Wilfrid Richmond.

The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

. (page 69 of 185)
Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 69 of 185)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


peared in 1822, added the corresponding changes
m Old High German, and formulated the law
as it now stands.

Grimm's Law may be interfered with by the
action of other laws, especially by the position of
the accent, as formulated in Verner's Law
(q.v.). Thus {rater is accented on the first syl-
lable and pater on the second, consequently,
though we have brother and father in English,
we find bruder and voter in High German. The
accent in patSr has interfered with the regular
action of the Lautverschiebung, and prevented
the normal change of / to d from taking place.

Thus Grimm's Law may be defined as the
statement of certain phonetic facts which happen
invariably unless they are interfered with by
other facts. The great use of Grimm's # Law, in
addition to the identification of words in differ-
ent languages, is in the detection of loan
words. Any etymology which violates Grimm's
Law, as qualified by other phonetic laws, must
be rejected unless it can be explained as a loan
word.

The causes which brought about the changes
formulated in Grimm's Law are obscure. They
are probably duo to the settlement of Low Ger-
man conquerors in central and southern Ger-
many.

See Douse, < Grimm's Law : a Study of Laut-
verschiebung > (1876), Max Muller, l Lectures
on the Study of Language, * 2d series, lecture
v. (1864) , Morris, historical Outlines of Eng-
lish Accidence, * chap. ii. (1872).

Grimsel (grlm'ze'l) Pass, a mountain pass
in the Bernese Alps, leading from Meiringen,
canton of Bern, to Obergesteln, canton of Vaiais.
It was in this pass that the French repulsed the
Austrians in 1799.

Grim'shaw, Robert, American engineer: b.
Philadelphia, Pa., 25 Jan. 1850. He is lecturer
in the Franklin Institute of his native city
and has done much literary work. He has pub-
lished: <Saws> (1880); ^team-Engine Cate-
chism > (1887) ; < Records of Scientific Progress*
(1891) ; <Hints to Power Users* (1891) ; T Fifty
Years Hence* (1892).

Grim'thorpe, Edmund Beckett Denison,
Lord, English barrister and author: b. Carlton
Hall, Nottinghamshire, England, 12 May 1816;
d. 29 April 1905. He took much interest in
architecture, and designed many churches and
houses, but he will be longest remembered for
his restorations and rebuildings at St. Albans
Cathedral, works which were carried out at his
own expense, but from their iconoclastic char-
acter met with almost universal disapproval from
architects and excited much discussion both
in England and America. His works include:
Origin of the Laws of Nature* (1879) *» *A
Book on Building* (2d ed. 1880) ; < Should the
Revised New Testament be Authorized?*



Digitized by



Google



GRINDING— GRINNELL



(1882) ; Astronomy Without Mathematics
(7th ed. 1883) ; treatise on Clocks, Watches,
and Bells> (7th ed. 1883).

