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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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however, resembles more closely that of tea be-
cause of the high percentage of tannic acid it
contains. In medicine it has been used in the
treatment of sick-headache.

Guarana-bread, the seeds of the Paullinia
sorbilis (a South American tree), pounded,
made into cakes, and dried in the sun. It is ex-
tensively used in Brazil and other parts of South
America as a stimulant and restorative, and as
a material for making a refreshing beverage.
The active principle of guaranine. j s said to be
identical with theine or caffeine (q.v.) ; and no
known substance yields it so abundantly. Other
species of Paullinia possess poisonous properties.

Guarantee, gar-an-te', or Guaranty, in law,
an undertaking to answer for the failure of an-
other. The statute of frauds provides that no
person shall be liable on any special promise to
answer for the debt, default, or miscarriage of
another person, unless a written agreement, or
some memorandum in writing for such purpose,
shall be signed by the promisor or some other
party lawfully authorized by him. In the con-
struction of a guarantee it is a general rule that
the surety shall not be bound beyond the express
words of the engagement. By the " mercantile
Law Amendment Act (England and Ireland),
no special promise made to answer for the debt,
default, or miscarriage of another is deemed

Digitized by



invalid to support an action, by reason that the
consideration tor such promise does not appear
in writing, or by necessary inference from a
written document By a similar statute apply-
ing to Scotland, and passed in the same year,
all such guarantees must be in writing, and it
for a firm will cease upon a change of the mem-
bers, unless intended by the parties by express
stipulation or implication to be binding notwith-
standing the change in the firm; Every person
who becomes surety for the debt or obligation of
another, and discharges his liability, is entitled
to the assignment of all securities held by credi-
tors. In the United States the common law on
the subject of guarantee or suretyship was the
same as that of England and a guarantee was
equally forcible whether written or oral, but
see Suretyship.

Guard, National. See Miutia.

Guardafui, Cape. See Cafe Guardapui.

Guardi, Francesco, fran-ches'ko gwar'de,
Italian painter: b. Venice 1712; d. there 1793.
He was a pupil and follower of Canaletto; his
work shows less exactness in detail than his
master's, but is superior in use of color. His
paintings are mostly of scenes in Venice; they
include f Procession of the Doge > : ( Fete of Cor-
pus Domini } ; ( Grand Hall of the Palazzo
Ducale* (in *the Louvre. Paris) ; * Church and
Piazza pf San Marco 5 (National Gallery, Lon-
don) ; and ( The Rialto* (Metropolitan Museum,
New York).

Guardian Angel, an angel who watches
over a particular individual. It is the general
belief, in the Roman Catholic and Greek
Churches that every man has a guardian angel
who defends him from eyil, suggests good
thoughts and wise counsels, and helps him in
prayer. This belief is based on the words of
Christ in Matt, xviii. 10: <( Their angels dp
always behold the face of my Father which is
in heaven*; the Fathers of the Church strongly
inculcate it, and in the lives of the saints ui-.
stances are given of the active, interference of
guardian angels. The belief is shared by some
Anglican high churchmen. The Roman Catholic
Church celebrates the Feast of Guardian Angels
on 2 October. See also Angel; Guardian

Guardian Spirit, a spirit that watches over
the welfare of an individual or household. The
belief in guardian spirits finds expression in
some form in all primitive religions, and • in many
which have reached a higher stage of develop-
ment. The Australian native believes that when
a warrior kills his first foe the spirit of the
slain enters the body of the slayer, and becomes
his guardian ; in Tasmania a native has been
heard to ascribe his deliverance from danger
to the care of his deceased father's spirit; and
the most important religious rite of a North
American Indian is to obtain a patron genius.
In Asia, in Africa, and among the Indians of
South America, the belief in guardian spirits
obtains, as it did formerly among the Aryans of
Northern Europe* Greeks and Romans believed
that each individual was under the protection of
a spirit who prompted him to good deeds, and
guided him throughout his life; gradually there
arose a belief in an evil spirit who was at war
with the good spirit, and instigated every evil
deed. These spirits were called in Greece, Dae-
mons, in Rome, Genii. The Romans also be-

lieved that the spirit of the founder of each. fam-
ily was the guardian spirit (the Laf) of the .
family and worshipped the Lares with special
rites. For the Christian form of the belief see
Guardian Angel.

