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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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Maria Galante, Les Saintes, and Desirade.
The chief products are sugar, coffee of
the finest quality, and cocoa. Revenues amount
to about $1,300,000 to $1,400,000 annually; ex-
penditures, including the appropriations made
by France from time to time, are somewhat m
excess of that sum. Guadeloupe is a depart-
ment of France, represented in the French
chambers by one senator and two deputies. Its
local interests are directed by a governor and a
general legislative assembly of 30 members, the
jurisdiction embracing one half of St. Martin,
besides the islands which have been mentioned.
There are nearly 100 elementary schools, with
11,000 pupils, and one lycee, with 350 pupils.
The chief seaport, Point^a-Pitre, with about
17,000 inhabitants, is situated on the eastern side
of Basae-Terre. Several times its buildings have
been destroyed or severely damaged ; in . 1903
minor earthquakes were reported to be of fre-
quent occurrence; and, a fresh outbreak from
La Soufriere was thought to. be not improbable.
Le Moule, the principal town t of Grande-Terre*
resembles Point-a-Pitre in size and situation.
After the discovery, Guadeloupe belonged to
Spain until 1635; in that year it was taken by
the French; in 1794 England seized it, freed
the slaves, and retained possession until 1802;
then it passed again into French Lands, together
with Martinique, England taking St. Lucia in
exchange; the restoration of slavery by the
Frencli was resisted by the negroes, and was
attended with great suffering and loss of life J
for a brief period in 1810 England once more
held Guadeloupe, but returned it to France;
emancipation was declared in 184S. The inhabi-
tants are largely Frencli mulattoes, with perhaps
15,000 coolies. Total population, including de-
pendencies, about 167,000. Consult Hill, .< Cuba
and IPorto Rico, with the other Islands of the
West Indies.' Marrion Wilcox,

Authority on Spanish America.

Guadiana, gwa-fhe-a'na, a river of Spain
and Portugal, which rises in the plateau of New
Castile, flows first northwest, then circuitously
southwest into and across Estremadura, and on
reaching Badajoz turns southwest and forms
part of the boundary between Spain and Portu-
gal. Entering Portugal it flows past Monsaraz,
Moura, and Serpa, to Mertolav again forms the
boundary between the two kingdoms, and falls
into the Atlantic between Castro Marim on the
Portuguese, and Ayamonte on the Spanish side.
Its course is about 515 miles, of which only 35
are navigable. Its chief tributaries are the
Giguela, Bullaque, Valdehornos and Rubial on
the right, and the Azuel and Jabalon on the left,

Guagua, gwa'gwa, Philippines, a pueblo of
the province of Pampanga, island of Luzon, on
one of the main channels of the Pampanga delta,
3 miles southwest of Bacolor. It is the port for
Bacolor, has steamboat communication with
Manila, and has an extensive business in gro-
ceries and drugs. Pop. 10,700.

Guaiacum, gwi-a-kum, a genus of trees of
the natural order Zygophyllacea, natives of

tropical America, remarkable for the hardness
and heaviness of their wood, known as lignum
vita, or Brazil-wood; also the peculiar resinous
product of the common species (G. officinale).
This is a tree 30 or 40 feet high, usually growing
with crooked stem and knotty branches. The
wood and resin have been obtained chiefly from
Cuba, Jamaica, and San Domingo, but the tree
is becoming scarce there. Guaiacum-wood is re-
markable for the direction of its fibres, each
layer of which crosses the preceding diagonally.
It sinks in water. It is much valued and used
for pulleys, casters, mortars, bowling balls, and
other purposes requiring an extremely firm and
durable wood. It is pale yellow on the outside
but blackish brown near the heart, where it
abounds in resin. Stimulative and other medic-
inal properties reside in the bark, leaves and
resin of this tree.

Guaira, La, la gwa-e'ra, Venezuela, a sea-
port on the Caribt
line (29 miles b)
which it is the poi
coast strip betwe
sea, and has an ui
modern harbor w
and a considerable
carried on. In
amounted to 7.29c
and of hides, 782 t
ufactured goods,
town dates from ;
in 1588. In 1903
British and Germ
ment of commercial claims. Pop. 14,000.

Gual, gwal, Pedro, South American patriot:
b. Caracas 31 Jan. 1784; d. Guayaquil, Ecuador,
6 May 1862. He was graduated from the Uni-
versity of Caracas; joined the patriots in 1810,
and was elected as a member of the- legislature
in 181 1. In 1812, when the republicans sur-
rendered, he escaped to New York, but in a few
years returned, was made governor of Carta-
gena, and later sent as ambassador to the United
States, He was admitted to the bar in Washing-
ton, and began the practice of law, but in 1816
joined Bolivar, was made governor of some of
the conquered provinces, and was for a time
minister of finance and foreign affairs. In 1858
he joined the revolt against Monagas, and was
made president of the provisional government;
in 1859 ne was elected vice-president of Ven-
ezuela, and in i860 became president, but re-
signed the next year, retiring to private life.

