Wilfrid Richmond.

The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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in a coal-mining, coking and natural gas region ;
and contains a steam-heating apparatus factory,
steel works, glass works, nut and bolt works,
and has three National banks. It is the seat of
St. Joseph's Academy. In Hanna's Town, which
was near the present Greensburg. was held
0773) the first regularly organized court of
justice west of the Alleghany Mountains. Han-
na's Town was destroyed by the Indians in 1782.
Pop. (1910) 13,012.

Green'shank, a large species of sandpiper
(Totanus glottis) breeding in the northern parts



of the Old World, and migrating far southward.
Several allied species of similar habits, occur in
America, of which the greater and lesser yellow-
legs (q.v.) are familiar to gunners.

Greenslet, Ferris, American writer: b.
Glens Falls, N. Y., 30 June 1875. He was edu-
cated at VVesleyan University and beside con-
tributions to reviews has published c Joseph
Glanville : a Study in English Thought and Let-
ters of the 17th Century > (1900).

Green'sttck Fracture, the name given to a
fracture of a bone when continuity is not en-
tirely severed one portion of the bone remaining
unbroken or bent. The leg and arm bones of
children are particularly liable to this fracture.

Green'atone, formerly a granular rocky
consisting of hornblende and imperfectly crystal-
lized feldspar, the feldspar being more abundant
than in basalt, and the grains or crystals of the
two minerals more distinct from each other. It
was called also dolorite. Sir Charles Lyell in-
cluded under the term greenstone those rocks
in which augite was substituted for hornblende,
the "olorite* of some writers, and those in which
albite replaced common feldspar. This was
sometimes termed andesite. The term is now
used the same as diorite, which is an essentially
crystalline granular admixture of triclinic feld-
spar and hornblende. It is not now held to be
the equivalent of dolorite. In geology, volcanic
rock, occurring in dykes, tabular masses, etc.

Greensville, Ala., city, county-seat of But-
ler County; on the Louisville & N. R.R.; about
77 miles northeast of Mobile. Its chief manu-
factures are lumber and furniture ; it has a cot-
ton-gin, and its trade consists principally in cot-
ton and lumber. Pop. (1910) 3,377.

Greenville, 111., city, county-seat of Bond
County; on the Vandalia & T. H., and the
Louisville J. & St. L. R.R-'s ; about 42 miles east
of Alton. It is the seat of Greenville College,
under the auspices of the Free Methodist
Church. The chief manufactures are flour, lum-
ber, wagons, and carriages, bricks, and in ad-
dition to its manufactured articles, it has con-
siderable trade in coal, from the coal-fields of
the vicinity, and in the agricultural products of
the surrounding country. Pop. (1910) 3,178.

Greenville, Mich., city, in Montcalm
County, on the Flat River, the Toledo, S. & M.
and the Pere M. R.R.'s; about 42 miles north-
east of Grand Rapids. Its chief manufactures
are lumber, flour, agricultural and lumbering
implements, ^ refrigerators and furniture. Its
trade is in its own manufactured products and
m the agricultural products of the surrounding
country. Pop. (1910) 4.045.

Greenville/ Miss., city, county-seat of
Washington County; on the Mississippi River,
the Southern and the Yazoo & M. V. R.R.'s;
about 139 miles south of Memphis. It contains
several cottonseed-oil-, saw-, and planing-mills,
a national bank, and has steamboat connection
with all important ports on the river, and a
large cotton trade. Pop. (1910) 9,610.

Greenville, Ohio, city, county-seat of
Darke County; on Greenville Creek, and the
Cincinnati, J. & M. the Dayton & U., and the
Pittsburg, C, C & St I* R.R.'s; 35 miles north
of Dayton. It is noted as the site of Anthony
Wayne's treaty with the Indians, 3 Aug. 179s



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GREENVILLE — GREENWOOD



In the early part of the 19th century Tecumseh
(q.v.) lived here, in a little Indian village. It
has a foundry, lumber mills, and machine shops,
and is the trade centre for a large agricultural
section. Pop. (1910) 6,237.

