanthropist: b. Lawrenceville, Mercer
County, N. J., 14 April 1800; d. New York 28
April 1875. He entered a counting-house in New
York, went as supercargo to South America and
China, and in 1833 became a member of the firm
of Russell & Co. at Canton. In 1839 he re-
turned to New York, where he continued in the
Chinese trade. For many years he was a director
of the Chamber of Commerce, and officially con-
nected with numerous .public and charitable in-
stitutions. He was liberal in his gifts, particu-
larly to New York University, and Princeton
University. At Princeton he established (1875)
the Tohn C. Green School of Science by the gift
of $50,000, subsequently increased by the res-
iduary legatees. In this school instruction is
given in general science, civil engineering, and
electrical engineering. The courses are four

years in length and lead to the degrees of bach-
elor of science, civil engineer and master of
science. In 1902-3 the number of students iir
this department was 505. The endowed pro-
prietary school for boys at Lawrenceville, N. J.
was re-established in 1882 upon a gift from the
executors oi his estate known as 'The John C.
Greer Foundation. *

Green, John Richard, English historian:
b. Oxford 1037 * d\ Mentone, France, 7 May 1883
He was graduated in 1859 from Jesus College,
Oxford, where, since the study of modern his-
tory had not yet taken any considerable place
in the university the officers failed of sympathy
with his preference for Matthew Paris to the
classics. In 186c he was ordained deacon and
became curate of St. Barnabas, London, in 1863,
was appointee to Holy Trinity, Hoxton, and in.
1866 to St. Philip's. Stepney. Failing health and
increasingly liberal views caused him to with-
draw from clerical life, and from 1869 he was
librarian at Lambeth. His first literary work of
importance consisted of articles, especially brief
essays, on historical subjects, in the 'Saturday
Review.* In 1874. after having been twice re-
written, his 'Short History of the English Peo-
ple* appeared. This work unified English history
as no other had yet done. 'What Macaulay had
done for a period of English history^* says
Creighton, ' Green did for it as a whole.*
Green's purpose was to exhibit the development
of popular life by a description of the leading
manifestations of social progress. The book was
skilful in arrangement and artistic in style, and
met with an instant and large success. The
author expanded it into his 'History of the Eng
lish People* (1877-80), not only to secure
greater fulness but also to defend views merely'
stated in the smaller work. He then attempted
a history for scholars, of which but two parts
were published — 'The Making of England*
(1882), which extends from Britain as left by
the Romans to the consolidation under Egbert,
and secured his fame as a critical historian, par-
ticularly through his method of employing
archaeology for the purposes of history; and
'The Conquest of England* (1883), which con-
tinued the narrative to the arrival of the Nor-
mans. Green's influence on historical studies
in England was very great, and his 'Short His-
tory* and 'History* still hold a foremost rank.
The Oxford Historical Society and the 'Eng-
lish Historical Review* were originally suggest©!
by him; and he further published: 'StrayStud-
ies in England and Italy* (1876), a reprint of
early papers; 'Readings from English History*
(1879), a series of extracts; 'A Short Geogra-
phy of the British Isles* ( 1880) ; and an edition
of Addison's 'Essays* (1881). His 'Letters*
were published in 1901.

Green, Joseph, American poet: b. Boston,
Mass., 1706; d. London, England, 11 Dec. 1780.
He was graduated at Harvard 1726* and was
famous for his wit and satirical powers. During
the War of the Revolution he was prominent
on the Loyalist side. His works include: 'The
Wonderful Lament of Old Mr. Tenor* (1744) ;
'Poems and Satires* (1780).

Green, Seth, American pisciculturist: b.
Irondequoit, N. Y., 10 March 18x7 ; d. Rochester,
N. Y., 20 Aug. 1888. He learned the natural
history necessary for his profession from ob-
servation and private reading; and began his

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life's work by the artificial hatching of trout roe.
He was looked upon as the leading expert in
this department of fish culture, but his first
great triumph in new fields came with his suc-
cess in the reproduction of shad. The Seth
Green shad-hatching box was invented in 1867,
and, although it has been superseded, by this
device shad culture was first demonstrated to be
possible and its inventor must be looked upon
as the pioneer in this difficult department of
pisciculture. The Connecticut River was re-
stocked by means of this invention. In 1868 he
was made fish commissioner for the State of
New York, and the following year undertook
the artificial reproduction of whitefish. He
was successful in his experiments, and was
acknowledged as one of the fathers of fish cul-
ture in the United States. From 1870 until his
death he was superintendent of the state hatch-
ery at Caledonia, N. Y.