Gualeguay, gwa-la-gwi', Argentine, South
America, city in the province of Entre Rios ;
on the Gualeguaychu River. It is a trade centre
for a region in which cattle raising is the chief
industry. Pop. 7,810.

Gualeguaychu, gwa-la-gwf-choo', Argen-
tine, South America, city in the province of
Entre Rios, on the Gualeguaychu River, n miles
from its mouth. Its chief industries are con-
nected with the raising and shipping of cattle
and wheat. Pop. 14,000.

Guam, gwam or goo-am', or Guajan,
gwa-hiin', one of the Ladrone Islands, the
southernmost and largest, and the only one
with much population ; east of the Philippines ;
occupied by the United States in 1898, the re-
mainder' of the group belonging to Germany.
It is 29 miles long by 3 to 10 wide, and aboiu
150 square miles in area; high- and precipitous

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on the eastern side, and forming a low plateau
in the northern part, but mountainous in the
south. About half the soil is arable, but only
about one per cent cultivated. Except for the
native clearings, most of it is thick and pathless
jungle. Some of the trees are valuable hard-
woods for ship-building or ornamental cabinet-
work ; others are useful for food, as the cocoanut
(the finest here of all the tropics), pineapple,
breadfruit, sour-sop and custard-apple, etc.; the
hau (Hibiscus tilaceum) makes strong cordage,
not affected by water ; the pandanus' long leaves
are braided into mats and hats; and the ylang-
ylang is famous for perfume. Rice, sugar, to-
bacco, hemp, coffee, cacao, bananas, melons,
etc., have been introduced and are cultivated.
The only native mammals are rats, flying foxes,
and bats; but the deer and wild goat, of Eu-
ropean origin, have thriven plentifully, and
cows and pigs are raised. There are no snakes ;
there are centipedes and scorpions, but none
dangerous. The climate is very rainy, but mild
except in midsummer, when the conflict of
trade-winds produces a dead calm, oppressive
heat, and storms, with some hurricanes. Earth-
quakes are frequent. The island is volcanic,
with bordering coral reefs. The east side has
but two good harbors, Pago and Tarofofo; the
latter is the only one, except San Luis d'Apra
on the west, which is safe for vessels all the
year round. The island contains about 9,000
people; Chamorros with a mixture of Tagal
and Malay, and some Anglo-Saxons from
whaling ships, producing half-breeds with cop-
per skins and light hair. They are nearly all in
the villages; those with ranches build rough
huts on them, where the family spend part of
the time. Agana (San Ignacio d' Agana) is
the only large town; it is a neat place with
houses half of stone and half of wood or bam-
boo, and contains 6400 people. Its best port is
Apra (above), on a deep bay iormed by a
peninsula; its own harbor beinjj dangerous in a
storm from the anchors dragging on the coral
bottom, and the landing bad from breaking
reefs. There is a mission school, endowed in
the 17th century by Maria Ana, queenof Philip
IV. of Spain. The present capital is Agana.
The population by the census of 1910 was 8661.
On 1 July 1909, the currency of the island was
changed from Mexican to the United States
monetary basis. (Wheeler, Report on Guam,
1900, War. Dept. doc. 123.)

Guan, gwan, a gallinaceous bird of the
family Cracidce, genus Penelope, characterized
by the front of the throat being naked and
wattled; specifically P. cristata. It is about 30
inches long, nearly half of which is due to the
tail. The color is a shining reddish-green, with
rump and belly chestnut neck and chest white-
spotted, and the feet and throat red; the female
is of a more reddish tint, with the crest, neck
and mantle bordered with white. Though the
guans have most of the habits of the curassow
(q.v.), they are far less gregarious, noisy and
restless. They take to trees when alarmed,
roost there at night and often make their nests
among the branches. They inhabit the Ameri-
can tropics, one species, the chacalaca (Or talis
vetula), ranging into Texas. Guans have long
been domesticated in South America.

Guanabacoa, gwa-na-ba-ko'a, Cuba, a town

well situated on high ground near the city of
Havana. The number of its inhabitants shown
by the United States War Department census
of 1899 was 13,963 (that is, 8,232 native white;
1,091 foreign white; 2,173 negro; 2,408 mixed;
and 61 Chinese.) The total population (1910)
is estimated at 10,500.