Greenville. Pa., borough, in Mercer
County; on tne Shenango River, the Erie, the
Pennsylvania, and the Pittsburg, B. & ii E.
R.R.'s; about 52 miles southeast of Erie. The
Shenango furnishes an abundance of good wa-
ter-power. The chief industrial interests are
flour-mills, woolen-mills, saw- and planing-
mills, foundries, machine-shops, railroad-shops,
carriage and wagon works, tube-mills, machin-
ery for oil-wells, and coal-mining. The coal
and oil fields and the stone-quarries in the vi-
cinity add to the industries of the town. # The
trade of the town is considerable, as it is the
commercial centre of a large section of Mer-
cer County and places nearby in Ohio. Green-
ville was formerly the seat of Thiel College,
opened in 1870 under the auspices of the Lu-
theran Church. Pop. (1890) 3,674; (iooo)
4,814; (1910) 5,009.

Greenville, S. C, city, county-seat of
Greenville County; on the South Carolina & G.,
the Southern, the Atlantic C. L. R.R.'s.; 153
miles northwest of Columbia. It is the seat of
Furman University (Baptist), Greenville Col-
lege for Women, Chicora Female College (Pres-
byterian), Greenville Female College (Baptist),
a military institute, and a business college. It
has cotton mills, carriage and wagon works,
iron, works, and flour mills. Pop. (1910)

I5 ' 741 '

Greenville, Texas, city, county-seat of

Hunt County; on the St. Louis Southwestern,
the Texas Midland, and the Missouri, Kansas
& Texas R.R.'s; about 235 miles north of
Houston and 51 miles northeast of Dallas.
Greenville was settled in 1844 and incorporated
in 1875. It is situated in an agricultural and
stock-raising section. The chief industrial in-
terests are connected with cotton and live stock.
It has cotton-compresses, cottonseed-oil mills,
flour mills, machine-shops, stock-yards, and
brick-yards. It is the trade centre for a large
extent of country and has a large cotton trade.
It is the seat of Burleson College, under the
auspices of the Baptist Church, and of Holiness
College. Greeneville was one of the sixteen
cities of Texas which, by 191 1, had commis-
sion government. The electric-light plant is
owned and operated by the city. Pop. (1890)
4,330; (1000) 6,860; (1910) 8,850.

Greenville (Ohio), Treaty of, 7 Aug.
1795. A treaty between the United States and
all the Northwestern Indian tribes; the former
represented by Anthony Wayne, who had de-
feated the Indians in the campaign of 1794,
especially at the battle of the Fallen Timbers
(q.v.). A full delegation was present from
every hostile tribe, the whole numbering 1,130.
They surrendered to the whites all southern
Ohio and southeastern Indiana, with lands
around Fort Wayne, Fort Defiance, Detroit,
Michillimackinac, and the French towns, and
150,000 acres near the Falls of the Ohio (Louis-
ville) which had been allotted to George Rogers
Clark and his soldiers. The United States
acknowledged the Indian title to the remaining
territory, and agreed to pay annuities of $9,500
in all to the tribes. All prisoners on both sides



were restored. This peace secured quiet to the
borders for 15 years. But the guaranty of the
lands to the Indians enabled the British to use
the latter to desolate the borders in the War
of 1812; and after the war (see Treaty op
Ghent) Great Britain attempted to make this
treaty boundary a permanent one, forbidding
United States settlement beyond it 'See Green-
ville, O.

Greenway, Thomas, Canadian statesman:
b. England, i«3#; d. 30 Oct. 1908. In 1844 he
came with his father to Ontario. He took up
land in Manitoba, and in 1887 became the Lib-
eral leader and Prime Minister in the provin-
cial government, when his party came into
power in 188& He studied the well-being and
progress of his province; attempted to abolish
French as an official language, and to do away
with the separate school system.

