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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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upon the United States war-vessel Cyane, Com-
mander Hollins, was sent to exact reparation.
Hollins espoused the cause of an American tran-
sit company who were making excessive claims,
and ordered the mayor to pay them at once ; on
their refusal he bombarded and burnt the place.
This outrage embroiled the United States with
Great Britain.

Gridley, Charles Vernon, American naval
officer: b. Logansport, Ind., 24 Nov. 1845; d-
Kobe, Japan, 5 June 1898. A graduate (1863)
of the United States Naval Academy, he served
during the Civil War in the West Gulf block-
ading squadron, subsequent to the war was on
various ships, and in 1875-79 was stationed at
the Naval Academy. He was navigation of-
ficer in the Boston Navy Yard in 1882-84, was
lighthouse inspector in 1887-91 and 1895-97, in
1897 attained the rank of captain and was ap-

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pointed to the command of the Olympia, then
flagship of the Asiatic squadron. This vessel
he commanded in the battle of Manila Bay i
May C1898). He died at Kobe.

Gridley, Richard, American soldier: b.
Boston, Mass., 3 Jan. 171 1 ; d. Stoughton, Mass.,
20 June 1796. He served in the British army
as lieutenant-colonel of engineers under Pep-
perell at the capture of Louisburg in 1745; as
chief engineer and colonel of infantry in 1755;
took part in the^ expedition to Crown Point
under Winslow in 1756; under Amherst in
1758; and under Wolfe at Quebec in 1759. He
was appointed chief engineer and commander
of the artillery of the American army upon the
outbreak of the Revolution, constructed the
fortifications on Breed's Hill before the battle
of Bunker Hill, and later fortified Dorchester
Heights. He was commissioned major-general
by Congress on 20 Sept. 1775, and commanded
the Continental Artillery till November of that

Grieg, Edvard, ed'vard greg, Norwegian
composer: b. Bergen 15 June 1843; d. there 4
Sept. 1907. His great-grandfather, Alexander
Greig, was a Scotchman who emigrated to Nor-
way after the battle of Culloden (1745) and
changed his name to Grieg. Edward's father
was British consul at Bergen; .he married the
Norwegian Gesine Judith Hagerup; a descend-
ant of Kjeld Stub; from her, Edvard inherited
his musical gifts; she was a good musician and
gave him lessons. By the advice of Ole Bull,
Edward was sent to the Leipsic Conservatory
at the age of 15 ; he remained there three years,
studying with Plaidy, Wenzel, Moscheles, E. F.
Richter, Hauptmann, Reinecke. Their lessons,
and the music he for the most part heard and
studied, impressed a German stamp on his mind,
which characterizes his first compositions. His
studies were interrupted by an illness, a severe
case of pleurisy, which destroyed one of his
lungs and left his health impaired for life. On
his return to the North he came under the in-
fluence of three Scandinavian musicians: the
composer Gade, who gave him many useful
hints; Ole Bull, an ardent musical patriot, who
made him familiar with the charming folk-tunes
of Norway, which he played so entrancingly ;
and Richard Nordraak, who encouraged him in
his natural inclination to get out of the mael-
strom of German music and steer into the fjords
of Norway. From 1866 to 1873 ne " ve d at
Christiania, conducting the Philharmonic con-
certs and giving lessons. He also gave sub-
scription concerts, with the aid of his cousin,
Nina Hagerup, whom he married on 11 June
1867; she was an excellent vocalist, whose art
was a great aid in winning favor for his songs.
In 1868 Liszt accidentally came across Grieg's
first violin sonata (Op. 8), and was so much
impressed by the evidence of creative power it
gave that he invited him to come and spend
some time in his studio. It was in consequence
of this flattering letter that the Norwegian Gov-
ernment gave Grieg a sum of money which en-
abled him to visit Kome. There he repeatedly
met Liszt, who became more and more impressed
by the boldness and the national traits of his
genius ; he urged him to persevere in his original
course and not to let the critics intimidate him.

