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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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melismatic system, syllables being often ex-
tended over smaller and greater groups of notes.

From the time of Saint Gregory until the ad-
vent of Guido d'Arezzo (995-1050?) the primi-
tive means of determining the melody, the
neums described above, remained in use. As
has been pointed out, these signs were intended
to assist the memory of the singers in repro-
ducing the melodies which they had learned by
oral transmission. It is not to be wondered at
that, in the course of time, many of the melodies
were altered and modified in the many places
where they were in use. There were frequent
variations and modifications due to local habits,
different temperaments, but, above all, to the in-
sufficiency of the means employed to indicate



with precision the form of the melodies. Care-
less copyists and finally the arbitrariness and
caprice of singers in the various countries led
to confusion. Before the time of Guido
d'Arezzo, attempts had been made to fix with
more precision the intervals of the melodies.
He found in use two lines, a red and a yellow
one, drawn across the page. Upon the red line
was placed the F, and C was put upon the yel-
low one. Above, below and between these two
lines the neums were written. By placing a
black line between the two already existing and
adding another above or below these three as
the ambitus or range of the melody might re-
quire, Guido created the four line staff which
has been used ever since for the chant, and
made it possible to indicate precisely the form
of a melody for all time to come. Guido and
his pupils transcribed the existing chants into
the new system of notation. Copies of these
transcriptions found their way into the cathe-
drals and monasteries of many countries where
they took the place of the books formerly in
use. Though the neums as a system of notar
tion were superseded by the more precise in-
vention of Guido, they continued nevertheless to
be employed to indicate the manner of interpre-
tation. Although Guido's invention was epoch-
making and of incalculable importance in the
history of music, it must not be inferred that
it was at once universally adopted. Neums as
a means of notation continued in use in many
places and institutions far into the 13th cen-
tury. Nor must we imagine that because of the
introduction of the new system of notation no
further modifications of the chant took place.
As new saints were canonized and new feasts
instituted by the Church, offices and chants were
necessarily created. Then the growing skill of
professional singers gave rise, especially in the
Alleluja following trie gradual, to improvisa-
tions, elaborations and displays of virtuosity
which often exceeded the limits of good taste
and appropriateness.

As the melodies comprising ecclesiastical
music grew out of the sacred texts and were
never performed without being wedded to these
texts, it is but natural to assume that the
melodic construction partook of the rhythmical
form of the texts. Especially must this have
been the case when the chant was still largely
syllabic. Some maintain that the ancient chant
had a definite — artificial — rhythm, as in our
modern music, in contradistinction to the nat-
ural, or that dictated by the rhythm of the
text. Whatever the prevailing rhythm was at
the beginning of the 10th century, it was now to
undergo a gradual change. The monk Hue-
bald invented the organum or diaphony, that is,
the practice of having a second voice sing the
melody a fifth above or a fourth below the origi-
nal, or add to the fifth also the octave, the first
voice meantime maintaining the original melody.
By this step Hucbald paved the way for the
polyphony which was soon to develop and find
its culmination in the wonderful creations of
Palestrina and his school in the 16th century.
Sulzer in his ( Allgemeine Theorie. der Kunste*
in the article on harmony, points out that polyph-
ony was latent in the unison singing of the
Gregorian melodies by old and young, men and
boys, each class of voice, soprano, alto, tenor,
baritone, and bass, having a different pitch.