Greett, Thomas Hill, English philosopher:
b. Birkin, Yorkshire, 7 April 1836; d. Oxford,
15 March 1882. He was educated at Rugby and
Oxford; was elected fellow at Balliol in 1862,
the first lay tutor on that foundation (1867),
and in 1878 Whyte professor of moral philoso-
phy in the university. His principal work as a
philosopher was the foundation of the so-called
Neo-Hegelian School. He is supposed to have
been taken by Mrs. Ward as a model for her
Mr. Gray in Robert Elsmere* ; but the resem-
blance is by no means complete, as Mr. Gray's
work is undoubtedly, as he appears in ( Robert
Elsmere,' rather that of a destructive literary
critic than a constructive philosopher. His works
include: introduction to Hume's Treatise
of Human Nature* (1874); and Prolegomena
to Ethics > (1883.)

Green Bay, Wis., a city and county-seat
of Brown County, situated at the head or
southern point of the bay of the same name,
and at the mouth of the Fox River, on the
Chicago & Northwestern, Chicago, Milwaukee
& St. Paul, the Green Bay & Western R. R.'s.

Commerce and Industry.— Green Bay has
an extensive commerce. Twenty- four passen-
ger trains arrive daily over the four railroads
entering the city. An extensive lake traffic is
also carried on, the harbor, through govern-
ment appropriations, having been made access-
ible to the largest vessels upon the Great Lakes.
Coal constitutes the largest single import,
Green Bay being an advantageous distributing
point. The largest export by way of the lakes
is grain, although much lumber has hitherto
been shipped out. A line of excursion steamers
is also run to nearby summer resorts and to
Mackinac and the <f Soo. i> The city is provided
with a complete electric railway system, includ-
ing an interurban line up the Fox River valley
to Kaukauna, where a junction is made with
another electric line passing through Appleton,
Neenah, Oshkosh and Fond du Lac. A light
and power plant furnishes gas for lighting and
heating and electricity for light and power,
many electric motors now being in use. There
are a number of manufacturing plants — 3 large
breweries, 2 paper mills and 1 sulphite mill,
2 large saw mills,- 2 planing mills, 1 very large
canning factory, 1 shoe factory, 1 glove factory.
1 pure milk factory, 1 furniture factory, 2
woodenware factories, 3 machine shops, 1 candy
and biscuit factory, 1 pickle factory, 1 coffin
factory, 1 carriage factory, 1 cornice factory,

1 paper-box factory. Several jobbing and
wholesale houses do a large business, the most
important being a grocery house, a hardware
house, and a crockery house. An extensive
fish-shipping business is also carried on. Water
is supplied from artesian wells by a private

Educational Institutions, Etc. — Green Bay
has a number of fine public buildings, the Kel-
logg library, the Federal Buildings, Saint
Joseph's Academy, three Hospitals, and just
outside the city limits the State Reform School.
The public school svstem had (1910) 2 high
schools and 13 ward schools, employing 106
teachers. There are also several parish schools,
graded in the same manner as the public
schools. There are 6 Roman Catholic churches,

2 Baptist 2 Congregational, 1 Episcopal, 2
Evangelical, 2 Lutheran, 4 Methodist, 2
Moravian, 2 Presbyterian, and 1 Christian

History. — Green Bav, the oldest town in
Wisconsin, was first visited in 1634 by Jean
Nicollet, who had been sent by Champlain,
governor of New France, to find the rumored
short route to China. The site was a favorable
one for an Indian village as well as a landing
place for explorers and missionaries. It is
known that Marquette, Joliet, Allouez, and Tonti
spent considerable time here. The town was
therefore settled by the French, who im-
pressed their character upon it for over 200
years, although it fell into the hands of the
English at the close of the French and Indian
war in 1763. In 1816 the Americans established,
a fort on the opposite side of the river, known
as Fort Howard, around which a prosperous
town of the same name grew up. In 189s
Fort Howard was annexed to Green Bay, and
is now known as the West-Side.