Grinding, a mechanical process in which
certain effects are produced by the attrition of
two surfaces. This process is of extensive use
in various mechanical arts, as in grinding corn,
ores, colors, in which cases the object is to re-
duce the materials by crushing to a fine powder ;
or in grinding the metals, glass, and other hard
substances for the purpose of giving them a cer-
tain figure or polish, or a sharp cutting edge.
In the first case the grinding or crushing is
effected by passing the material between rough
stones, as in the common flour-mill, or as in
crushing ores between heavy metal cylinders,
smooth or fluted, according to the degree of fine-
ness required, or by a heavy stone or iron cylin-
der revolving upon a smooth plate. Chicory,
chocolate, plumbago for pencils, and a variety
of other substances are ground by iron or stone
rollers, revolving on a slab in such a manner
that they not only merely roll but also rub on
the surface of the slab. A knife or scraper fol-
lows one roller and precedes the other, scooping
the paste into the position required to come
fairly under the roller which follows it Colors
are ground in small quantities with a muller
and slab. The muller is a heavy piece of stone
of conical shape, and which rests its base on the
slab and is grasped by the hands; the color is
mixed to a pasty consistence with the desired
medium of oil or water, and rubbed between the
two surfaces until smooth and impalpable. The
grinding of cutlery and tools is effected by means
of the grindstone ; glass lenses and metal specula
are ground to shape with emery-powder laid on
a metal tool Ornamental glass is ground into
facets or otherwise by means of stones and lap-
wheels. Diamonds and other precious stones are
cut or ground with diamond dust embedded in
soft iron. Large flat surfaces are obtained by
first working two pieces of the material nearly
flat and then laying the one upon the other and
grinding their surfaces together with sand,
emery, or other cutting powder. Plate-glass is
flattened in this way; also surfaces of cast-iron,
where accurate fitting is required. Sockets and
other bearings which require to be fitted with
great nicety are usually finished by being ground
together. For brass or bell-metal pumice-stone
is employed in such cases, as emery is apt to
embed itself in the metal and give it a permanent
abrading action on the bearings. Dry grinding
is the term applied to the grinding of steel with
dry grindstones. The points of needles and
forks are produced by this means, also the finish-
ing of steel pens and the surface of gun barrels.
The men and women engaged on this kind of
work suffer painfully from irritation of the
throat and nostrils caused by the fine, dust-like
liarticles that fly off from the work. These diffi-
culties have been mitigated in recent years by
the use of mouth-pieces of damp cloth, and the
provision of air-blasts to dispose of the dust.
Sand-jet grinding is a remarkable process, in
which abrasion is effected by the percussion of
small hard particles on a plain surface. Sharp
silicious sand, varying in hardness and fineness
according to the kind of work to be done, is
employed in most cases. This sand is impelled
fcy a blast of steam or of air. A hole iy 2 inch in
diameter by i l / 2 deep, has been bored through
a solid piece of corundum (the hardest mineral



known except the diamond) in 25 minutes by
sand driven with steam-power at 300 pounds
pressure on the square inch. A diamond ha*
been sensibly reduced in weight, and a topar
altogether dissipated by a sand-jet in one min-
ute. These results are obtained by causing ac
sand-stream to mix with a steam jet. The sand
passes through a central tube, and the steam
through an annular tube which surrounds h ; a-
kind of suction acts at the end of the concentric
tubes, which draws the sand into the steam jtt %
and both dash with great force against the stone
or other substance to be acted upon, which is
placed at about an inch from the mouth of the
tube. By the use of flexible jointed connecting
tubes the jet can be turned in any direction, and
grooves, moldings, letters, etc., can be produced
instead of merely straight cuts or cavities. By-
using an air jet instead of steam, and varying
the pressure, a design can be engraved on glas^
the parts not to be acted upon being covere
with the pattern, made of paper, lace, india-rub-
ber, or oil-paint.

Grindstone Island. (1) A small island Ty*
ing off the southeastern coast of New Bruns-
wick, Canada, at the head of the Bay of Fundy
It has a number of sandstone quarries, from
which a fine quality of sandstone is exported,
chiefly to the United States, for the manufacture
of grindstones. (2) One of the most impor-
tant of the Magdalen Islands, belonging to Que-
bec, in the gulf of St. Lawrence, northeast of
New Brunswick.

Grinnell, grTn-eT, George Bird, American"
writer and ornithologist: b. Brooklyn. N. Y.,
20 Sept. 1840. He has been an editor of < Forest
and Stream' from 1876. His works deal prin-
cipally with Indian life and folklore and among'
them are: < Pawnee Hero Stories and Folk
Tales* (1889) ; < The Story of a Prairie Peo-
ple> ; <The Story of the Indian 5 (1895) ; ( The
Indians of To-day* (1900) ; ( Jack Among the
Indians 5 (1900).

Grinnell, Henry, American patron of arc-
tic exploration: b. New Bedford, Mass., 1709^
d. New York, 30 June 1874. In 1828 he settle*!
in New York and amassed a fortune in business:
as a ship-owner. This gave him an opportunity
to fit out at his own expense the ship which in
1850 sailed from New York in search of Frank-
lin. He also bore a large part of the expense of
Kane's arctic voyage (1853-55), as well as of-
the later American expedition under the com-
mand of Hayes and Hall. In recognition of his
services to geographical science the American
Geographical Society elected him their president
and the coast which stretches to the north o£
Smith Sound was named Grinnell Land.

