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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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was successful as a traveling preacher. He
advocated general reading of the Scriptures, as-
sembled a company for the preparation of copies
of the Bible, and thus began the formation of the
Brothers of the Common Life. To this order,
which obtained papal sanction in 141 8, belonged
Thomas a Kempis (q.v.). Groot was the author
of several works.

Gros, Antoine-Jean, an-twan zhon gro,
Baron, French historical painter: b. Paris 16
March 1771 ; d. near Paris, 26 June 1835. At
14 he became a pupil of David, and in 1794 left
Paris for Rome. His means, however, were not
sufficient for the journey, and he had to depend
on what he could earn as a portrait-painter in
the various towns he passed through. At Genoa,
in 1796, he was drawn for the French army, and
soon became a staff-officer. Josephine, afterward
empress of France, saw and admired several por-
traits by the young officer, and he was called
upon to paint that of Bonaparte. The result
was a picture representing Napoleon leading his
troops over the bridge of Areola. In 1804 he
produced his ( Peste de Jaffa,* considered by
many to be his masterpiece. He painted the

<Bataille d'Aboukir> (1806) ; <Bataille d'Eylau>
(1808) ; <La Prise de Madrid, 5 < Wagram,> and
( La Bataille des Pyramided (1810). In France
his chief work is considered by some to be the
cupola of St. Genevieve at Paris, exhibiting the
saint protecting the throne of France, repre-
sented by Clovis, Charlemagne, St. Louis, and
Louis XVIII. This picture covers an immense
space, and is correct in design but defective in
color and expression. The artist received for
it 100,000 francs and the title of baron. The
rise of the romantic school bore away from him
the tide of popularity, and his last work <Her-
cule et Diomede,* was a failure. Adverse criti-
cisms upon it brought on a fit of despondency
and he drowned himself in the Seme.

Gros Ventres, gro vantr (Fr. *big bellies*).
(1) The Minnetari or Hidatsa Indians, on the
Missouri River. (2) A band of the Arapaho,
who separated .from the main body about 1800:
the name was a misunderstanding of their own
term, which meant ^hungry men* or ^beggars.*
After conflicts with the Sioux, and being
plundered bv the Crows, whom they had joined,
they settled among the Blackfeet near Milk
River about 1824 ; prospered, and were very hos-
tile to the whites. About 1830 they had some
400 lodges and 3,000 souls. But about 1866 they
were decimated by the measles, and thus weak-
ened, received a terrible defeat from the Pie-
gans; reduced to about 1,300 by smallpox in
1870, they were plundered and many killed by
the Sioux. Later they were joined by the mam
body of Arapaho and Cheyennes. In 1868 they
were settled among the Blackfeet in Montana.

Grosbeak, gros'bek, any of various birds
whose beaks seem disproportionately large.
They are mainly finches such as the hawfinch
and bullfinch in Europe, and their relatives in
the Orient Bird-dealers call ^grosbeaks* a
great number of African, Asiatic and American
line cage-birds, some of which are weaver-birds,
or tanagers, etc. The term is more exactly given
to certain North American fringilline birds with .
big swollen bills, such as the cardinal (q.v.),
the evening grosbeak (q.v.), and the pine, blue,
rose-breasted, and black-headed grosbeaks. The
pine grosbeak (Pinko la enuclcator) is a green-
ish yellow finch which dwells exclusively in the
coniferous forests of northern Europe and
America, and is only seen in the United States
when forced southward by hard winters; it
feeds on the seeds of the pine, spruce, etc.,
wrenching open the cones with its powerful beak.
The blue grosbeak (Guiraca carufea) is a large,
richly blue southern and western bird, nearly re-
lated to the indigo-finch, which makes its nest
in a bush, and lays pale blue eggs, wholly un-
marked. The rose-breasted and black-headed
grosbeaks represent the genus Zamelodia, the
former (Z. ludoviciana) in the Eastern States,
and the latter (Z. melanocephala) in the Rocky
Mountain region. Both are birds of brushy
places, making large, rude nests in bushes and
laying greenish, heavily marked eggs; and in
the breeding-season both are among the loudest
and most brilliant of American song-birds. As
in nearly all the grosbeaks the females of these
species are inconspicuous in brown tints, while
the males are dressed in gay colors. The male
rose-breasted has the head, neck and upper parts
mostly black, with the rump, wings, tail and
abdomen, white; while the breast and lining of