Greenweed. See Dybweed.

Greenwich, gren'wfch, Conn., town, in
Fairfield County, on Long Island Sound, the
New York, N. H. & H. R.R., about 28 miles
northeast of New York. The town was founded
in 1640, as a part of the province of New York,
and remained within the jurisdiction of the
Dutch colony from 1642 to 1650, when, by agree-
ment between the English and Dutch, it be-
came a part of Connecticut. In order to pre-
serve the charm of its country life, it has re-
tained the old form of town meeting government,
with three selectmen as agents, as it was over
250 years ago, except in the central part of the
town, where a borough government, a warden
and six burgesses, has charge of affairs. There
are five residential centres within its area of So
square miles; namely, Byram Shore, Belle
Haven, Greenwich village. Riverside, and Sound
Beach. It is the seat or Greenwich Academy,
Brunswick School, and Rosemary Hall. Pop.
(1910) 16463. Consult: Mead, 'History of
the Town of Greenwich.*

Greenwich, gren'ij, England, metropolitan
borough of London, in Kent, five miles from
St. Paul's Cathedral and six miles southeast
of London Bridge. It has many noted institu-
tions, one of which is the Greenwich Royal
Observatory, founded in 1675 hy Charles II.;
its first astronomer-royal was Flamsteed. Ge-
ographers of all countries reckon longitude
from the meridian of Greenwich, although the
local geography of many countries may be reck-
oned from their respective capitals. Green-
wich Hospital, founded by Queen Mary, for dis-
abled seamen a who protected the public safety
in the reign of William and Mary, 1694,* is lo-
cated on the site of the palace where Henry
VIII. and his daughters Mary and Elizabeth
were born, and where Edward VI. died. The
hospital consists of four distinct buildings, one
of which was designed by Inigo Jones (q.v.),
and the other three by Sir Christopher Wren
(q.v.). James Stuart made the designs for the
restored portion of the chapel; and the statue
of George IT., in the central square, is by Rys-
brach. In 1873 Greenwich Hospital became the
college for the Royal Navy. The Royal Hos-
pital School for boys who may enter the navy,
and the Blue-Coat School, are liberally endowed.
Pop. about 187,000.

Greenwood, Grace. See Lippincott, Sarah
Jane (Clarke).



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GREENWOOD CEMETERY — GREGORIAN CHANT



Greenwood Cemetery, N. Y., the principal
ourial place of New York and neighborhood, in
South Brooklyn, near Gowanus Bay; area 475
acres. It occupies a picturesque site, and is laid
out so handsomely as to make it almost without
a rival in the world. From its heights the wa-
ters of New York Bay may be seen on the one
hand, and the broad expanse of the Atlantic on
the other. There are 20 miles of roadway and
more than 25 miles of footpaths. Many dis-
tinguished men and women are buried here.
The main gateway is adorned with four mag-
nificent sculptures in alto relievo, representing
four scenes in the resurrection. The number of
interments exceed 350,000.

Greer, David Hummell, American clergy-
man: b. Wheeling, W. Va., 20 March 1844. He
was graduated from Washington College, Wash-
ington, Pa., in 1862, and studied theology in the
Episcopal Seminary at Gambier, O. From
Brown University and Kenyon College he re-
ceived the titles of Doctor of Divinity and Doc-
tor of Laws. His first ministry was at Coving-
ton, Ky. ; from there he was transferred to
Clarksburg, W. Va., and in 1871 he was called
to Grace Church, Providence, R. I. In 1885,
Dr. Greer became rector of St Bartholomew's
Parish, the most fashionable and richest of New
York Episcopal parishes. In 1890 he established
the St. Bartholomew's Parish House, at 42d
street and 3d avenue, at a cost of $400,000,
built largely through the liberality of Cornelius
Vanderbilt. This parish house embraces a wide
field of charitable, missionary and educational
work. In 1903 Dr. Greer was elected coadjutor
to Bishop Potter of the New York Episcopal di-
ocese. He had previously declined three bishop-
rics, that of coadjutor-bishop of Rhode Island,
bishop of Pennsylvania, and bishoo of Massa-
chusetts to succeed Phillips Brooks. Upon Bishop
Potter's death in 1908 Dr. Greer became bishop.