Guanaco, gwa-na'ko. See Hounaco.

Guanahani, gwa-na-a-ne. See Cat Island.

Guana jay, gwa-na-hf, Cuba, town in the
department of the same name in the province
of Pinar del Rio, about 30 miles west of Ha-
vana. It is situated in a hill region of much
salubrity, and is a popular health resort Here
is the terminus of the Havana and Guanajay
Railroad. Pop. about 9,000.

Guanajuato, gwa-na-hoo-a'td, Mexico, a
state bounded by the states of San Luis Pbtosi,
Queretaro, Michoacin, and Jalisco. Area
20,276 square kilometres, or 7,806.26 square
miles. The principal cordilleras traversing the
state are the Sierra Gorda, in the northeast,
and the Sierra de Guanajuato in the centre,
which are formed by the junction of the Co-
dorniches, San Antonio, and Santa Rosa moun-
tain ranges. The highest peaks are the Gigante
(2, 346 metres) and the Llanitos (2,815 metres).
In the south and west are the valleys of San
Judas, San Felipe, and Santiago, and the fertile
plain of El Bajo Rivers are: the Lerma, with
its affluents the Laja and the Turbio, the Ira-
puato, and a number of smaller streams. There
are many mineral springs, and one lake, 37 1-3
square miles in extent, called the lake of blood
(Yuririapundaro). Five mining districts merit
special mention; namely, the Sierra Gorda, Al-
lende, Santa Cruz, Guanajuato, and Leon, th?
principal mines being those which produce sil-
ver and gold, silver, mercury or cinnabar, tin.
iron, lead or argentiferous lead, and copper or
argentiferous copper. On 31 Dec. 1897 there*
were 550 claims registered, of which number 80
were in process of development (See statistics
given in connection with the department and
city of Guanajuato.) The climate, except in
the higher parts of the mountain ranges, is not
unfavorable (mean annual temperature about
70 ). The rainy season extends from the mid-
dle of May until the beginning of July. During
those months the rainful is heavy in the
valleys, but only moderate in the mountains.
See Mexico — The States of.

Guanajuato, Mexico, capital of the State
of the same name. Elevation 6*830 feet above
the sea. Distance from the city of Mexico 252
miles, and 1,000 miles by the Mexican Central
railway from the United States border at El
Paso, Texas. It is situated in the heart of the
Guanajuato mountains, in a picturesque ravine,
six miles from the main line of the above
named railway and overlooking a rich and
beautiful region, while itself surrounded and
honeycombed by mines hundreds of years old,
which have produced unknown millions of
precious metals and are still productive. Min-
ing began here 500 years ago, developing as it
proceeded, some of the richest deposits ever
discovered. Over $600,000,000 of gold and sil-
ver have been mined under and in the imme-
diate vicinity of the city, fully two-thirds of
which was gold. The buildings of the business
centre are quite commodious and imposing and

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arc very substantial, unlimited quantities of
very superior building stone being immediately
at hand Among the prominent public build-
ings are the Government Palace, or State
House, in which the legislature holds its ses-
sions and the State officers have their offices,
and the Opera house or Theatre, a magnificent
stone structure copied from the Grand Opera
House of Paris. In a remote part of the city
are the famous Catacombs, wherein are stored
the mummified remains of some 30 or 40 human
beings representing both sexes, and several
tons of human skulls and bones. At the oppo-
site extremity of the city is the great dam
of modern construction which contains the
-community's water supply. Another notable
structure is the principal church of the city,
built of the peculiar colored stone or marble
which exists m great quantities in the imme-
diate vicinity. It is surmounted by a dome of
large proportions and exceptional beauty.
There are several other churcnes, the ancient
Mint, the State College, the Market de la Re-
forma, and the Castle of Granaditis. There is
a street railway, and a thorough system of
electric lighting. The Bank of Guanajuato, a
local institution of $3,0000,000 capital, and
branches of the National Bank and the Bank
of London & Mexico compose the financial in-
stitutions of the city". There are a State Col-
lege and a Normal School for young women;
two museums, — one connected with the State
College and devoted to natural history and
•mineralogy, and the other — the Museum of
Ramon Alcazar — devoted to * Antiquities,
Minerals, and Precious Objects* Two public
libraries contain over 13,000 volumes. In 1905
the city was flooded and much valuable prop-
erty destroyed. Pop. about 40.000.

Guanare, gwa-na'ri, Venezuela, city, capi-
ta} of the State of Zamor, near the Guanarito
River f about 220 miles southwest of Caracas.
-Coffee and sugar-cane are some of the chief
agricultural productions; but the city is the
•centre of an extensive cattle trade. Pop. about
1 1,500.