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the bend of the wing are exquisite rose-red,
which the bird is fond of displaying. The male
black-head has a wholly black head and upper
parts, set off by a collar and other marks of dull
orange, which color also suffuses the whole
lower parts.

Grose, gros, William, American soldier
and politician: b. Dayton, Ohio, 1812; d. 1900.
He resigned his position as judge of the court
of common pleas in 1861 to recruit and take
command of the 36th Indiana regiment of
infantry, and commanded a brigade in the bat-
tles of Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, and Chat-
tanooga. He was commissioned brigadier-gen-
eral 30 July 1864 and at the battle of Nashville,
15 and 16 Dec; 1864, he commanded the Third
brigade in General Thomas's army. In 1865 he
was brevetted major-general of volunteers. He
was State senator from 1879 to I 883-

Gross, gros, Charles, American historian:
b. Troy, N. Y., 10 Feb. 1857. After graduating
from Williams College in 1878, he pursued his
studies at Gottingen, and was engaged in literary
work in England 1884-87. Since 1888 he has
been instructor and professor of history at Har-
vard University. A frequent contributor to the
American Historical Review > and other his-
torical journals, he has published: <Gilda Mer-
catoria > (1883) ; ( The Exchequer of the Jews of
England in the Middle Ages 5 (1887) ; <The
Gild Merchant 5 (1890) ; < Select Cases from the
Coroner's Rolls 5 (1896) ; bibliography of
British Municipal History 5 (1897) ; 'Sources
and Literature of English History 5 (1900). In
addition he has translated: Lavisse's ( Political
History of Europe 5 (1891) ; Kayserling's ( Chris-
topher Columbus 5 (1893).

Gross, Samuel D., American physician and
surgeon: b. Northampton County, Pa., 8 July
1805 ; d. 6 May 1884. He began the practice of
medicine in Philadelphia, devoting his leisure to
study and to the translation of French and Ger-
man medical works. His first original work
was a treatise on the 'Diseases and Injuries of
the Bones and Joints 5 (1830), in which occurs
the first account of the use of adhesive plaster
as a means of extension in the treatment of frac-
tures. In 1835 he became professor of patholog-
ical anatomy in the medical department of the
Cincinnati college, where he delivered the first
systematic course of lectures on morbid anatomy
that had ever been given in this country, and
composed the first systematic treatise upon the
subject ever published in the United States,
< Eleraents of Pathological Anatomy (1839).
In 1840 he became professor of surgery in the
University of Louisville. Besides the works
already mentioned, he was the author of a
monograph on < Wounds of the Intestines 5
<i843) ; ( Diseases, Injuries, and Malformations
of the Urinary Organs 5 (1851) ; ( Foreign
Bodies in the Air Passages 5 (1854) ; ( System
of Surgery, Pathological, Diagnostic, Thera-
peutic, and Operative 5 (2 vols. 1859).

Grosse, Julius Waldemar, German poet,
■dramatist, and novelist: b. Erfurt, Prussia, 25
April, 1828; d. 1902. After obtaining his edu-
cation at Halle, he entered the field of journal-
ism, for 16 years (1854-70), being associated
with the Neue Munchener Zeitung (afterward
known as the Bayrische Zeitung), and in 1870
becoming secretary of the Schiller-Stiftung, at
Weimar. His* writings are various, including

novels, dramas, epics, songs, and ballads, the
most important of which are his war songs,
( Wider Frankreisch 5 (1870) ; <Das Volkrams-
lied 5 (1889) ; ( GundeI von Konigssee, 5 and ( Das
Madchen von Capri, 5 all epic poems; ( Pesach
PardeP (1871); <Hilpah und Shalum, 5 and
<Der Wasunger Not 5 (1872), comic epics; the
dramas, Tiberius 5 (1875), and ^ortunat*
(1895) ; the novels, ( Ein Revolutionar 5 (2d ed.
1871), and <Tante Carldora, 5 and several tales
and romances, among which is ( Die Novellen
des Architekten 5 (1896).