Grinnell, Josiah Bushnell, American cler-
gyman and politician: b. New Haven, Vt., 2&
Dec. 1821 ; d. Marshalltown, Iowa, 31 March
1891. After studying at Auburn Theological
Seminary, he entered the Presbyterian ministry
and held pastorates successively at Union Vil-
lage, N. Y., Washington, D. C, and New Yo*fc.
In 1854 h c founded the Congregational Church.*
in Grinnell, Iowa, a town named for him, and
preached there several years. Later he became-
known as a wool grower, sat in the Iowa senate
1856-60, and in Congress as a Republican*
1863-67. He frequently aided fugitive slaves,
and at one time a reward was offered for hi*
head on this account by slave-holders. He gave



Digitized by



Google



GRINNELL — GRISWOLD



much assistance to Grinnell University, of which
he was president, and laid out five Iowa towns.
He was the author of ( The Home of the Bad-
gers* (1845); < Cattle Industries of the United
States* (1884).

Grinnell, Iowa, city in Poweshiek County;
on the Chicago, R. I. & P., and the Iowa C.
R.R.'s; 115 miles west by north of Daven-
port. It is the principal trade centre for the
county, and manufactures flour, carriages,
gloves, and some farming implements. It is the
seat of the Iowa College, founded in 1848 and
under the auspices of the Congregational Church.
In 1882 the city was nearly swept away by a
cyclone. Pop. (ipio) 5,030.

Grinnell Land, a large tract of land in the
Arctic Ocean, separated from Greenland by
Kennedy and Robeson channels. The northern
part of the explored portion is called Grant
Land and the southern part Ellesmcre Land.
The coast is irregular, and the interior is hilly.
The climate of the Valleys is mild in summer;
in many places there is no snow for several
weeks, and vegetation grows rapidly. The fox,
wolf, musk-ox, ermine, and hare are found in
quite large numbers. Lieut. De Haven, an
American, in charge of the Grinnelx expedition
in search of Sir John Franklin, first saw this
land 22 Sept. 1850 and named it after Henry
Grinnell (q.v.). Eight months later it was vis-
ited by Capt. Penny of the British vessel, Lady
Franklin. He not knowing of the previous visit
called the country Prince Albert Land. A Brit-
ish expedition under Narses visited it 25 years
after De Haven, Greely in 1881, Lockwood in
1882, and Peary in 1898-99.

Gripe. (1) A brake applied to the wheel
of a crane or derrick; it generally consists of
an iron hoop under the control of a lever, and
is drawn closely around the wheel to check its
jnotion. (2) As a nautical term: (a) The
fore-foot of a ship, on to which the stem is fas-
tened ; the forward end of the keel. It is scarfed
to the stem piece and false keel, and is secured
by a horseshoe or ring to the stem, (b) A
broad plait of rope or bars of iron, with lanyard
rings and claws, passing over a large boat, and
by which it is secured to the ring bolts of the
•deck, (c) One of a pair of bands passing
round a boat near the stem and stern when
suspended from the davits, to prevent the boat
from swinging about

Grippe. See Influenza.

Griqualand (gre'kwa-land) East, a district
of Cape Colony, Africa, lying south of Natal,
between Pondoland and Basutoland; area, 7,594
square miles. The capital is Kokstad. Pop.
about 153*000.