Guanes, gwa-nas', or Guane, Cuba, town
in the province of Pinar del Rio ; about 10 miles
from the sea, and 120 miles southwest of Ha-
vana. The district court holds its sessions here.
The trade in the products of the surrounding
•country, cotton, tobacco, and cattle, is exten-
sive. There is also a large trade in lumber.
Pop. about 17,000.

Guan'idin, a basic organic substance, hav-
ing the empiric formula CH B N«, and the con-
stitutional formula H.:C(NH»)*. It may be
prepared by heating an alcoholic solution of
-cyanamide and ammonium chlorid to 212 F.
-Guanidin is a crystalline, deliquescent substance,
with strongly alkaline properties, and it absorbs
carbon dioxid from the air. It forms numer-
ous salts, and urea is evolved in many of its re-
actions. In fact, it is this close relation with
urea that gives guanidin its chief interest, many
authorities holding the opinion that guanidin is
an intermediate product in the formation of
tirea from proteid bodies, in the normal physi-
ological chemistry of the body.

Guanin, gwS'nfa, a yellowish-white, amor-
phous substance, which derives its name from

being a constituent of guano ; but it also forms
the chief constituent of the excrement of
spiders, has been found attached to the scales
of fishes, and seems to be a normal constituent
of the mammalian liver and pancreas. With re-
gard to its occurrence in guano, as it has not
been found in the recent excrement of sea-
birds, there is every reason to believe that it is
formed by slow oxidation (from atmospheric
action) of uric acid, much as uric acid can be
made to yield urea and oxalic acid. And in the
pancreas and liver it probably represents one of
those transitory stages of disintegrated nitro-
genous tissue which are finally excreted by the
kidneys in the more highly oxidized form of
urea. Guanin is a diacid base, but also forms
salts with metals, and combines with salts.
When heated with hydrochloric acid and po-
tassium chlorate, it is oxidized to carbon di-
oxide, guanidin, and parabanic acid.

Guano, gwa'no, Spanish guano huano, from
Peruvian huanu, dung, is the name for de-
posits of the partially decomposed and dry ex-
crementitious matter of sea-birds, but it has
been also extended to accumulations of a simi-
lar kind from land-birds, and even from bats
in caverns. Deposits from sea-birds are got
wherever there is good feeding-ground in the
neighborhood of unfrequented islands and
rocky cliffs, and such may be seen around
many shores. But to render them of practical
utility atmospheric conditions are requisite
which are only found in certain localities, and
all the great guano deposits exist in the hottest
and driest parts of the tropics, as on the islands
of the South Pacific Ocean. The most import-
ant of all were the deposits on the Chincha
Islands off the coast of Peru, which for years
yielded a considerable revenue, but are now
quite exhausted. The guano which was found
there was from 60 to 00 or 100 feet in thick-
ness, and was entirely due to the droppings, ac-
cumulated for many ages, of the innumerable
sea-birds which make these islands their rest-
ing-place and breeding-ground. The excrement
which is at first pasty, rapidly dries by expos-
ure to the sun in a part of the world where a
fall of rain takes place once in a lifetime, and
is looked upon as an historical event, and thus,
while putrefaction is almost entirely arrested,
the soluble salts of Which guano to a great ex-
tent consists are retained. This guano, called
technically Peruvian, is the most highly prized,
and is regarded as a type of the substance ; but
quantities are or have been got from other lo-
calities, as Patagonia, various ooints of Bolivia,
Mexico, and Chile, Maiden Island and numer-
ous other Pacific islands, new deposits being
opened up as the older become less productive.

Guano varies extremely in composition, even
in the same deposit considerable differences will
be found ; and when deposits from different lo-
calities are compared, there is sometimes no
analogy except in the kind of substances present.
Thus, some consist mainly of phosphate of cal-
cium and other fixed salts, while others contain
much volatile matter, with a large proportion of
ammonia. To the latter belongs Peruvian guano,
which is a very light, dry, non-cohesive pale-yel-
low powder, with a characteristic ammoniacal
odor, and sometimes containing lumps, made up
of different salts. It is a very complex mixture,
containing the urate of ammonium, the oxalates