In 1874 Henrik Ibsen asked Grieg to write
the music for a stage version of his ( Pecr
Gynt* The offer was accepted and the play
was produced, with much success, in 1876. It
is often given in Scandinavian cities; elsewhere
it has not succeeded, because of its un theatrical,
fantastic character and its grotesque local color-
ing ; but the music, arranged for the concert hall
in the form of two suites, soon made Grieg one
of the most popular composers in aL countries.
In the same year that Ibsen invited him to com-
pose the music for c Peer Gynt,> the Norwegian
Government honored him with an annuity of
1600 crowns for life. This relieved him of the
drudgery of teaching and enabled him to de-
vote most of his time to composing. For several
years he lived at Lofthus, on the Hardanger
Fjord. At Bergen, 1880-1882, he conducted a
musical society called the ^armonien.* In 1885
he built the elegant villa Troldhaugen, over-
looking the fjord, about 8 kilometers from Ber-
gen; there he lived till his death. After his
fame was well established, about 1880, he left his
home frequently for concert tours in Germany,.
France, and England. Everywhere he was ac-
claimed as one of the most individual and en-
chanting of pianists (he played only his own
pieces), and usually all the seats for his con-
certs were sold long before their dates. Some-
times he conducted his orchestral compositions.
tt How he majjage<tW in spire the band as he did
and get such nervous thrilling bursts and such
charming sentiment out of them I don't know',*
wrote Sir George Grove, in 1888. In 1893 a
writer in the Paris Figaro said: * Among the
most famous living musicians there is none I
know of whose popularity equals, with us, that
of M. Grieg* In 1899, Colonne invited him to
Paris to conduct a Grieg concert; but it was-
just after the verdict in the Dreyfus case, which
had made Grieg so indignant that he refused
the invitation. When it was repeated, four years
later, he accepted. There was a tremendous
crowd ; cries of ^apologize, you have insulted
France !• were heard; but the vast majority
was with him, and the concert proved one of
his biggest triumphs.

Grieg did for Norway what Chopin did for
Poland, Liszt for Hungary, Dvorak for Bo-
hemia; he created a new national art This
great achievement, unfortunately, stood in the
way of the full recognition of his superlative
genius. It is still commonly assumed that he
did little more than transplant to his garden the
wild flowers of Norwegian folk-music, whereas,
in truth, ninety-five hundredths of his music is
absolutely his own. He ranks with Schubert
and Chopin both as a melodist and a harmonist.
His persistent ill-health prevented him from
writing operas and symphonies; most of his
works are songs and short pianoforte pieces.
The songs, 125 in number, are of striking origi-
nality and depth of feeling. The equally numer-
ous short pieces for piano (including 66 a \yric
pieces* in one vol.) are as idiomatic as Cho-
pin's. There are also 5 sonatas : one for piano
alone, three with violin, one with 'cello, beside
a string quartet. The orchestral list includes:
Overture. *In the Autumn*; < Holberg ) suite;
2 <Peer Gynt ) suites; Sigurd Jorsalfar* ;
arrangements of Grieg songs and Norwegian
dances. Choral works: ( At the Cloister Gate*;
< Landsighting ) ; ( 01af Trygvason.* Berg-

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liot ) is a poem for declamation, with orchestra.
The only books on Grieg and his works are by
Schjelderup, in Norwegian, and by the author
of this article, in English. The latter contains a
list of pamphlets and magazine articles on Grieg.
Henry T. Finck,
Musical Director, New York Evening Post.

Griesbach, Johann Jakob, a noted German
New Testament scholar, biblical critic and theo-
logian: b. Butzbach in Hesse- Darmstadt, 4 Jan.
1845 ; d. Jena, 24 March 1812. He was educated
at Frankfort-on-the-Main ; later studied theol-
ology at Tubingen, Halle, and Leipzig; during
1769^70 traveled extensively in England, France
and Holland; in 1771 became docent and in
1 773 professor extraordinary in theology at
Halle; and from 1775 till his death was profes-
sor ordinary at Jena. Griesbach's most impor-
tant work — to which he devoted the best years
of his life — was the collecting and classifying
of the ancient manuscripts and versions of the
Greek text of the New Testament. His critical
researches, the result of which appeared in his
edition of the Greek New Testament (Halle,
1775-7) o«e of the first ever printed, are valu-
able and in the main correct. It was he who
first divided the authorities for the text of the
Greek New Testament into the three great
families — Alexandrine, Latin or Western, and
Byzantine or Eastern.