Guards. A guard, in the primary sense,
is one who watches or protects a person or per"
sons, a place, property, etc., against loss, danger,
or harm ; as a body-guard, a prison-guard, etc.
Body-guards have been an inseparable accom-
paniment of monarchy from the earliest ages;
the Assyrian and Persian kings employed them,
and the corps of ^Argyraspides/ or silver-
shields were selected by Alexander out of the
bravest men of his army. The Roman emperors
had their Praetorian guard. Napoleon I. first
created a small troop of bodyguards, with the
title of Guides, while he was yet only general, in
his first Italian campaign. From this arose by
degrees, the great institution of the Imperial
Guard, consolidated in 1804, which 10 years later
comprised 102,708 men, and after being dis-
banded by Louts XVIII. in 1815, was restored by
Napoleon III. in 1854. It consists of infantry,
cavalry, and artillery. In England, the Guards,
otherwise called household troops, consist of two
regiments oi Life Guards, the royal regiment,
of Horse Guards, and three regiments of Foot
Guards. Many of the European sovereigns be-
fore the French Revolution had small corps of
foreign troops which served in this capacity.
Thus the French had, in former times, the Guard
of Scottish Archers, and at a later period, a
body of Swiss guards, called the Cent Suisses.
The Cent-Gardes formed by Napoleon III. are
founded upon the latter. The Pope still retains
his Swiss guards. In Prussia there is both in-
fantry and cavalry of the guard, and the Russian
imperial, guard forms an entire corps d'arm£e
50,000 strong.

In general military use the term guard is of
various distinct applications and denotes func-
tions of great importance. It means a sentry
on duty, and also a body of soldiers assigned,
under the proper officer or officers, to the duty
of guarding or protecting a camp, post, or any
place where military control is established.
Company and regimental details for guard duty
are made according to circumstances — the num-
ber of men required or available, etc, — rank of
officers being also regarded as far as convenient.
Guard-mounting or inspection and review be-
fore the old guard is relieved, is a ceremony
of much detail and is usually carried out with
strict military observance,

Quasa, gwa'sa, or Warsaw, a name given
in the Gulf of Mexico and West Indian region
to various large groupers (q.v.), especially the
jewfish fa.w). "Warsaw* is an anglicized
form of the Spanish word.

Guatemala, Republic of (Republica de
Guatemala), the largest country in Central
America; bounded on the north by Mexico,
British Honduras, and the Gulf of Hon-
duras; on the east and southeast by British
Honduras, the Gulf of Amatique. Honduras,
and Salvador; on the south ana southwest
by the Pacific Ocean; and on the west by
Mexico. Its area is estimated at 47,810 or 48,-
290 square miles; its territory extending from
Jat. 13 42' to \j° 49' N., and from Ion. 88° 10'
to 92* 30' W.

Digitized by



Political Divisions. — Guatemala is divided
into 22 departments, and each department sub-
divided into municipal districts, the total num-
ber of the latter being 331. Again, for electoral
purposes, the whole republic is divided into 38
distritos elector ales. The following list of the
departments and chief towns shows the popula-
tion and altitude of the latter. The figures given
for the number of inhabitants are those of 1903
tin the case of Guatemala City, Coban, and To-
tonicapam; otherwise the statement is based
upon a table carefully prepared in 1807.

Northern departments are: Baja Verapaz
(chief town Salama, population 10,608, alti-
tude 2,827 feet) ; Alta Verapaz (chief town
Coban, population 24475, altitude 4,047 feet) ;
El Peten (chief town Flores, population 1,671,
altitude 482 feet); El Quiche (chief town
Santa Cruz, population 11,914, altitude 5,543
feet) ; and Izabal (chief town Livingston, popu-
lation 1,078).

Central departments are: Guatemala (chief
town Guatemala City, population 72,102, altitude
4,854 feet) ; Sacatepequez (chief town Antigua,
or Antigua Guatemala, population 10,150, alti-
tude 4,464 feet) ; and Chimaltenango (chief town
Chimaltenango, population 3,749, altitude 5,666

Eastern departments are: Jutiapa (chief
town Jutiapa, population 11,023, altitude 2,847
feet) ; Jalapa (chief town Jalapa, population
12,246, altitude 4,625 feet) \ Chiquimula (chief
town Chiquimula, population 12,562, altitude
1,167 feet) ; and Zacapa (chief town Zacapa,
population 11,964, altitude 511 feet).

Southern departments are: Escuintla (chief
town Escuintla, population 12,343, altitude 1,269
feet) ; Amatitlan (chief town Amatitlan* popu-
lation 8408, altitude 3,614 feet) ; and Santa Rosa
(chief town Cuajiniquilapa, population 3,062,
altitude 3,254 feet).