Grosseteste, Robert, English Roman Cath-
olic prelate: b. Stradbrook, Suffolk, about 1175;
d. Buckden, 9 Oct. 1253. He studied law,
physics, and theology at Oxford and Paris, and,
upon his return to England, attained an enviable
reputation as a theologian, so much so that in
1214 he became archdeacon of Wifts. and in
1224 received the directorate of theology and
became first rector scholarum of the Franciscan
school at Oxford. In 1232 he took up the cause
of the Jews against the king, defending them
with great vigor, and in 1235 was elected Bishop
of Lincoln, whereupon he undertook to make
radical changes in his diocese and eliminate
some of the many abuses prevalent there, the
result of which was that though he was pos-
sessed of great force of character, his high
temper and lack of tact and diplomacy led him
into innumerable controversies. The most fa-
mous of these was with Pope Innocent IV.,
who, desiring to fill the lucrative positions in
the church with Italians and Provencals, in
1253 sent the Bishop a request that he appoint
his (the Pope's) nephew to the first vacant
canonry in the cathedral of Lincoln. This
Grosseteste flatly refused to do, and, as his
clergy stood by him in his fight against this
abuse, the matter was finally drooped and it is
mainly upon this incident that his fame rests.
He was, though, a man of great scholarly at"
tainments, Hebrew, Latin, Greek, French,
mathematics, medicine, and music being num-
bered among them, beside which he was one of
the most learned preachers of his time and a
voluminous writer. Consult: Perry, ^fe 5
(London 1871); Luard (editor), ( Roberti
Grosseteste Episcopi quondam Lincolniensis
Epistoke 5 in the Rolls Series (1862). *.

Gross!, Tommaso, Italian poet and novel-
ist: b. Belluno, on the Lake of Como, 20 Jan.
1791 ; d. Milan, 10 Oct. 1853. He studied law at
Pavia and settled in Milan, where he passed
the remainder of his life as a notary, but his
political ideas prevented his rise in his pro-
fession. His first attempt at poetry was <La
Principe, 5 written in the Milanese dialect, and
this was followed in 1816 by two shorter poems,
<La Fuggitiva 5 and <La Pioggia d'Oro, 5 and
in 1820 by ^ldegonda, 5 a romance in verse.
This poem became popular arid set the fashion
for that style of writing, the success which it
attained encouraging him to write <I Lombardi
alia Prima Crociata 5 in 1826, a poem remarka-
ble for its patriotic sentiment. Despite the fact
that Manzoni gives praise to this last poem in
his novel ( I promessisposi, 5 and that the cost of
printing was defrayed by a generous subscrip-
tion, it was soon forgotten. This did not dis-.
hearten him, however, and in 1834 he published
his c Marco Visconti, 5 which at once excited
public approval and became the pioneer of tb'

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historical novel in Italy. His only other work
of note was ( Ulrico e Lida, } published in 1837.

Grosso, Matto, ma'to gro'so, Brazil (q.v.),
a western central state bordering on Bolivia,
Argentina, and Paraguay. It has an area of
532,500 square miles and an estimated pop-
ulation in 1 9 10 of 137,000. Capital Cuyaba

Grosvenor, gro've-nor, Edwin Augustus,
American educator and author : b. Newburyport,
Mass., 30 Aug. 1845. He was graduated at Am-
herst College in 1867 and at Andover Theologi-
cal Seminary in 1872, was professor of history
at Roberts College, Constantinople, in 1873-90;
and of European history at Amherst College in
1892-9. In 1899 he was appointed to the
newly established chair of modern governments
and their administration. His publications in-
clude translations from the French of Victor
Duruy's ( Modern Times* (1894) and ( General
History* (1898) ; <The Hippodrome of Con-
stantinople' (1889); Constantinople* (1895);
'The Permanence of the Greek Type* (1897) ;
and < Contemporary History* (1899), extending
from 1848 to the present time.