Greer, James Augustin, American rear-
admiral: b. Cincinnati, O., 28 Feb. 1833; d
Washington, D. C, 17 June 1904. Entering
the navy in 1848, he was promoted lieutenant
in 1855, and was on board the San Jacinto when
that vessel intercepted the English steamer
Trent, on which were Mason and Slidell, the
Confederate commissioners. He commanded
the ironclad Benton in the fleet that passed
the Vicksburg batteries; and in 1873 was in
command of the Tigress in its search of the polar
seas for the Polaris. He became rear-admiral
in 1802 and was retired in 1895.

Greey, gre, Edward, American writer: b.
Sandwich, Kent, England, 1 Dec. 1835; d. New
York 1 Oct. 1888. After spending several years
in Japan, he came to the United States in 1868,
became a citizen, and engaged in commercial
pursuits in New York. He published < Young
Americans in Japan > (1881); <The Wonderful
City of Tokio>; <The Golden Lotus* (1883);
The Captive of Love,* founded on a Japanese
romance; <The Loyal Ronins,> a translation
from the Japanese, etc.

Greg'arine, a parasitic sporozoan (see
Sporozoa) dwelling in the intestines of many
insects, crawfishes, and other arthropods.

Gregg, David, American Presbyterian
clergyman: b. Pittsburg, Pa., 25 March 1846.
He was graduated at Washington and Jefferson
College in 1865. He has been pastor in several



places, and since 1889 has preached in Lafayette
Avenue Presbyterian Church, Brooklyn, N. Y.
He is editor of { Our Banner,* and among his
many published volumes may be mentioned:
takers of the American Republic* (r8g6) ;
< Ideal Young Men and Women > (1897) ; ( Facts
that Call for Faith> (1898) ; <Things of North-
field and Other Things* (1899).

Gregoire, Henri, on-re gri-gwar, Count,
French churchman and statesman: b. 4 Dec.
1750; d. Paris 28 May 1831. In 1789, while cure
of Embermenil, in the district of Nancy, he was
sent by the clergy of Lorraine as their repre-
sentative to the States-General. As one of the
secretaries of the constituent assembly he joined
the extreme democratic section, and in the con-
vention voted for the condemnation, though not
for the death, of the king. Although extreme
in his democratic opinions, he was an unflinch-
ing Jansenist. He was a member of the Council
of Five Hundred, of the corps legislatif, and of
the senate (1801). On the conclusion of the
concordat he resigned his bishopric of Blois.
He voted against the establishment of the im-
perial government, and alone in the senate
resisted the restoration of titles of nobility. He
himself afterward accepted the title of count,,
but in the senate always opposed Napoleon,
and in 1814 was one of the first to vote for his
deposition. He left numerous works, among
them <Ruines de Port RoyaP (1801) ; <Essat
Historique sur les Libertes de TEglise Galli-
cane ) ; ( Historic des Sectes Religieuses depuis
le Commencement de ce Siecle* ; < Annales de
la Religion > (1795-1803).