Griqualand West, a district of Cape Col-
ony, Africa, bounded north by Bechuanaland,
vast by the Orange River colony, south by
Orange River, and west by Orange River and
Bechuanaland; area, 15,197 square miles. It is
noted for its diamond fields which in 1870 began
to attract people from other countries. The
country was then claimed by the Orange Free
State and by Waterboer, the Griqua chief. In
1871 Waterboer ceded all his rights to the British
government, and in 1876 the Orange Free State
relinquished all claim for the sum of about
$440,000. In 1880 Griqualand West was incor-
porated as a part of Cape Colony. The chief



centre of the diamond mining industry is Kim-
berley (q.v.), the capital. Pop. about 85/500.
Consult: 'Statesman's Year Book ) ; Reports
(British) ( On the Cape and Griqualand West
Diamond Mining ; } Reunert, ( Diamonds and
Gold in South Africa > ; Williams, <The Dia-
mond Mines of South Africa } (1902).

Gris'com, John, American educator: b.
Hancock's Bridge, Salem County, N. J., 27
Sept. 1774; d. Burlington, N. J., 26 Feb. 1852.
After pursuing his studies at the Friends' Acad-
emy in Philadelphia, established by William
Penn, he took charge of the Friends' monthly
meeting school in Burlington, with which he
was connected 13 years. In 1807 he removed to
New York, and began there a career of 25 years
as a teacher. In connection with his school he
lectured on chemistry with much success. He
took a prominent part in the formation of the
society for the prevention of pauperism (1817),
of which he prepared the constitution and an
elaborate first report on the causes and remedies
of pauperism. He was an organizer of the Rut-
gers Medical College, in which he occupied the
chair of chemistry and natural philosophy, and
after the suspension of the college was widely
known as a general lecturer on those subjects.
Horace Mann quoted him as one of the ei^ht
educational authorities for the changes which
Mann planned to introduce into the Massa-
chusetts school system.

Grisons, gre-zon (German, Graubunden or
Btinden}, the largest canton of Switzerland;
area, about 2,77^ square miles. It is a moun-
tainous country, more than 20 peaks being above
9,000 feet The valleys are generally narrow,
Upper and Lower Engadine are the broadest.
Its chief drainage streams are the Inn, branches
of the Adige and the Adda, and the Vorder and
the Hinter Rhine which have their rise in this
canton, and which belong to the Rhine basin.
There are a large number of small lakes. Snow
rests on the mountains until the last of May
and sometimes into late July, but the climate of
the valleys is warm or temperate nearly all the
year. Agriculture in the valleys and the raising
of cattle and sheep on the mountain sides are
the chief occupations.

Griswold, griz'wold, Alexander Viet*,
American Protestant Episcopal bishop: b. Sims-
bury, Hartford County, Conn., 22 April 1766;
d Boston, Mass., 15 Feb. 1843. After studying
for the ministry he was ordained in 1795. He
was rector of St. Michael's Church, Bristol, R. J.,
1804-30 and of St. Peter's, Salem, Mass.,
1830-35. When what was known as the eastern
diocese of the Episcopal Church was organized
he was consecrated its first bishop in 181 1. He
published ( The Reformation and the Apostolic
Office 5 (1843). See Stone, ( Memoirs of Bishop
Griswold 5 (1844).

Griswold, John Augustus, American man-
ufacturer: b. Nassau, Rensselaer County, N. Y.,
1822; d. 1872. At Troy, N. Y., he was active
successively in the hardware, drug, and iron
trades, and established the Albany and Rens-
selaer Iron and Steel Company. He was a
leader in the introduction of Bessemer steel man-
ufacture into the United States, and with C. H.
Delamater built the Monitor of Civil War fame.
In 1855 he was elected mayor of Troy, in 1863 a
Democratic representative in Congress, and sub-



Digitized by



Google



GRISWOLD — GROIN



sequently was twice re-elected as a Republican.
In 1868 he was nominated for the governorship
of New York, but defeated by the Democratic
nominee, J. T. Hoffman.

Griswold, Matthew, American jurist: b.
Lyme, Conn., 25 March 1714; d. there 28 April
1799. Besides being lieutenant-governor of
Connecticut 1771-84, he was governor 1784-85
and became judge of the supreme court in 1769.
He also presided over the convention which rat-
ified the Federal Constitution.