Government, Etc. — The government of the
city is administered by a mayor and common
council, the latter consisting of sixteen members,
elected ior two years, two from each ward.
Assessed valuation: Lots exclusive of build-
ings, $4,150,235; buildings, $4,279,740; personal
property, $2,827,140; total (1010), $11,466,285.
Pop. (1910) 25,236. A w Burton,

Superintendent of Schools.

Green Bay, an arm of Lake Michigan, on
the southwestern coast of the upper peninsula
of Michigan and the eastern coast of Wisconsin.
It is 120 miles long, from 10 to 20 miles wide^
has an average depth of about 100 feet. Fox
River, the outlet of Lake Winnebago, enters the
bay at its head, at the city of Green Bay. The
bay is navigable for the largest lake steamers.
The largest cities on the bay are Green Bay
and Marinette, in Wisconsin, and Menominee
and Escanaba in Michigan.

Green Cove Springs, Fla., town, county-
seat of Clay County; on the St. John's River,
the Jacksonville, T. & K. W. railroad. It con-
tains a warm sulphur spring noted for its medic-
inal properties. The trade is chiefly in fruits,
vegetables, and lumber. Pop. (1010) 1,319.

Green Island, N. Y., a village of Albany
County, on an island in the Hudson River op-
posite Troy, on the Delaware & H. and the New
York C. & H. R. R.R.'s. It is connected with
Watervlict and Troy by bridges; and has iron
manufactories, machine shops and railroad car
shops. Pop. (1910) 4.737-

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Green Manuring, the agricultural practice
of plowing under crops while succulent in order
that they may enrich the surface layer by their
decay. It is of ancient origin and wide pop-
ularity, especially in mild climates; less in trop-
ical than it should be. The objects gained are
the opening of the soil and especially the sub-
soil by the roots of deep feeding plants ; the rais-
ing of plant food from the lower strata to the
surface layer and the saving of available plant
food in the surface layer, material that would
leach away beyond the reach of shallow-rooted
plants; the addition of humus to the soil by
the decay of the plants ; and, with certain crops,
the addition of nitrogenous foods obtained from
the air. As the plants decay they also act upon
insoluble plant food in the soil and make it
available. They belong to two classes: (i)
shallow-rooted plants such as rye, buckwheat,
mustard, rape, etc., which are specially useful
on hard and poor soils open the way for more
exacting crops; (2) deep-rooted plants such as
clover, cow-pea, velvet bean, vetch and other
leguminous plants which are still further useful
because of their power of obtaining nitrogen
from the air. See Clover; Fertilizers; Legum-
inous Plants; Manures and Manuring;
Root-Tubercles ; Soil, and articles on the crops

Green Monkeys, three similar species of
small African monkeys, often seen in menageries,
and representing the genus Cercopithecus, may
properly be called green monkeys because of the
prevailing tint of their fur. The one most com-
monly seen is C. callitrichus, the size of a cat, and
remarkable for its unbroken silence. The vervet
(C. lalandi) is smaller, grayish green, reddish
white on the cheeks, throat and underparts, while
the face, paws and end of the tail are jet black.
It is common all over South Africa, where no
other species of its large genus are found. The
grivet (C. griseoviridis) is speckled olive-green,
with a whitish forehead, chin and rump; it
dwells in Abyssinia and is not numerous. All
these monkeys, at least when young, are exceed-
ingly docile and good-natured in captivity.

Green Mountain Boys, the regiments of
Vermont settlers raised to defend the New
Hampshire grantees against the efforts of New
York to oust them or collect quit-rents, and later
for service in the Revolution. See Allen,

Green Mountain State, a popular name for
the State of Vermont, from its being crossed by
the Green Mountains. See Green Mountains;