Grote, George, English historical writer:
b. Clayhill, Kent, 17 Nov. 1794; d. London, 18
June 1871. After having studied at the Charter-
house, in 1809, he became a clerk in his father's
banking house. He kept on with his studies,
particularly with philosophy, and his liberal
trend of thought gradually drew him into poli-
tics. He had written and spoken much in favor
of the Reform Bill which was passed in 1832.
and in that year he was elected to the House of
Commons from London, which seat he continu-
ously occupied until 1841. During all these
years he had steadily worked upon his ( History
of Greece,* the idea of which was suggested to
him by the spirit of partiality displayed in Mit-
ford's ( History of Greece* and which he had
severely criticised in an article in the West-
minster Review (April 1826). He had as early
as 1823 devoted himself to the study of Greek
history, for a sympathetic interpretation of
which his extreme liberality made him admirably
suited, and though to a certain extent the spirit
of democracy is evident in the < History of
Greece,* yet the facts are placed before the
reader with the idea that he will form his own
conclusion. His private and public duties had
prohibited literary work and it was not until
he retired that he completed the first two vol-
umes which appeared in 1845, tne ^ ast v °l ume
of the set, the twelfth, appearing in 1856. Grote
also wrote ( Plato and the Other Companions of
Socrates* (3 vols., 1865) ; <Minor Works,*
edited by Alexander Bain (London 1873), and
Aristotle,* which he left unfinished (2 vols.,
1872). He had taken an active interest in edu-
cational matters, in i860 becoming vice-chancel-
lor of the London University, and in 1869 pres-
ident of the University College, and also was
elected a trustee of the British Museum. Con-
sult: Mrs. Grote, ( Memoirs* (London, 1873);
Alexander Bain, Character and Writings of G.
Grote,* prefixed to his < Minor Works* (Lon-
don, 1873).

Grotefend, Georg Friedrich, German ar-
chaeologist and philologist: b. Miinden, near
Cassel, Prussia, 9 June 1775; d. Hanover, 15
Dec. 1853. He received his early education at

Hanover and Ilfeld, and completed his studies
at the University of Gottingen (1795-7). He
became prorector and later conrector of the
gymnasium at Frankfort-on-the-Main ( 1803-21 ) r
and for nearly 30 years (1821-^49) was director
of the lyceum at Hanover. His research in the
field of Latin philology was of great value, but
his importance is chiefly due to the fact that
he first deciphered the old Persian inscriptions
of Persepolis, presenting the results of his labors
in a paper before the Academy of Science at
Gottkigen, 4 Sept. 1802. Chief among his pub-
lications are: ( Rudimenta linguae Umbncx*
(183J-8) ; <Neue Beitrage zur Erlauterung der
babylonischen Keiliuschrift* (1840) ; <Zur
Geographic und Geschichte von alt-Italien*^
(1840-2); <Rudimenta Linguae Oscae (1839K