Western departments are: Huehuetenango
(chief town Huehuetenango, population 10,279,
altitude 7,118 feet) ; Totonicapam (chief town
Totonicapam, population 25,196, altitude 7,967
feet) ; San Marcos, chief town San Marcos,*
population 6,036, altitude 7,216 feet) ; Quezal-
tenango (chief town Quezaltenango,* population
22,265, altitude 7,419 feet) ; Retalhuleu (chief
town Retalhuleu, population 6,327, altitude 977
feet) ; Suchitepequez (chief town Mazatenango,*
population 6,970, altitude 1,095 i**&) ; and Solola
(chief town Solola,* population 7,627, altitude
5,940 feet).

The Capital. — Guatemala City, or New
Guatemala, which was built after the destruction
of Antigua Guatemala in 1776, has a temperate
climate, owing to its elevation above the level of
the sea. It is a well-planned town, covering a
large area; the streets are wide and straight,
lighted by electricity, and have lines of street
railways. Principal buildings: the palace of
the president, city hall, court-house, post and
telegraph office, artillery barracks, custom-house,
liquor and tobacco bureau, national theatre,
college of medicine and pharmacy, university,
school of arts and trades, polytechnic school,
palace of the archbishop, the cathedral and sev-
eral other fine churches, the penitentiary, and the
hotels. The city has public gardens, telephone

•Towns damaged or destroyed by earthquakes in

and telegraph service, and is connected by rail
with the port of San Jose. Pop. (19*0) 100,000.

Topography and Physical Geography. — The
mountains of Guatemala are commonly referred
to as ^Cordillera of the Andes,* ^Guatemalan
Andes,* or simply "Andes,* though there is no
propriety in those names. The Andes terminate
in northern Colombia, and have no genetic con-
nection with the mountains of Central America.
In order to understand the independent char-
acter of the latter (so far as the great conti-
nental ranges are concerned), we must realize
that they are also in their geologic history totally
distinct from the Rocky Mountain system, or
North American Cordilleras, which terminate
in southern Mexico. If the trends of the An-
dean and Rocky Mountain systems were pro-
tracted from their termini (in 70 W. and 07
W., respectively), they would not connect with
each other, but would pass the latitude of Guate-
mala in parallel lines nearly 2,000 miles apart
(See Caribbean Sea; Central America; and
consult: Hill, ( Cuba and Porto Rico,* Chap. I.).
The Guatemalan mountains belong to the An-
tillean system, which lies between the termini
just referred to; its ranges, composed of folded
sedimentaries, in eastern Guatemala have an
east-and-west trend. But the ranges near the
Pacific coast of the republic, crossing the western
ends of the Antillean corrugations diagonally,
or with a northwest-and-southeast trend, must
be assigned to still another class; they form
a part of the volcanic chain which extends along
the entire western coast of Central America,
and is continued in Mexico. The Sierra Madre
is the principal range of the west and south; in
the central and eastern districts are the Sierra de
Chama, Sierra de las Minas, Sierra de Santa
Cruz, and the Sierra de Copan — the last named
on the frontier of Honduras. The highest points
of the Cordillera are given as: Tajumulco vol-
cano (12,600 feet), Tacana volcano (12400 feet),
both in the southwest; Acatenango volcano
(11,100 feet), south-central; and the volcano de
Fuego ( 1 1400 feet), also south-central.

Hydrography. — Rivers emptying into the
Gulf of Mexico are: the Usuraactnta, on the
Mexican frontier, and the Cuilco and Salequa,
which are also tributaries of Mexican streams.
The following empty either into the Gulf of
Honduras or Izabal Lake (Golfo Duke) : the
Montagua, Rio Hondo, the Duke, the Bel ice,
the Sarstoon, and the Polochic. Those which
flow into the Pacific are: Rio de \os Esclavos,
Rio de Paz, the Michatoya, Guacalate, Coyelate.
Patulul, Nagualate, Samala, Tilapa, Naranjo, and
Suchiate. Steamship navigation has been estab-
lished on the Duke and Polochic rivers; seven
or eight of the others are navigable for small
boats. The most important lakes are: Atitlin
and Izabal (both navigated by steamers), Petfn,
Amatitlan, Ayarza, and Giiija (on the frontier
of Salvador). Ports on the Caribbean side of
the republic are: Puerto Barrios, Livingston,
and Santo Tomas — the first two being ports
of entry and delivery, while the last is a € minor
port,* at which importation and exportation are
restricted to certain articles. On the Pacific
coast the most important ports are: San Jose,
74*4 miles from Guatemala City; Champerico,
and Oc6s — all ports of entry and delivery, pro-
vided with iron piers, etc

Geology. — The calcareous formations of the
Antillean ridges and, generally, the eastern and

Digitized by



central regions, deserve special mention. Vol-
canic products characterize the Pacific slope and
Sierra Madre, where they occur in connection
with granitic rocks, porphyries and trachytes.
See also Central America.