Green Mountains, a range belonging to
the Appalachian system properly extending from
near Long Island Sound through the western
part of Connecticut and Massachusetts, into Ver-
mont and Canada. In the State of Vermont the
range is known as Green Mountains ; but south,
in Massachusetts and Connecticut, it is called by
the names Berkshire Hills, Taconic Mountains,
and Hoosac Mountains. The peaks of this range,
one of the oldest in North America, have been
worn down by erosion and weathering, until in
many places they have become low, round hills.
Their greatest elevation is in Vermont; Mounts
Killington, Mansfield, Camels Hump, Lincoln,
and Jay being the highest. Summit, a hamlet
in the town of Mount Holly, in Rutland County,

is the highest point crossed by a railroad. Some
of the best building stone in the country is ob-
tained from the Green Mountains. Granite and
marble exist in large quantities, and on the west-
ern slope are layers of red sandstone. Iron and
slate abound, and copper and manganese are
found in several places. The range forms the
divide between the basin of the Connecticut on
the east and the Lake Champlain and Hudson
River basins on the west. The rivers rising in
the Green Mountains are short streams, but their
water-power is abundant. In the fertile valleys
are rich farms, and sheep and cattle are raised
on the uplands. The hemlock, spruce, pine, and
other evergreens which form striking parts of the
forests, have given the name to this range. Hard
wood trees and the sugar maple are found on
both the east and west slopes of the mountains.
The beauty of the scenery and the climate make
the Green Mountains a place much frequented
in summer by tourists.

Green River, in Kentucky, has its rise in
Lincoln County, flows south and west to Adair
County; west, a very irregular course, to Butler
County ; then northwest to the Ohio River which
it enters a few miles above Evansville, In<L It
is about 350 miles long, and is navigable for
small steamers for a distance of about 200 miles
from the Ohio; but for a part of this distance
artificial means have been used to make it nav-
igable. In Edmonson County this river passes
within 80 feet of the mouth of Mammoth Cave.
The subterranean stream called Echo River,
which is seen in connection with the Mammoth
Cave, flows into Green River.

Green River, in Utah, has its rise in the
western part of Wyoming, flows south and east
into Colorado, south and west into Utah, then in
a southern direction to the southeastern part of
the State where it unites with the Grand to form
the Colorado River. Major Powell (q.v.) and
other explorers have passed through several of
the remarkable canons of this river. Its length
is about 525 miles.

Green Snake, in the United States, a very
slender, agile, harmless, grass-green, yellow-
bellied serpent (Liopeltis vernalis), which is not
only common in grassy places but in bushes, its
color concealing it well in both places. It feeds
mainly on insects. Several poisonous serpents
of the far East, are called tf green snakes* by
English-speaking residents on account of their

Green Springs, Va., Battle of, 6 July 1781.
Lafayette, reinforced by Steuben, was pressing
close on Cornwallis' rear down York peninsula ;
and the advance-guard under Wayne came un-
expectedly upon an entire division of the British
at Green Springs, on the James River. Imme-
diate retreat meaning destruction, he charged
them so fiercely that Cornwallis, thinking the
entire American army was upon him, merely re-
pelled the assaulting party and drew off his men,
while Wayne retreated in the other direction.
The American loss was 145.

Green Vitriol. See Copperas.

Green'away, Kate, English artist: b. Lon-
don 1846; d. there 8 Nov. 1901. She studied
at Heatherley's, South Kensington, and the Slade
School, and first exhibited in 1868 at the Dudley
Gallery. For many years her work regularly
appeared in the exhibitions of the Water Color

Digitized by



Society and the Academy. Her illustrations
were widely published and popular in the United
States as well as in Great Britain. She became
especially famous for her pictures of child life,
characterized by individuality of design, skilful
coloring, and humorous touches. Her books
include <A Painting Book for Boys and Girls y
and < Kate Greenaway Birthday Book.*

Greenback-Labor Party, or National Party.
The workingmen during the a panic years 5
(i874r-8) increasingly resorted to political activ-
ity to right their grievances, and in Ohio in 1877
began to call their local organization the •Na-
tional Party. * In Massachusetts and Pennsyl-
vania they fused with the- Greenback Party
(q.v.). On 22 Feb. 1878, at Toledo.. Ohio, they
held a convention which organized the fusion as
the ^National Party ; B but the popular name for
it was the old fusion name tf Greenback- Labor. 8
Their platform was the Greenback one, with
planks against prison contract labor and in favor
of legislation for shorter hours. The new organ-
ization awakened hopes in the hopeless minorities
in several States where the majority, Republican
or Democratic, could not be overturned; and
they organized fusions with it, which raised it
at once to a popular vote (apparently) of over
1,000,000, and elected 14 Congressmen. In the
close States .ach old party kept its own vote,
with a slight falling off to the new one. The
party proper elected but two representatives, five
of the 14 being really Republicans and seven
Democrats. In 1880 (0-10 June) it held a na-
tional convention at Chicago, and nominated
James B. Weaver of Iowa, and B. J. Chambers
of Texas, for President and Vice-President;
Chambers declined, but no substitute was nomi-
nated. The platform had all the old planks in
substance, and new ones against Chinese immi-
gration, land-grants to railroads, and favors to
corporations and bondholders, and in favor of
sanitary regulations for manufactories. The
fusions had largely disappeared, and the popu-
lar vote sunk to 306,867, and the Congressmen
to eight; four from Missouri, two from Maine,
one from New York, and one from Texas. It
retained its organization till r884,when it fused
with the Anti-Monopoly Party (q.v.) and nomi-
nated Benjamin F. Butler for the Presidency,
polling in all 175,380 votes. It then practically