Griffin, Charles, American * soldier: b.
Licking County, Ohio, 1826; d, Galveston,
Texas, 5 Sept. 1867. He was graduated at West
Point (1847) and served through the Mexican
War. In the Civil War he commanded the 5th
artillery at the first battle of Bull Run, and on
6 May 1864 was brevetted lieutenant-colonel in
recognition of gallant and meritorious services
in the field. He was one of the commissioners
to carry out the condition agreed upon by Gens.
Grant and Lee.

Griffin, Gerald, Irish novelist; b. Lime-
rick, Ireland, 12 Dec. 1803; d. Cork, 12 June
1840. He will be longest remembered for his
novel 'The Collegians* (1829), upon which
Boucicault's popular play, a The Colleen Bawn, 3 *
is founded. Griffin was a poet as well as a
writer of tales and the author of various lyrics
popular with his countrymen.

Griffin, Sir Lepel Henry, English diploma-
tist: b. 1840. He entered the Bengal Civil Serv-
ice in i860 and since then has been administra-
tor of the civil government in several places,
especially in the Punjab. In 1885 he was nom-
inated by Lord Salisbury's government as En-
voy Extraordinary to Pekin. He has written
<The Punjab Chiefs* (1865); <The Rajahs of
the Punjab> (1870); ( The Great Republic

Griffin, Ga., city, county-seat of Spalding
County, on the Southern and the Central of G.
R.R.'s. It is the centre of a cotton and fruit
region, the chief fruits being grapes and peaches.
The city contains cotton-mills, a foundry, and
furniture factories; wine is also manufactured.
The State Agricultural Experiment Station is
located in the vicinity. Pop. (1910) 7478.

Griffin, or Gryphon, in mythology, a fab-
ulous animal, usually represented with the body
and legs of a lion, and the head and wings of
an eagle, signifying the union of strength and
agility. Figures of griffins are frequently used

as ornaments in works of art. It is employed as
an emblem of vigilance, the animals oeing sup-
posed to be the guardians of mines and hidden
treasurers. Figures of it are met with in tombs
and sepulchral lamps, as guarding the remains
of the deceased.

Griffis, William Elliott, American clergy-
man and author: b. Philadelphia 17 Sept. 1843.
He was graduated from Rutgers College in 1869,
and 1870 went to Japan to organize schools
after American methods in the province of Echi-
zan, made a study of the Japanese feudal system,
and was professor of physics in the Imperial
University in 1872-74. In 1874 he returned to
the United States, where he was graduated from
the Union Theological Seminary in 1877. He
was pastor of the First Reformed Church,
Schenectady, N. Y. (1877-86), of the Shawmut
Congregational Church, Boston (1886-93), and
of the First Congregational Church of Ithaca,
N. Y. (1893-1903). In 1 891 he was a delegate
to the International Congregational Council at
London. From 1903 he turned his attention
wholly to literary work. An authority on
Japan, he also studied the Dutch origins of
America and the influence of the Dutch in the
formation of the United States. Hlis pub-
lished works include 'The Mikado's Empire *
(1876), his best known volume, which has
appeared in many subsequent editions; < Japan-
ese Fairy World* (1880) ; <Corea: the Hermit
Nation> (1882); 'Corea, Without and Within>
(1884); Matthew Gaiibraith Perry: a Typical
American Naval Officer* (1887-90); ( The Lily
Among Thoms ) (1889) ; 'Honda the Samurai *
(1890) <Sir William Johnson and the Six
Nations * (1891); ( Japan in History, Folklore
and Art* (1892); < Brave Little Holland 5
(1894); ( Townsend Harris: First American
Envoy in Japan > (1895) ; <The Romance of
Discovery * (1897); 'The Pilgrims in their
Three Homes > (1898); <The Romance of
American Colonization > (1898) ; <The Romance
of American Conquest' (1898); <The Ameri-
can in Holland> (1899) ; 'The Pathfinders of
the Revolution * (1900) ; 'In the Mikado's Serv-
ice } ; <A Maker of the New Orient* ; < Sunny
Memories of Three Pastorates* (1903).