Mineral Resources. — Gold and silver are
found near the Montagua River and elsewhere;
*alt in the departments of Alta Verapaz and
Santa Rosa. Other minerals reported to exist
are: coal, lignite, manganese, lead, tin, cinnabar,
copper, kaolin, opafs, slate, alum, antimony,
marble, alabaster, sulphur, ochre, asbestos, plum-
bago, chalk, and bitumen. A belt of country
extending from the coast range of mountains on
the western frontier, near the Pacific, across the
Sierra Madre to the coast range of the Carib-
bean slope, is regarded as essentially a mineral
territory, in which there has been comparatively
little exploiting or prospecting, though enough
to reveal the presence of the precious and base

Climate. — The lowlands of the Pacific and
Atlantic coasts are torrid; interior table-lands,
at an altitude of 2,000 to 5,000 feet, have an
agreeable climate; and the high districts, where
the elevation is more than 5,000 feet, are de-
cidedly cool. As is shown in the list of places
given under a Political Divisions," the larger
towns are built in the temperate or cool zones.
The rainy season, beginning in May, lasts until
October in the interior, but sometimes until
December, on the coast. December and January
are the coldest months; March and April the
hottest Snow sometimes falls (in December or
January) on the uplands of the cool zone.

Flora and Fauna. — The very name of the
country signified in the Indian language *the
land covered with trees* The rich soil and
varying climatic conditions favor a wide range
of products in the vegetable kingdom; no sys-
tematic classification of these, however, has yet
been made. The extent of the forest land, which
abounds in mahogany, is estimated at 1,300,000
acres. The fauna and avifauna resemble those
of Costa Rica in general, but especially char-
acteristic of Guatemala are the aquatic birds on
its rivers and lakes, and the quetzal. Mexican
deer are quite numerous. The tapir, honey-
bear, armadillo, wild pig, cougar, jagua,
etc., are found as in other parts of Central
America. The over-abnndance of insect life is
particularly noteworthy.

Land Tenure. — The most interesting provi-
sions of the Guatemalan laws, to be considered
under this heading, are those which relate either
to the public lands or more particularly to the
aid which the government desired to extend to
the cultivators of certain crops. The latter will
be stated in the paragraph entitled Agriculture.
As for the former, the agrarian law of 1804
provided for the sale, lease, and gratuitous con-
cession of the public lands, and created a board
of government engineers to survey the said lands
and divide them into lots of not more than 15
caballerias each. (One caballeria in Guatemala
= 113^ acres.) These lots can be purchased
from the government at prices ranging from
$250 to $500 per caballeria, but no alien is
allowed to hold lands situated on the frontier
of the republic; or they may be leased (under
certain restrictions as to area, duration of lease,
and use of the lands) at a rental not to exceed
5 per cent of the selling price ; or they may be
granted by the president of the republic, in

tracts not larger than two caballerias each, to
poor persons applying for them, to immigrants,
to educational institutions, as a reward for the
construction of new roads, etc. Real estate, the
value of which does not exceed $1,000, is ex-
empted from taxation. Transfers of unimproved
city lots, or of real estate in the country the
price of which does not exceed $100, cannot be
taxed; and no foreigner can be required, during
the first year of residence in the country, to
contribute money or personal service for mak-'
ing or repairing roads.

Agriculture. — Coffee grows in the regions
between 1,000 and 6,000 feet above the sea-
level; sugarcane, between sea-level and 6,200
feet ; cacao in the lowlands or those regions
having an altitude of less than 3,000 feet. To*
bacco, wheat, maize, and beans, are also pro-
duced in large quantities. Coffee exports in
one year have amounted to 85,373,223 pounds,
with a value of $7*390,477 gold. The ordinary
annual yield of tobacco is given as 1,000,000
pounds; of cane-sugar, 41,000^000 pounds;
bananas, 1,000,000 bunches; and cacao, 200,000
pounds. Stock-raising has been encouraged in
the departments of Izabal, Zacapa, Peten,
and Alta Verapaz, by decrees authorizing the
political chiefs of those departments to make
grants of land to persons who establish ranches.
Money premiums have been offered to cultivators
of india rubber, cacao, sarsaparilla, and hemp;
grants of land to those who engage in
the cultivation of wheat and bananas. Pro-
prietors of large cotton or tobacco plantations,
and reliable day laborers on large plantations
of coffee, sugarcane, bananas, or cacao, are ex-
empted from military service. No tax of any
kind is levied for 10 years upon plantations o£
hemp, flax, ramie, cotton, grapes, and one or
two other products. Large cash premiums to
encourage the production of grapes, hemp,
cotton, flax, wheat, and tobacco were offered,
particularly during the decade 1886-96; in 1899
the government offered 113H acres of the public
lands as a reward for every 20,000 rubber-plants,
four years old, planted after 14 Jan. i8o£.