Grotius (gro'chi-us), or De Groot, Hugo^
Dutch scholar and statesman: b. Delft 10 April
1583 ; d. Rostock 28 Aug. 1645. He was a pupil
of Joseph Scaliger at the University of Leyden^
conducted his first lawsuit in his 17th year; and
in his 24th was appointed advocate-general. In
1613 he became syndic, or pensionary, of Rot-
terdam. In 1615 he was sent to England in
order to arrange the difficulties arising from the?
claims of the English to exclude his countrymen
from the Greenland whale-fishery. He declared
himself on the side of Barneveldt (q.v.) in the
struggle between the Remonstrants and their
opponents, and was sentenced to imprisonment
for life in the fortress of Loevenstein. He
succeeded in escaping by concealing himself in.
a chest, and after wandering about for some
time in the Catholic Netherlands escaped to
France, where Louis XIII. gave him a pension
of 3,000 livres, withdrawn in 1631. He re-
turned to Holland, but by the influence of
enemies, was condemned to perpetual banish-
ment. He later went to Hamburg, and in 1634
to Stockholm, where he was appointed conn*
sellor of state and ambassador to the French
court, in which post he remained for ten years.
On his return to Sweden by way of Holland he
met, in Amsterdam, with a distinguished re-
ception. Most of his enemies were dead, and
his countrymen repented of having banished the
man who was the honor of his native land.
With the talents of the most able statesman,
Grotius united deep and extensive learning. He
was a profound theologian, excellent in exege-
sis, his Commentary on the New Testament
being still esteemed; a distinguished scholar,,
an acute philosopher and jurist, and a judicious-
historian. His writings have had a decisive
influence on the formation of a sound taste, and
on the diffusion of an enlightened and liberal
manner of thinking in affairs of science. As
a critic and philologist he seizes the genius of
an author with sagacity, illustrates briefly and
pertinently, and amends the text with facility*
and success. His metrical translations from the
Greek are executed with the spirit of a poet-
Among the modern Latin poets he holds one of
the first places, and he also tried bis powers iiv
Dutch verse. But the philosophy of jurispru-
dence has been especially promoted by his great
work on natural and national law, <De Jure Belli
et Pacis, } which represented the study of twenty-
years and laid the foundation of the new science
of international law; besides which he wrote
( Annales et. Kistoriae de Rebus Belgicis*
(1657); 'Anhotationes in Vetus Testamentum*

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(1644) ; *Annotationes in Novum Testamen-
tum* (1641-46). <De Veritate Religionis Chris-
tiana, and Poemata* (1617). See Butler, ( Life
of Hugo Grotjus* (1826) ; Hely, <Etude sur le
Droit de la Guerre et de la Paix de Grotius >

Gro'ton, Conn., town in New London
County; on the Thames River, the New York,
N. H. & H. railroad; opposite New London.
In 1637 Capt. Mason stormed the fortress held
by the Pequots, and many lives were lost, both
whites and Indians. A more disastrous fight oc-
curred here 6 Sept. 1781, when 800 British troops
under Benedict Arnold attacked Fort Griswold
(q.v.), which was garrisoned by 150 soldiers.
The Americans heroically resisted, but were
overwhelmed by numbers, and Arnold and his
force entering the fort butchered 85 men and
wounded 65. Soon after 35 of the 65 died from
the effects of their wounds. This battle is known
in history as the ^Massacre of Fort Griswold. 3 *
Groton contains ship-building yards, several
manufactories, and the Bill Memorial Library.
Consult: Caulkins, ( The Stone Records of Gro-
ton* (1903) ; < History of New London
County* ; ^Magazine of American History,*
<The Massacre of Fort Griswold.*

Grouchy, groo-she, Emmanuel, Marquis
de, French marshal : b. Paris 23 Oct 1766 ; d. St.
Etienne 29 May 1847. He acquired distinction
in the revolutionary armies, and in the campaign
of 1800 fought in the army of the Rhine under
Moreau, and rendered important service at the
battle of Hohenlinden. In the war with Prussia
in 1806, and with Russia in 1807, he acquired
new fame, and was sent to the army of Italy
under Prince Eugene. At the battle of Wagram
his masterly manoeuvres contributed greatly to
the victory. On the restoration he was banished,
but aJlowed to return in 1815. On Napoleon's
return from Elba he immediately joined him,
was made a marshal, and obtained first the com-
mand of the army of the Alps, and then the com-
mand of the cavalry in the grand army. After
the battle of Ligny he was sent on the following
day with 34,000 men and 100 cannon to follow
the retreat of the Prussian army under Blucher.
While he here on the 18th engaged with Thiele-
mann, Napoleon gave battle at Waterloo, the
disastrous issue of which has been sometimes
laid to Grouchy's charge, from having failed to
observe how three divisions of the Prussian army
were advancing to Waterloo to take Napoleon
in flank and rear, while Thielemann alone re-
mained at Wavres. Being again banished, he
came to the United States, where he lived five
years, but was permitted to return in 1819.
After the July revolution he was elected to the
chamber of deputies by the department of Allier,
supported the new dynasty, and was appointed
in 183 1 marshal, and in 1832 a peer.