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GREGORIAN CHANT



Hucbald s system of parallel motion of fifths
and octaves was soon succeeded by attempts at
contrary motion, and counterpoint as we know
it, that is, point against point (or note against
note) was born. To the Gregorian melody
which now became *cantus firmus,® that is,
unchangeable melody, were added one or more
others. In giving birth to the new system and
continuing to be its foundation and the source
whence polyphony drew its life and being, the
Gregorian chant lost its most distinguishing
characteristic, that is, its natural rhythm. The
themes taken from the chant and used by con-
trapuntists as tf canti fermP were forced into the
rhythmical straight-jacket. Each note of the
cantus firmus had now to assume a definite value
in order that the added melodies simultaneously
sung might harmonize with it. Polyphony, or
the new school of music, increased in favor very
rapidly to the detriment of the old chant. In-
strumental music, which was gradually develop-
ing, also had a deteriorating influence on the
execution and cultivation of the ancient music
of the Church. Counterpoint in many instances
lost its original purpose and degenerated into
artificiality. Composers used it to display their
skill rather than to give expression to the ideas
and emotions latent in and suggested by the
text to which it was wedded. A reform move-
ment toward primitive simplicity set in toward
the end of the 15th and the beginning of the
16th century. The Council of Trent enacted
laws concerning the abuses that had crept into
the chant as well as against the extravagances
which the display of skill for its own sake had
brought about and which in fact almost caused
the total exclusion of figured music from the
Church. In a brief dated 25 Oct. 1577, Pope
Gregory XIII. directs Giovanni Perluigi Pales-
trina and Annibale Zoilo (Palestrina was at the
time director of the papal choir and Zoilo a mem-
ber of the same) to revise the chants contained
in the <( Antiphonaria, w ^Gradualia," and a Psal-
teria," and "eliminate" therefrom "all barba-
risms, obscure passages, contradictions, and
superfluous additions which, through the igno-
rance, neglect, and also through the malice of
composers, copyists, and singers, have crept into
these books* A pupil of Palestrina, Giovanni
Guidetti, had, a few years previously, edited
the various chants for the celebrant contained in
the Missal, which had been newly revised by a
commission of cardinals appointed for this pur-
pose after the Tridentine Council. Palestrina,
£oilo, and Guidetti in their labors of revision
acted upon the principle which had been lost
sight of for a time, but which was now generally
accepted by musicians in Rome, <( that the words
of the texts should be sung to the notes as they
ought to be spoken or declaimed without notes."
This principle in its application brought into
universal use the three different kinds of note-
values: the longa, the brevis, and the semi-
brcvis. The work of revision, of the Graduate
only, which was continued and completed after
Palcstrina's death (2 Feb. 1594) by Felice
Anerio and Francesco Suriano involved many
excisions and abbreviations ; reduced many
chants which had been elaborately melismatic
to a syllabic form. This revised edition derived
its name tt editio medicea," from the fact that
it was printed by the "stamperia* or press of
that name established in Rome by Cardinal



Ferdinand de Medici. The Congregation of
Sacred Rites, in 1595, appointed Giovanni
Maria Nanino, Giovanni Andrea Dragoni, Luca
Maremio, and Fulgentio Valesio to edit, in ac-
cordance with the principles stated above, the
( Pontificate Romanum.* The revised book»
were now printed and published with the appro-
bation of Pope Paul V. (1605-21) and that
of the prefect of the Congregation of Sacred
Rites. This approbation did not carry with it
the prohibition of the use of the old, more elab-
orate, now called traditional, versions of the
chant. No doubt because of the latitude thus
permitted, the abbreviated version did not make
much headway outside of the papal territory.
Besides this, monody (solo singing) and the
theatrical style in general came into vogue in
Italy at the beginning of the 17th century. It
took such a hold of public taste that even the
works of Palestrina and the masters of his
school were temporarily forgotten for the trashy
and trivial products which now had the upper
hand. This bein^ the case with regard to the
polyphonic style, it was natural that the austere,
chaste, and simple Gregorian melodies should
suffer even greater neglect. While in Italy and
in some other parts of the world the chant was
for a time neglected, there were countries, such
as France, Belgium, Spain, and the Catholic
parts of Holland, where it never ceased to be
cultivated according either to the traditional or
the abbreviated version. Many different edi-
tions came into use, notably in France, where
many dioceses had their own versions. Toward
the middle of the 19th century the plan enter-
tained by Gregory XIII., Clement VIII., and
Paul V., of having uniformity for the whole
Catholic world in everything pertaining to the
liturgy, including the chant, was revived with
new vigor. Pope Pius IX., in 1868, appointed
a commission to whom he entrusted the task
of editing, in accordance with existing require-
ments, the <( editio medicea,* which Pius IX.
and his successor, Leo XIII., repeatedly de-
clared to be the official version of the Gregorian
chant for the whole Church. During the past
30 years or more, however, archaeologists —
notably the Benedictines of Solesmes, A. De-
chevrens, S. J. of Paris, the Belgian savant,
G. A. Gevaerts, Dt. Peter Wagner of Freiburg,
Switzerland, and others — have made exhaust-
ive studies of the manuscripts dating from the
9th century (the oldest so far discovered) up
to the Renaissance. The results of these stud-
ies have induced the present Pope, Pius X., to
appoint (1904) a commission for the purpose of
preparing what is to be called the *editio vat-
icana," which will embody the fruits of the
researches and labors of learned men for many
years past. Whatever may be the differences
between this latest version and the many that
have gone before, they will in no sense change
the essential character of the chant. This char-
acter has its root primarily in the nature of the
scales or modes used, as has been shown above,
and, secondly, in the intervals in the construc-
tion of the melodies. As has been pointed out.
the melodies sprang from the sacred texts or
the liturgy: they were their complement and
splendor. The Church has always declared the
chant to be her own music par excellence.
Other forms of music which she admits in her
cult, the Palestrina, or polyphonic, and the mod-



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GREGORY



era styles, are to be judged as to their fitness
in the light of the Gregorian chant, which is
the norm and standard of excellence because
it best expresses the attitude of prayer.