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of ammonium and calcium, the phosphates of
sodium, ammonium, calcium, and magnesium,
the sulphates of potassium, sodium and ammo-
nium, the chlorides of sodium and ammonium,
and the carbonate of calcium. There is always,
some moisture, organic matter of different kinds,
sand from the rock on which the deposit lies,
and this is sometimes considerable. These may
be regarded as the possible constituents of guano,
but the ingredients which are especially prized
are the ammoniacal salts, the phosphoric acid, in
combination with the alkalies and alkaline earths,
and the alkalies themselves, particularly the pot-
ash. It is the remarkable abundance of these
constituents and their fine intermixture which
makes genuine Peruvian guano so much es-
teemed as a manure. It contains almost all
the inorganic matter required by a plant, and
that in a highly available form, so that it is one
of the best of all fertilizing agents for different
crops. Its use as a manure was known to the
native Peruvians centuries ago, but no attention
was paid to the accounts by modern travelers
of its wonderful efficacy until A. von Humboldt
took some to Europe, in 1804, and had it
analyzed. It was not exported on a large scale
till about 1850, and from that time the quantity
sent to foreign countries, including large ship-
ments to the United States, was very great, but
the supply has latterly much fallen on.

As a substitute for ordinary guano, what is
known as fish-guano has been in use for a con-
siderable number of years. This consists essen-
tially of fish and fish offal dried and powdered.
In the case of oily fish, such as herrings, it is
necessary to extract as much of the oil as pos-
sible before the operation of powdering; and it
will thus be understood that different kinds of
fish differ greatly as regards their value forma-
nurial purposes. But all sorts of fish-guano con-
tain a large percentage of ammonia and phos-
phate of lime, and are thus valuable as fertilizers.

Guanta, gwan-ta', Venezuela, a modern
seaport on the north coast, in the state of Ber-
mudez, 12 miles west of Barcelona, by rail.

Guantanamo, gwan-ta'na-mo, Cuba, a town
in the province of Santiago, situated at the head
of the most important harbor east of the city of
Santiago on the southern coast. Its surround-
ings were favorably known before 1898, for the
beauty of the groves of lime-trees and lemon-
trees, the coffee plantations, and the residences
of wealthy planters, who made the heights over-
looking the bay a favorite place of resort. Since
the Spanish- American war, Guantanamo has
been famous as the scene of certain military
operations. On 19 May 1898 an unsuccessful
attempt to cut the cable in the bay was made by
the St. Louis and the Wompatuck. On 10 June
a force of 600 marines landed from the transport
Panther on the eastern shore of Guantanamo
Bay, and undertook to make the outer harbor a
secure place for the use of American vessels
when coaling, or as a rendezvous and a refuge
in stormy weather. The marines established
their camp ( (< Camp McCalla") on a small hill,
where they sustained the attacks of the Spanish
troops for several days; and the courage and
endurance displayed at this time must be re-

farded as memorable features of the war. The
larblehead and Texas lent assistance, the lat-
ter on 12 June sending 40 marines with two
automatic guns. In the course of that week the

camp was protected by earthworks; other war-.
6hips arrived and shelled the thickets in which
the Spaniards were concealed, the forts, and
the town; the garrison was strengthened by ac-
cessions of bluejackets and Cuban insurgents,
familiar with the country ; and thus, when ten
days had passed, the outer harbor was practically
in the possession of the American forces. In
July 1 90 1 the United States government seLected
Guantanamo for one of the four naval stations
on the Spanish coast. The number of inhabi-
tants of the town of Guantanamo, according to*
the United States War Department census of
1899, was 7,137. The total population of the
district (1910) 43n$oo, including native white,,
about 8,000; foreign white, 2,000; negro, 9,500;
mixed 11,000; and Chinese, 200.

Marrion Wilcox,
Authority on Spanish America.

Guapor6, gwa-po-ra', or Itenez, e-ta-naV r
a South American river which rises in the Serra.
Aguapehi, in the state of Matto Grosso, Brazil,,
flows south, nearly parallel to the Jauru, passes
the town of Matto Grosso, whence it is navi-
gable downward for light draught vessels, thenr
with a northwesterly trend forms part of the
boundary between Brazil and Bolivia, and finally
after a course of over 960 miles, unites with the
Mamore to form the Madeira.

Guarana, gwa-ra'na, a -dried paste consist-
ing chiefly of the crushed or pounded seeds of
Paullinia sorbilis t a climbing shrub, native of
South America. The seeds are obtained largely
from the cultivated plants, and in South America
guarana is used much as tea or coffee is used
in other countries. It is the staple drink of mil-
lions of people. Guarana is found in the drug
market in the form of flattened cakes or cylin-
ders of a dark reddish-brown color and showing
on fracture numerous coarse angular fragments
of seeds. The taste is astringent and somewhat
bitter, becoming sweet on chewing. Guarana
contains four to five per cent of caffeine, ^mak-
ing it twice as strong as coffee. Its action,,

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