Commerce. — Exports to the United States in
the year 1908 were valued at $1,776,676 ; imports
from the United States footed up to a total of
$1,718,660. The principal exports for 1908 were :
Coffee, to value of $5,697,183, sent to Ger-
many, the United States, and Great Britain;
sugar, with value of $186,788, sent to other Cen-
tral American countries and to the United
States; bananas, over $200,000, sent to the
United States; hides and skins, $291,283, sent
to Germany and the United States; india rub-
ber, amounting to $158,373, sent to the United'
States and Germany; native woods $144,349,.
sent to Great Britain and the United States;)
and other articles valued at $76,690. Of the'
imports, about one third in value are supplied
by the United States, and one fifth by Great
Britain, the chief imports being flour, cotton
goods, machinery and manufactured iron, and
preserved meats and other articles for food.
The total value of imports in 1909 was $5,251,-
317; of exports, $15,330,536.

Manufactures. — For the partial supply of
local needs a number of small establishments
are maintained, the chief industries being the
preparation of ramie* fibre and the manufacture
of coarse textiles, hats, shoes, pottery, cigars,

Digitized by



foundry products, musical instruments, furni-
ture, agricultural implements, and liquors.

Shipping and Navigation. — Steamers of the
Pacific Mail Steamship Company call at San
Jose three times each month on the voyages
from San Francisco southward. From New
York to Puerto Barrios (via Haiti and Jamaica)
passengers and freight are carried by two steam*
ship lines. The steamers of the American^ Fruit
Company ply between New Orleans and Puerto
Barrios ; and the valuable addition was made
of a new steamshfp service, the a Guatemala
Northern Steamship Line,* to operate chiefly
between ports on the gulf coast of the United
States and Puerto Barrios.

Railways, Roads, Telegraph, etc. — The Cen-
tral Railway, the first line built in the republic,
was completed in 1882. It connects the port of
San Jose* with Guatemala City. The Cham-
perico Railway runs from the Pacific port of
that name to Retalhulen and San Felipe, a
distance of 41 miles. The Ocos Railway, 15
miles in length, connects the wharf at Ocos with
the town of Ayutla, near the Mexican frontier.
The Ixtapa Railway connects Overo with the
old* port of Ixtapa (12 miles). The Patulul-
Mazatenango Railway has as its terminal points
Santa Maria station, on the Central, and San
Felipe, passing through Patulul and Mazaten-
ango. The Northern Railroad, which now con-
nects Puerto Barrios with Guatemala City (and
thus, in conjunction with the Central, supplies
railway transportation from coast to coast), has
(1909) finished its total length of 195 miles.
The total railroad mileage in 1908 was 700 kilo-
metres (435 miles), and new lines are projected
or in course of construction. An important
highway from Sanarate has been completed, giv-
ing access to the northern agricultural districts.
The republic had in actual operation in 1908
4,196 miles of telegraph and telephone wires,
with over 200 offices and stations and nearly

ere 192 post-

— The French
■ with the old
easures. The
pound, strictly
, quintal (100
), and fanega
t is the silver
)ld or silver,
use is paper

rized to issue
of Guatemala
l), Colombian
estern Bank
rial Bank of
0, Guatemala
Ml of these,
, r e their head-

>wer is vested

ngle house),

one for every

or four years

by popular vote. The executive power is vested

in a president, elected for six years by direct

vote of the people. He is responsible for his

acts to the assembly, and cannot be re-elected

until after an interval of at least one term. The

administration is carried on, under th* president,

by six ^secretaries of state,* each of whom has
charge of a separate department (minis terio).
These departments are : Government and Justice,
Foreign Relations, Public Instruction, Promo-
tion of Public Welfare (Fotuento), Finance and
Public Credit, and War. The council of state
is an advisory board, of which certain members
are chosen for the assembly and others appointed
by the president.

Finances. — The national revenue in 1901 is
shown in the following table:

Customs $8,513,260.88

Expenditure 7.855-85


Liquor excise and govern-
ment monopolies........ $3.775>8oa.o8

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 75 of 185)