Greenback Party (its own name Independ-
ent Party), 1874-6. The prosperity of western
agriculture during the War, due largely to the
heavy government purchases and the payability
of mortgages in depreciated paper, was attributed
by a large section there to the plentifulness of
the paper by itself; hence, when hard times had
succeeded, it was believed that a fresh inflation
of greenbacks would reproduce the same condi-
tions. The chief obstacle to this was thought to
be the eastern banking interests, which, having
bought government bonds in greenbacks, had ob-
tained the act of 1869 making them payable in
coin whether so specified or not ; and should have
been forced to take what they gave, the more
since paper was now at par and their bonds were
not taxed. By 1868 the Ohio Democrats, led by
George H. Pendleton, were insisting on the pay-
ment in greenbacks of all bonds not specifically
payable in coin, as the 5-20's ; this was called the
*Ohio Idea.* Western Democratic conventions
placed this plank in their platforms for three

or four years, but the nomination of Greeley put
an end to that in 1872. The revival of greenback-
ism is often attributed to the silver demonetiza-
tion act of 1873 1 but in fact silver was above par
at that time, the act drew no general attention,
and but for the later fall in sjlver probably never
would have done so. The real cause was the
bringing forward of the Resumption Act, massed
14 Jan. 1875, to take effect 1879. On 25 Nov.
1874 a Greenback convention was hc.d to protest
against it, and adopted three resolutions — (1)
that all bank and corporation currency should
be withdrawn; (2) that no currency be allowed
except government paper *based on the faith and
resources of the nation,* and exchangeable on
demand for 3.65 per cent bonds; (3) that coin
should be paid only for interest on the national
debt, and for that part of the principal which
promised it. Several Democratic conventions in-
dorsed these; but in 1876 the prospect of the
hard-money Tilden being the next Presidential
candidate, led the party to form an organization
of its own. At a convention at Indianapolis, 17
May, they nominated Peter Cooper of New York
and Newton Booth of California for President
and Vice-President ; Booth declined, and Samuel
F. Cary of Ohio was substituted. The platform,
besides the three points above, demanded the re-
peal of the Resumption Act. The ticket polled
8i,737 votes, over half of them in Michigan,
Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Kansas. In the State
elections the next year the party polled 187,095
votes, but the main strength continued to be in
the West The next year it was absorbed in
the Greenback-Labor Party (aw.).

Greenbacks (as printed in green ink), the
current name, from the first, of the legal-tender
notes first issued by the government during the
Civil War. (See Debt, National.) The autho-
rizing act was signed by Lincoln 25 Feb. 1862; it
was the first ever passed by Congress making
anything but coin legal tender, and nearly all the
Democrats and many Republicans declared it un-
constitutional. But war necessities were too
exigent, and the bill authorized $150,000,000 of
the notes, not receivable for import dues nor
payable by the government as interest on its ob-
ligations. On 11 June 1862 and 3 March 1863
further issues were authorized; and on 3 Jan.
1864 they reached their maximum amount of
$449»338»902. The great inflation, the uncertain
fortunes of the War, and the belief that even
if victorious the United States neither could nor
would pay its enormous debt at face value, but
would repudiate or scale it, combined to depre-
ciate the value of the notes; throughout 1864
they were worth on an average only about 45
cents on the dollar, and on one day, 11 July,
when Early was threatening Washington, they
dropped in panic to about 35 cents — or as cur-

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 62 of 185)