Bibliography. — Some of the works on the
Gregorian chant which may be profitably con-
sulted are: Haberl, ( Magister ChorahV ; Kienle,
'Choral-Schule* ; Gietmann, < Kunstlehre ) (Vol.
III.) ; Kornmuller, < Lexikon der Kirchlichen
Tonkunst > ; Gevaert, <La Melopee Antique dans
le Chant de l'figlise Latine* ; the Benedictines
of Sotesmes, < Paleographie Musicale ) ; Dechev-
rens, Etudes de Science Musicale. >

Joseph Otten.

Gregorian Liturgy, the ritual which Pope
Gregory I. introduced after 590 in the Roman
Catholic Church in the administration of the
Eucharist, as exhibited in the book entitled
^regorianum Sacramentarium.* St. Gregory
made a new arrangement of the liturgy of Gela-
sius, which was previously in use, expunging
from it what seemed to him useless and adding
a very few new prayers. The celebration of the
mass is still essentially the same as it was then.

Greg'ory, Saint, or Gregory of Armenia,

surnamed a THE Illuminator,® founder of the
Armenian Church: b. Valarshabad, Armenia,
257; d. Mount Sebuh, Upper Armenia, 332.
He was conveyed by a Christian nurse from his
home in Armenia, when but two years old, to
Caesarea in Cappadocia to escape being slain
with his family for the crime of his father
Prince Auak, who had assassinated Chosrov I.,
king of Armenia. When he reached manhood
he married a Christian lady of Caesarea, who
after bearing him two sons retired to a monas-
tery. Thereupon Gregory entered the service
of Tiridates III., son of Chosrov, who, with
the help of the Romans, had recovered his
father's throne. Tiridates imprisoned him for
14 years in a deep pit, for refusing to perform
an act of idolatrous worship, whereupon the
tyrant was punished by a horrible temper, of
which Gregory cured him and converted him to
Christianity. After the baptism of Tiridates
Gregory was appointed bishop and patriarch of
Armenia and consecrated by Leontius of
Caesarea. Tiridates established Christianity as
the national religion of Armenia, a measure
afterward imitated on a larger scale by Con-
stantine the Great. Gregory spent the last year
of his life in a hermitage on Mount Sebuh.

Gregory, Saint, of Nazianzus (Gregorius
Nazianzenius), Greek Church Father: b. Ari-
anzas, near Nazianzus, Cappadocia, about 330;
d. about 300. Receiving baptism, he retired for
some time with St. Basil to Pontus. He began
to preach in 362 and between 365 and 374, chiefly
at Nazianzus. He went to Constantinople about
378 or 379 to oppose the Arians, and was
appointed patriarch of that see in 380. The elec-
tion was confirmed by the Council of Constanti-
nople in 381, but during the same year he
resigned and retired to his former charge of Na-
zianzus. We possess a number of sermons by
him, a large number of letters and many poems.
His eloquence is said to have placed him nearly
on a level with Basil and Chrysostom. His fes-
tival is celebrated on 9 May.

Gregory, Saint, of Nyasa, Greek Church
bather: b. Sebaste Pontus, about 332; d. about
398. By the influence of his brother St. Basil



(q.v.), he was made bishop of Nyssa, in Cappa-
docia. He took a prominent part in the Coun-
cils of Constantinople from 381 to 394. He was
less of an orator than Gregory of Nazianzus,
but was more distinguished than any of the
Greek fathers for a philosophical spirit, and for
his acquaintance with the writings of the Greek
philosophers. He also exhibited a liberality in
his views uncommon in his day. His festival
is on 9 March. His works consist of dog-
matic treatises, Scripture commentaries, ser-
mons, letters, etc.