Griffiths, Arthur George Frederick, Eng-
lish soldier and author: b. Poonah, India. He
served in the Crimean War, was inspector of
prisons 1878-96, edited 'The Fortnightly Re-
view* (1884), and is editor of ( The Army and
Navy Gazette.* He is the author of 'The
Queen's Shilling* (1872); ' Memorials of Mill-
bank* (1875); 'Lola: a Tale of the Rock*
(1878); 'Chronicles of Newgate* (1883); <A
Prison. Princess* (1890) ; 'Secrets of the Prison
House* (1893) ; 'Criminals I Have Known*
(1895); <The Rome Express* (1896); 'Wel-
lington and Waterloo*; 'Mysteries of Police
and Crime* (1898); 'A Girl of Grit* (1898);
'Ford's Folley, Ltd.* (1809); 'The Brand of
the Broad Arrow* (1900); 'A Set of Flats*
(1901); 'A Duchess in Difficulties > ; 'Tales by
a Government official* ; etc.

Griffon, 'or Basse tt-griff on, a large gray-
ish-red field-dog, combining the qualities of
both pointer and setter, but having a thick hard
coat enabling it to work readily in thickets and
rough country. It originated in Germany a*
the end of the 19th century.

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Griggs, Edward Howard, American lec-
turer: b. Owatonna, Minn., 9 Jan. 1868. la
1889 he was graduated from Indiana University
(Bloomington), and later studied at the Uni-
versity of Berlin, and was successively in-
structor in English literature and professor of
literature in Indiana University. Subsequently
he became professor of ethics, and upon the
combining of the departments, professor of
ethics and education, in the Leland Stanford,
Jr., University. From 1899 he was active as a
public lecturer, particularly in connection with
the courses of the Brooklyn (N. Y.) Institute
of Arts and Sciences. He wrote * Moral Edu-
cation* (1905).

Griggs, John William, American politician:
b. Newton, N. J., 10 Tuly 1849. He was gradu-
ated at Lafayette College in 1868, and was ad-

mitted to the bar in 1871, practising in Paterson,
N. J. He was a member of the New Jersey
General Assembly, 1876-77; a state senator,
1882-88; and president of the state senate in
1886. He became governor of New Jersey
1 Jan. 1896, resigning 31 Jan. 1898 to become
attorney-general in President McKinley's cabi-
net He resigned in April, 1901.

Griialva, Juan de, hoo-an' da gre-hal'va,
Spanish navigator: b. Cuellar 1489 or 1490; <L
Nicaragua, 21 Jan. 1527. He was intrusted by
his uncle, Don Diego Velasquez, the first gov-
ernor of Cuba, with the command of a fleet of
four vessels, which, on 1 May 15 18, sailed from
St. Jago de Cuba, to complete the discoveries
which Fernandez de Cordova had made in Yu-
catan the year preceding. Rounding the penin-
sula of Yucatan, he extended his explorations
as far as the province of Panuco, giving his
name and that of his companion, Alvarado,
afterward famous in the expedition of Cortes,
to two rivers on the coast. His communication
with the Aztecs was friendly, and so profitable
that he was enabled to send back one of the
ships well freighted with gold, jewels, and other
treasures, the acquisition of which was one of
the main objects of the expedition. On his re-
turn to Cuba he found an expedition organizing
for the conquest of Mexico, with Cortes at the
head, and was received by Velasquez with re-
proaches for having neglected to plant colonies
on the coast. Grijalva, a man of integrity and
prudence, had, however, acted strictly in con-
formity with his instructions, and against hi9
own judgment. In the latter part of his life
he settled in Nicaragua, and was slain in an out-
break of the Indians in the valley of Ulancho.