Griswold, Roger, American politician: b.
Lyme, Conn., 21 May 1762; d. Norwich, Conn.*
25 Oct 1812. He was graduated from Yale
College in 1780, and afterward studied and en-
tered on the practice of law. He was a member
of Congress, 1 795-1805, and became judge of the
Connecticut supreme court in 1807. He was
lieutenant-governor of his native State, 1809-11,
and governor 1811-13. He was a son of Mat-
thew Griswold (q.v.).

Griswold, Rufus Wilmot, American au-
thor and compiler: b. Benson, Rutland County,
Vt, 15 Feb. 1815; d. in New York 27 Aug.
1857. He was apprenticed to the printing trade,
but afterward studied divinity and became a
preacher in the Baptist Church. -He soon be-
came associated in the editorship of literary
periodicals in Boston, New York, and Philadel-
phia, among which were the ( New Yorker,*
( Brother Jonathan,* and the ( New World.*
In 1842-43 he edited ( Graham's Magazine,* in
Philadelphia, to which he attracted contributions
from some of the best writers in the country,
and in 1850 projected the international Maga-
zine,* published in New York, and edited by
him till April, 1852. The works by which he is
chiefly known are collections of specimens from
American authors, accompanied by memoirs and
critical remarks. His published works include:
< Poets and Poetry of America* (1842) ; < Prose
Writers of America* (1846); l Female Poets of
America* (1849) J * Sacred Poets of England
and America > (1849) ; < Poets and Poetry of
England in the Nineteenth Century* (4th ed.
1854) ; Curiosities of American Literature,*
< Washington and the Generals of the American
Revolution,* with Simms, Ingraham, and others
(1847), Napoleon and the Marshals of the Em-
pire,* with Wallace (1847) ; Republican Court,
or American Society in the Days of Washing-
ton* (1854). He edited the first American
edition of the prose works of Milton (1845),
and was one of the editors of the works of
Edgar A. Poe, for whose bad repute Griswold's
Memoir* is partly responsible.

Griswoldville, Battle of. When General
Sherman marched from Atlanta to the sea, his
right wing, commanded by Gen. Howard, was
under instructions to threaten Macon and strike
the Savannah Railroad at Gordon, about 20
miles east. Upon his arrival at Clinton, the
cavalry advance made a demonstration on
Macon, and 21 Nov. 1864, his entire cavalry
force took up an advanced position covering
all the roads to Macon, and that day and the
next all the troops and trains were closed up
toward Gordon, except C. R. Woods' division,
which was directed to take up a strong position
on the Irwinton road and demonstrate on Macon
and Griswoldville, eight miles east. The demon-
stration was made on the 22d by Walcutt's



brigade of 1,513 men and two guns, in co-
operation with Kilpatrick's cavalry on the dif-
ferent roads. Some of Kilpatrick's cavalry were
in advance of Walcutt and were fiercely attacked
by Wheeler; but with Walcutt's assistance
Wheeler was driven from the field, and
followed by Walcutt beyond Griswoldville.
Walcutt was then recalled to a position a little
east of Griswoldville, where two miles in ad-
vance of his division, he formed line along a
slight rise of ground, with his flanks well pro-
tected by swampy ground, and with an open:
field in front. Kilpatrick's cavalry was on either
flank. Walcutt had scarcely thrown up a rail
barricade, in view of another attack of Wheeler's
cavalry, when he was fiercely assailed by in-
fantry. That morning, under Gen. Hardee's
order, Gen. G. W. Smith, in command of a
considerable body of Georgia militia that had
been concentrated at Macon, directed Gen.
Phillips, with a division of infantry and a
battery, to march from Macon to Gordon and
take trains for Augusta. Phillips had been
instructed to halt before reaching Griswoldville
and wait for further orders, and was cautioned
not to engage an enemy if met, but to fall back
to the fortifications at Macon. But when he
heard of Walcutt's position he moved through
Griswoldville and, with more courage than dis-
cretion, threw his four brigades against Wal-
cutt, at the same time opening destructively*
with his artillery. At 2 o'clock, in three com-
pact lines, his militia charged to within 75 yards
of Walcutt's line, and were repulsed. The
assaults were repeated in front and on both
flanks, and continued until sunset, when, every-
where repulsed, he abandoned the field, leaving
his dead and wounded. During the action Wal-
cutt was severely wounded by a piece of shell.
The Union loss was 13 killed, 69 wounded, and
2 missing. The Confederate loss was 51 killed
and 472 wounded. Consult : Official Records,*
Vol. XLIV.; Cox, <The March to the Sea*;
the Century Company's < Battles and Leader*
of the Civil War,* Vol. IV.