Gregory, the name of 16 popes, as fol-
lows:

Gregory I., called the <i Great >) : b. Rome
about 540; d. 12 March 604. The death of his
father put him in possession of great wealth,
which he expended in the foundation of monas-
teries and charitable institutions. Disgusted
with the world, he took the monastic vows him-
self and became a member of one of his own
establishments. On the death of Pope Pelagtus
in 590 he was chosen his successor, an honor
which he very unwillingly accepted. He dis-
played great zeal for the conversion of heretics,
the advancement of monachism and the rigid
enforcement of celibacy among the clergy; and
there was nothing in which the Church was con-
cerned that he deemed too small to lie beyond
the sphere of his personal interest and action.
(See Gregorian Liturgy, Gregorian Music.)
During his pontificate the pretension of John,
patriarch of Constantinople, to the title of ecu-
menical patriarch, which Gregory repudiated,
contributed to bring about the schism between
the Greek and Latin Churches (see Greek
Church). The works ascribed to him are very
numerous, and have been frequently published.
His genuine writings consist of a treatise on
Pastoral Duty* (translated by King Alfred),
( Letters^ Scripture Commentaries,* etc. Con-
sult: Snow, ( St. Gregory the Great* (1892);
Mann, ( Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle
Ages* (1903).

Gregory II.: b. Rome; d. 10 Feb. 731. He
was elected pope and his pontificate is specially
noticeable as forming an epoch in the progress
of the territorial pre-eminence of the Roman
See in Italy. Gregory II. was distinguished by
his zeal for the evangelization of heathen lands ;
it was under his auspices that the famous Win-
fried or Boniface entered on his missionary
work in Germany.

Gregory III.: b. Syria; d. 28 Nov. 741.
He succeeded Gregory II. in 731. The en-
croachments of the Lombards in Italy during
his pontificate became so formidable that as
the eastern emperors still remained powerless
or indifferent to the protection of the Italian
provinces, the Romans charged Gregory to send
a deputation to Charles Martel, which promised
him the title of patrician and consul of Rome
in return for his help against the Lombards.
Charles Mattel's preoccupation with the Sara-
cens made it impossible for him to respond to
this plea. But the fact that Gregory was author-
ized by the Roman primus to approach Charles
on this subject and in this way shows how Rome
was breaking away from the East, and so marks
an epoch.

Gregory IV.: b. Rome; d. 27 Jan. 844.
He succeeded Valentine in 828, and was greatly



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GREGORY



esteemed for his learning and piety. During his
pontificate the observance of the feast of All
Saints was made general.

Gregory V.: b. Germany; d. 18 Feb. 999;
sometimes styled Bruno of Carinthia. He was
nephew of the Emperor Otto III. and through
his influence was chosen first German pope and
at the age of 24 succeeded John XV., in 996.
An anti-pope, named John XVII., was set up
against him by Crescentius, a consul of Rome,
but was expelled by the emperor.

Gregory V., Ecumenical patriarch of the
Greek Church: b. Dimitzana, Arcadia, Greece,
1739; d. Constantinople, 1821. His original
name was Georgios Angelopulus, and he took
his ecclesiastical name on entering the monas-
tery on Mount Athos where he received his
theological training. He was appointed arch-
bishop of Smyrna in 1784 and patriarch of
Constantinople in 1795. When the French in-
vaded Egypt in 1798, the national spirit of
Greece was aroused by hopes of deliverance
from the Turkish yoke. Suspicions of conspir-
acy fell upon Gregory, and the Turks clamored
for his head. Sultan Selim therefore banished
him to Athos, but he was soon afterwards
reinstated in his see. In 1821 the Greeks of the
Morea revolted, and 21 March banishment was
proclaimed against all who took part in the
rebellion. Gregory had been put in charge of
the family of Prince Murusi, who without the
patriarch's connivance had been permitted to
escape by the Russian ambassador. On Easter
morning, 22 April, 1821, by command of the
sultan Gregory with three bishops and eight of
the clergy were hanged in front of the basilica.
Three days later the Jews threw his body into
the sea, where it was recovered by Greek sailors
and carried to Odessa. The Greeks looked
upon their murdered archbishop as a martyr,
his bones were placed by the government in the
cathedral at Athens, and his statue was raised
in front of the university. Among his writings
is a translation of St. Paul's epistles into
modern Greek, with a commentary.

Gregory VI.: b. Rome; d. Cologne 1048.
He succeeded John XIX. Finding the lands
and revenues of his church much lessened by
usurpations, and the roads infested by robbers,
he acted with such vigor that a powerful party
was raised against him by those accustomed to
live by plunder. At a council, held at Sutri, in
1046, Gregory abdicated the pontificate.