Grillparzer, Franz, frants gril'part-sSr,
German poet and dramatist: b. Vienna 15 Jan.
1791; d. there 21 Jan. 1872. In 1813 he entered
the service of the imperial court, retiring to pri-
vate life with the title of Hofarth (court coun-
cillor), in 1856. In 1861 he was appointed mem-
ber for life 6f the imperial council. He became
known as a dramatist in 1816 by his < Ahnfrau. >
a tragedy of the fatalistic school, which still
keeps the stage. It was followed by the dramas
'Sappho* (1819); c Das Goldene Vliess*
(1822) ; <Des Meeres nnd der Liebe Wellen*
(1840), an adaptation of the legend of Hero
and Leander. Perhaps the finest of Grillparzer's
products is the historical drama of ( K6nig
Ottokar's Gluck und Ende> (1825).

Grilse, a young salmon (q.v.).
Vol. 10 — 17

Grimes, James Wilson, American politi-
cian and legislator; b. Deering, Hillsboro
County, N. H., 20 Oct. 1816; d. Burlington, la.,
7 Feb. 1872. He was graduated at Dartmouth
College (1836), and went west, where he be-
gan the practice of the law, was appointed sec-
retary of a commission instituted to negotiate
the transfer of lands from the Sac and Fox
Indians, and after the organization of Iowa Ter-
ritory in 1838, he was elected to its legislature.
He was elected governor of Iowa in 1854, and
after completing his term, was sent to Congress
as a Republican Senator. He voted for the
acquittal of President Johnson at his impeach-
ment trial.

Grimke, grim'ke, Archibald Henry, Amer-
ican lawyer: b. Charleston, S. C, 17 Aug. 1849.
He was graduated from Lincoln University in
1870, from the Harvard Law School in 1874,
and in 1883-85 was editor of the < Hub, > a Bos-
ton newspaper. In 1891-93 he was a special
writer for the Boston Herald and Traveller,
and in 1894-98 United States consul at Santo
Domingo. His writings include a ( Life of Wil-
liam Lloyd Garrison 5 (1891), a ( Life of Charles
Sumner * (1892), and numerous contributions in
periodicals, dealing chiefly with various ques-
tions pertaining to the American negro.

Grimke, Thomas Smith, American lawyer
and scholar: b. Charleston, S. C, 26 Sept. 1786;
d. near Columbus, Ohio, 12 Oct 1834. He was
graduated at Yale College in 1807, studied law at
Charleston and rose to eminence at the bar and
in the politics of his State. He became widely
known by his addresses in behalf of peace, re-
ligion, and literature. An early and prominent
advocate of the American Peace Society, he
held the opinion that even defensive warfare is
wicked. Though a superior classical scholar,
he maintained that neither the classics nor math-
ematics should enter into any scheme of general
education in this country. In some of his
pamphlets he introduced a new system of or-
thography of the English language. A vol-
ume of his addresses was published at New
Haven in 1831.

Grimke* Sisters, The, Sarah Moore, and
Angelina Emily: b. Charleston, S. C, 1792
and 1805; d. Hyde Park, near Boston, 1873 and
1879. They were sisters of Thomas Smith
Grimke (q.v.). They liberated their slaves, re-
moved to Philadelphia, entered the Society of
Friends, and became known in connection with
the Anti-slavery movement. They went to
New York in 1836 and in the year following
to Boston; were leaders in the American Anti-
Slavery Society, and appeared as platform
speakers on slavery. In 1854 they established
a 'Successful coeducational academy at Eagles-
wood (near Perth Amboy), N. J. Sarah lec-
tured also on woman's rights* Angelina wrote
'An Appeal to the Christian Women of the
South* ; Sarah an ^Epistle to the Clergy of the
Southern States.*

Grimm, Jakob Ludwig, ya'kdb lood'vtg
grim, German philologist: b. Hanau, Hesse-
Cassel, 4 Jan. 1785; d. Berlin, 20 Sept. 1863.
In 1806 he became librarian- to Jerome Bona-
parte, king of Westphalia, and from 1816 to 1829
occupied the post of second librarian at Cassel.
From 1830 to 1837 he resided at Gottingen as
professor < and librarian, lecturing ou the German
language, literature and legal antiquities. Hav-