Ground Beetles. The family Carabida,
predatory beetles of various sizes and appear-
ance. It contains upwards of 1,200 described
species, nearly all of nocturnal habit, and, conse-
quently, dark, mostly black in color. Some
species, however, are metallic green or blue, or
beautifully variegated. The family contains
many beneficial species, which roam fields, mead-
ows and gardens, destroying many injurious
pests. They fly freely at night, and seek con-
cealment in the daytime under stones and logs
and in other convenient hiding-places. Most

species are terrestrial, but a few forms, such as
species of Calosotna, known as ( caterpillar-hunt-
ers,* climb the trunks of trees in search of
noxious caterpillars which they destroy. A
remarkable genus is that of the bombardier
beetles (q.v.). A very few are occasionally
injurious, among them Agonoderus pallipes,
which burrows into newly planted seeds of corn ;
and two species of Harpalus which are de-
structive to strawberries. These latter insects
are interesting because of their dual habit of
being carnivorous as well as herbivorous. They
attack, in the beetle stage, the seeds of Ambrosia^
and also eat insects of various kinds.

Ground-cherry, herbaceous plants of the
potato family, constituting the genus PhysaHs,
scattered through most of the world. About 35
species are natives of the United States, and
some are known as ( tomato strawberries,* and
are cultivated for the sake of ♦their berry-like
fruit, which is hidden within a persistent red

Ground Cuckoo, a coucal (q.v.).

Ground-dove, any of various species of
pigeons which live mainly on the ground and
seek their food there. The name is especially
given to the genus Columbagallina, small birds
of the warmer parts of America, of which one
gentle and familiar species (C. passerina) is well
known in the South Atlantic States, along the
coast. The bronze-wing pigeons of Australia,
and the large pigeons of the genus Goura (q.v.)
are also so called.

Ground Ivy, a familiar European labiate
plant (Glechoma hederacea), allied to mint, with
a creeping stem and purple flowers. The leaves
are crenate-reniform and the flowers are in
threes. It was formerly employed to flavor ale
and also medicinally.

Ground-nut, a climbing plant (Apios apios)
of the pea family, which puts out dense clusters
of dull purple flowers after most other plants
have stopped blooming; these are velvety withiri
and sweetly fragrant. The tuberous rootstock
is edible, whence the name.

Ground-rent, in law, is the rent paid to the
landlord by a person for the use of ground on
which he intends to build. The usual arrange-
ment is for a specified time, generally for
a period of ninety-nine years. On the ex-
piry of this period the whole of the build-
ing becomes the property of the ground-
landlord. The ground-landlord is able, when
his rent is in arrear, to distrain all the
goods and chattels found on the premises,
to whomsoever they may belong; and as the
ground-rent is generally a small sum compared
with the furniture of a tenant, he is always cer-
tain of recovering its full amount. This power
of distress exists whether the tenant has paid
his house-rent to his landlord or not, but the
tenant may deduct the amount from the next
rent he pays. See Landlord; Rent; Tenant.

Ground-sloths, a family (Megatheriida)
of extinct edentates, related to the modern sloths,
but of terrestrial habits, and, in respect to many
of them, of gigantic size, which are of special
interest because some survived into the human
period. They exhibit the head and teeth of a
sloth, associated with the vertebrae, limbs and
tail of an ant-eater. They were chiefly South
American, but spread as far as North America

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Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 70 of 185)