Gregory VII. (Hildebrand) : b. Soana,
Tuscany, about 1015; d. Salerno, 25 May 1085.
He became a monk at Cluny, and when Bruno,
bishop of Toul, was elected pope by the em-
peror and diet in 1048 Hildebrand accompanied
him to Rome, having persuaded him, it is said,
to lay aside the insignia of the pontificate until
he should receive the free suffrages of the clergy
and people of Rome. Henceforth Hildebrand
became the ruling spirit of the papacy. Leo IX.
(Bruno) and his successors, Victor II. (1055),
Nicholas II. (1058), Alexander II. (1061), con-
fided in his counsels. He influenced the election
of several of these popes, and procured the
expulsion of the anti-popes Benedict and Hono-
rius, who were opposed to Nicholas and Alex-
ander. Under Nicholas II he succeeded in
changing the mode of election to the pontificate.
Hitherto the clergy and the people of Rome had
1 voice in the election. He gave the power of



nomination to the cardinals alone, leaving the
clergy and people only a right of concurrence,
of which they were subsequently deprived.
On the death of Alexander II. (1073) Cardinal
Hildebrand was raised to the Papal chair. His
efforts were directed to free the Church from
the interference of temporal rulers, which had
become quite an abuse in his day, and reform
the numerous irregularities which had crept
in among the clergy, especially in relation to
the violation of the law of celibacy. In 1074
he issued his edicts against simony and the mar-
riage of priests, and in 1075 an edict forbidding
the clergy, under penalty of forfeiting their
offices, from receiving the investiture of any
ecclesiastical dignity from the hands of a lay-
man, and at the same time forbidding the laity,
under penalty of excommunication, to attempt
the exercise of the investiture of the clergy.
The Emperor Henry IV. refused to obey this
decree, and Gregory, in 1076, issued a new
decree summoning the emperor before a council
at Rome, to defend himself. Henry then caused a
sentence of deposition to be passed against the
pope by a German council assembled at Worms.
The pope, in return, excommunicated the emperor,
and released all his subjects and vassals from
their oath of allegiance. To escape being deposed
by the pope, Henry hastened to Italy, where he
submitted at Canossa (1077) to a humiliating
penance, and received absolution. In the mean-
time his friends again assembled round him,
and he then caused the pope to be deposed by
the Council of Brixen, and an anti-pope,
Clement III., to be elected in 1080, after which
he hastened to Rome and placed the new pope
on the throne. Gregory now passed three years
as a prisoner in the castle of St. Angela but
could never be induced to compromise the
rights of the church. The character of Gregory
was ardent and unyielding. In the pursuit of
his ends in guarding the liberties of the Church
he spared neither friend nor foe. The long
dispute he began with Henry IV. about investi-
tures survived both pope and emperor. The
same subject involved him in disputes with
France and England. He carried out his eccles-
iastical reforms with an unbending rigor. He
vigorously prosecuted those of the clergy who
broke the law of celibacy, and in his contests
with the emperors vindicated the spiritual au-
thority of the Church as independent of the
secular power. To the last he refused to with-
draw the excommunications he had launched
against the emperor, the anti-pope, and their
adherents. The words which have been put into
his mouth in dying, whether authentic or not,
do no injustice to his inflexible spirit, *I have
loved justice and hated iniquity; therefore I am
left to die in exile.* See Milman' < Latin Chris-
tian^ (Vol. III.); Giesebrecht, < Geschichte
der deutsch-Kaiserzeit* (Vol. III.) ; Bowden,
<Life of Gregory VIL> (1840); Voigt, hilde-
brand als Papst* (2d ed. 1846) ; Gfrorer, <Papst
Gregor VIL> (1859-61); Stephens, <Hildebrand
ard his Times > (1888) ; and the studies by
Sold (1847). Villemain (1872; Eng. trans. 1873),
Langerton (1874), and Meltzer (1876).

Gregory VIII.: b. Benevento; d. Pisa 17
Dec. 1 187. He succeeded Urban III. in October
1 187, and died the same year, after having ex-
horted the Christian princes to undertake a new
crusade, and absolved Henry II. of England for
the murder of Becket



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Gregory IX. (Ugolino, Count of Secni),
b. Campania about 1147; d. Rome 21 Aug. 1241.
He became a bishop of Ostia and cardinal, and
in 1227 succeeded Honorius III. The principal
events of his pontificate were the various inci-
dents of his contest with the great Emperor
Frederick II., whom he four times excommuni-
cated, absolving his subjects from their allegi-
ance, and proclaiming a crusade against him.



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