E. A. Carman.
Griv'et See Green Monkeys.

Groesbeck, groos'bSk, William Slocomb r
American politician: b. New York, 181 5; d.
1897. He was graduated from Miami Univer-
sity, Oxford, Ohio, in 1835, studied law and
began practice at Cincinnati. In 1851 he was a
member of the Ohio State constitutional con-
vention, and in 1852 a member of the commis-
sion appointed for the codification of the State
laws. From 1857 to 1859 he was a Democratic
representative in Congress, in 1872 was nomi-
nated for the Presidency by the Liberal Repub-
licans but met no recognition in the ensuing cam-
paign, and in 1878 was United States delegate tc*
the International Monetary Congress at Paris-
He defended Andrew Johnson in the latter's
impeachment trial (1868).

Groin, the region where the front of the
thigh joins the body. The abdominal muscles
end below in a strong tendon which makes a
fold across the front of the bony pelvis. The
large nerves, arteries, and veins pass through
folds of this ligament, and portions of the ab-
dominal contents in case of rupture pass inta
the scrotum or form a tumorous swelling in the
groin.



Digitized by



Google



ORONLUND — GROSBEAK



Gronlund, grdn'lund, Lawrence, American
socialist : b. in Denmark 1847 ; d. 1899. He stud-
ied in the University of Copenhagen, in 1867
came to the United States, practiced law for
a time, but became a writer and speaker on
socialism. Among his publications are ( The
Coming Revolution (1880), a forecast of the
peaceful changes which he believed might be
effected by a national organization operating in
every community; ( £a Ira, ) a rehabilitation of
Danton (1888); and <The New Economy >
<i898).

Gronovius, gro-no'vi-us (properly Gronov.
:gr6'nov), the name of several Dutch classical
scholars :

(1) Johann Friedrich, yd'han fred'rih: b.
Hamburg 8 Sept. 161 1 ; d. Leyden, 28 Dec. 1671.
He studied at Leipsic and Jena, and law at Alt-
<iorf, was appointed professor of history and
eloquence at Deventer (1642), and, after the
<leath of Heinius, succeeded him as professor of
belles-lettres at Leyden (1658). His editions
of Livy, Statius, Justin, Tacitus, Aulus Gellius,
Phaedrus, Seneca, Sallust, Cicero, Terence, Pliny,
and Plautus, < Observationes ) (1639), and edi-
tion of Hugo Grotius' work, < De Jure Belli et
Pacis* (1642) are justly valued on account of
the notes.

(2) Jakob, ya'kob, son of the preceding:
b. Deventer, 1645 ; d. Leyden, 21 Oct. 1716. He
studied at Deventer and Leyden, and published,
in 1676, an edition of Polybius, which met with
great applause. He received from the grand
•duke of Tuscany a professorship at Pisa, which
he relinquished in 1679 to become professor of
Greek literature and history at Leyden. This
learned critic edited Tacitus, Polybius, Herodo-
tus, Pomponius Mela, Cicero, Ammianus Mar-
cellinus and other classical writers, and com-
piled the valuable < Thesaurus Antiquitatum
Graecarum ) (1698-1702). He also promoted the
publication of the collections of Graevius. He
*was a violent controversialist.

Groot, grot, Groete, or Groote, Gerhard or
•Gerardus, founder of the Brothers of the
Common Life (q.v.) : b. Deventer 1340; d.
there 20 Aug. 1384. Educated at Paris, he there
became a teacher, later 'took deacon's orders and



Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 69 of 185)