Gregorian Chant (Latin, cantus gregori-
anus, cantus planus, cantus firmus; Italian
canto fermo; French, chant gregorien, plain-
chant; German, gregorianischer Choral) is as
old as the Church itself. As an integral part
of the liturgy, music has its origin in the cele-
bration of the Last Supper. According to the
evangelists, Matthew and Mark, after the con-
secration and breaking of bread, our Lord and
the apostles sang a hymn, which is commonly
accepted to have been the "Great HalleP* of the
Jewish passover celebration, that is, the Psalms,
cxii.-cxvii. (Douai version), inclusive. The first
Christian communities of Jerusalem in Pales-
tine and Antioch in Syria were founded by
newly converted Jews. Consequently it is more
than probable that, although the converts from
paganism were soon in the majority, melodies
in use in the temple and in the synagogues con-
tinued to be sung at their religious meetings.
This hypothesises all the more reasonable be-
cause the recruits from paganism could offer
nothing either in the way of poetry or music
which would have been acceptable to the new
cult. As to how the chant came to Rome and
concerning its early development, archaeology
has so far been unable to ascertain any definite
information. Conjecture and probability are
the most we have to go by. Without doubt
Greek music, which was known to the Romans,
as was every other form of Hellenic culture, had
its influence on the formation of the Christian
worship music. It is certain also that there was
a constant development and that singing played
an ever greater role in the early liturgy. There
were hardly any religious functions of which
the singing of psalms, responsories and hymns
did not form a part. From the fruitful soil of



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GREGORIAN CHANT



the early Church sprang with great exuberance
a new hymnology, which in turn, as its logical
complement, was translated into melodies.
Many of the latter were spontaneous improvisa-
tions, the children of ardent hearts and imagina-
tions illumined by the New Light. At first the
whole religious community participated in the
singing, but as the liturgy became more elab-
orate and the assemblies more numerous, this
participation on the part of all the faithful had
to be restricted to certain portions of the ser-
vice. Other, more particular parts were per-
formed by the Primicerius, Praecentor or Mon-
itor, who also had general charge of the sing-
ing and whose office it was to see that the faith-
ful were well prepared for their allotted task.
After emerging from the catacombs at the
beginning of the 4th century the Church dis-
played its ever-growing vitality in the unfolding
of her liturgy and the increasing splendor of her
cult. At this period the chants used must have
been numerous and varied. Popes and bishops
fostered the liturgical music in every manner.
Pope Sylvester (314) and Hilarius (461)
founded schools for its cultivation. Saint Am-



y



1



Authentic Modes

l DOMfAJV



permanent character and from whom it is named,
ascended the papal throne, the number of feasts
and consequently of liturgical chants had in-
creased to such an extent that the four modes
fixed by Ambrose were no longer sufficient
Many of the new melodies did not belong to
any one of the scales enumerated above. They
had grown beyond the original frame. As
Gregory partly reformed and, at least in out-
line, gave shape to the ecclesiastical year as we
now know it, he was compelled also to re-
arrange existing chants, reject inferior ones,
adapt old ones to new texts and add new ones
of his own creation. In order to carry out this
vast plan he found it necessary to enlarge the
tonal system then in use. He retained the four
Ambrosian modes, which were henceforth desig-
nated as the authentic modes, and added thereto
four more which he called plagal. Gregory
formed the new modes by transposing the last
four notes of the existing — authentic — scales
an octave lower, so that each plagal mode be-
gan a fourth below the authentic from which it
sprang. Thus the tonal system as completed
by Saint Gregory was as follows:

Plagal Modes
JT //ypo- Do/van



I *~P



^=Z*



HP



Phrygian



— ,- ^ gl

ZF ' SfYPO-fiH/iYG/AA/



ZS=B1



=5^



o u



^



: ^ z



i



P LYO/AA/



:□:



S



* ri_p



ZZ //YPO-LrO/AA/



Z5=B2



:ft:



^ & * ~y



-&■



•jx.



=ggg



i



ffl MtJTO-l.YD/AAt



£ jj p^f*



'D/A



2C&



-A.



YBrftrpo-M/xo-lYO/A.