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ing, with six other professors, resisted the un-
constitutional encroachments of the King of
Hanover, he was banished, and after his retire-
ment to Cassel, he was, in 1841, called to Berlin
as a professor and member of the Academy of
Sciences. He sat in the National Assembly of
1848, and in that of Gotha in 1849. From that
time till his death, he occupied himself only
with his various publications. He wrote on
German mythology, German legal antiquities,
the history of the German language, and pub-
lished old German poems, etc. His two greatest
works, both unfinished, are his < Deutsche Gram-
matik' (1819-37), and his JDeutsches Worter-
buch > commenced in 1852, in conjunction with
his brother Wilhelm (q.v.), and gradually com-
pleted by eminent scholars. He also published,
in company with his brother, the < Kinder und
Hausmarchen,* one of the most popular collec-
tions of juvenile fairy tales.

Grimm, Wilhelm Karl, vfl'helm karl, Ger-
man philologist: b. Hanau, 24 Feb. 1786; d. Cas-
sel, 16 Dec 1859. He was the companion in
study of his brother, Jakob Grimm (q.v.), at
the Lyceum of Cassel, the University of Mar-
burg, and again at Gottingen, where in 1830 he
was appointed under-libranan and # supernu-
merary professor of philosophy. He joined his
brother m the protest against the King of Han-
over, shared his exile, and also his call to Ber-
lin. There they labored together, and were com-
monly known as the Brothers Grimm. Under
that name also they have a certain immortality
in the affections of the civilized world. His
earliest independent work was a German trans-
lation of the Danish < Koempe-Viser > (1811-13).
He edited many old German texts and collabo-
rated with his brother Jakob In several of his
works. His own most important book is < Die
deutsche Heldensage ) (1867), and < Kleinere
Schriften,> (1881-86).

Grimm's Law is the name given to the
rule which regulates the Lautverschiebung, or
permutation of certain primitive consonants,
which takes place in the Teutonic languages.
The law, as finally formulated by Jakob Grimm,
is that if the same roots or words exist in San-
skrit, Greek, and generally in Latin, Celtic, Let-
tic, and Slavonic, and also in Gothic, English,
Dutch, and other Low German dialects on the
one hand, and in Old High German on the other,
the following correspondences are to be ex-
pected: (1) Gothic has a soft mute, and High
German a hard mute, in place of the correspond-
ing aspirate in Sanskrit and Greek; (2) Gothic
has a hard mute, and High German an aspirate,
in place of the corresponding soft mute in San-
skrit and Greek; (3) Gothic has an aspirate, and
High German a soft mute, in place of the cor-
responding hard mute in Sanskrit and Greek.
Thus, a primitive th becomes d in Low Ger-
man, and t in High German, as in the words
//tugater, daughter, /ochter. A primitive d be-
comes t in Low German, and s in High Ger-
man, as in duo, /wo, #wei ; or dens, tooth, rahn ;
or decern, fen, jehn. A primitive * becomes th
in Low German, and d in High German, as in
Ires, Mree, drei; or ru, thou, du; or tenuis, f/rin,
diinn. Similar changes affect the labials and
gutturals, as in pecus, fee, tdeh; ^ater, father,
fater; /agus, &eech. £uocha; and in oculus,
tgkt (•eye*), auge; quxs, who, wer; or Ar/tortos,

garden, Jfcorto. The normal changes are set
forth in the following table:

Labiate Dentals Gotttmls

Greek, etc p b oh tdtk kgkh

Godric, etc f pb thtd 00 k S

Old High German.. b(r)f p d s t fOOch k

The credit of the discovery of the Laut-
verschiebung is not wholly due to Jakob Grinm?-
Ihre and Rask had discovered, as early as 1818,
the law of the transmutation of consonants in
Greek and Gothic, while Grimm, in the second
edition of his < Deutsche Grammatik > ; which ap-

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