3X



=S=



-ot



1



TN. B. — The letters F and D in the above diagram stand respectively for final and dominant. The final is
the tone on which a melody finds repose, or a satisfactory ending. As will be observed, the final for any
given authentic mode and its derived plagal are identical. The dominant is that tone which occurs oftenest or pre-
dominates in any melody.]



brose, Archbishop of Milan (397), took a step
which was of greater importance than anything
which had been done up to that time. He gave
system and order to the melodies and chants in
use in his archdiocese by giving them a theoretic
basis. This he accomplished by adopting four
modes or scales, each one of which had as its
initial one of the four notes of the Tetrachord
(sequence of four notes), D, E, F, G. The
four modes adopted by Saint Ambrose were
consequently: (a) (Dorian) D, E,F, G, a, b,c,
d; (b) (Phrygian) E.F, G, a, b,c, d, e; (c)
(Lydian) F, G, a, b,c, d, e,f, (d) Mixo-
Lydian), G, a, b,c, d, e,f, g. All the melodie*
and chants used had some one of these modes
for their foundation. Saint Ambrose originated
the custom of singing hymns and psalms antiph-
onally.

When 200 years later, Gregory the Great,
the man who gave the music of the Church its



Four more modes were added to these in
later centuries, but they are not different in
essence from the eight named above. By means
of various signs — dots, strokes, bars or hooks,
collectively called neums — all of which had a
conventional meaning, and which were placed
over and alongside the words of the texts, Saint
Gregory indicated the melodies to which these
texts were to be sung. The book containing the
chants for the numerous offices was called
•antiphonarium cantorum* It was deposited
near the altar of St. Peter so as to convey that
the pontiff wished it to be considered as the
norm for the whole Christian world.

In order to gain an insight into and an ap-
preciation of the nature and character of the
Gregorian melodies, it will be well to examine
a little more closely the tonal material out of
which they are constructed. We will notice
that all the scales are diatonic, that is to say



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QREGORIAN CHANT



that each one has five whole tones or steps and
two half-steps or semi-tones; furthermore that
the half-steps or semi-tones occur in a different
place in each scale, according to what the initial
note happens to be, and, finally that only one of
them has a leading tone or half-step between
the seventh step and the octave or repetition of
the initial note. It is these three features which
-differentiate the Gregorian modes so markedly
from our modern scales and which give them
that impersonal and objective character so mar-
velously suited to the purpose they serve,
namely, that of expressing the ideas and senti-
ments conveyed by the sacred texts. In other
words, these modes, or tonalities, lend them-
selves to the expression of a mental attitude of
objectivity as against the modern scales which,
on account of their chromatic character, are
more pliable vehicles for conveying the emotions
springing from subjectivism and introspection.
If we remember, in addition to the general char-
acter of the Gregorian, or Church modes — as
they are often called — the rule which permits
the use of six intervals only in the formation
of Gregorian melodies, namely: the major and
minor second, the major and minor third, the
perfect fourth and the perfect fifth, we realize
that this tonal system is better adapted for the
■expression of reverence, humility, peace, and
joy, whereas the modern chromatic system is
more suited for the expression of passion and
^dramatic conflict.

Saint Gregory used every means at his com-
mand to propagate the chant and have it uni-
versally adopted. He established schools for
its proper interpretation. At one of these he is
said to have taught in person. Missionaries
who were sent from Rome into foreign lands
took with them a copy of the antiphonarium,
.and, of course, a knowledge of how the melodies
it contained should be sung. Thus, Saint Au-
gustine brought the melodies to England at the
command of St. Gregory himself. The great
pope's successors continued the process of
propaganda during the following centuries. In
the 8th century Saint Boniface introduced the
•chant in Germany, and by him several *scholac
•cantorum* were established on German soil.
Through Pepin and after him through Charle-
magne, it found its way into Gaul and into
the whole territory under the emperor's sway.

It is held by many historians that the origi-
nal chant was, in the main, syllabic, that is to
say, that only one note was sung to each syl-
lable and that only the word *alleluja» was ever
extended over several notes. Be that as it may,
it is certain that it gradually developed into a



Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 65 of 185)