Wilfrid Richmond.

The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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southwest of Cherbourg, France, and 68 miles
from Start Point, Devonshire, England. It
is triangular in form, nine miles long and from
three to four miles broad. The picturesque
south coast is lofty and abrupt, the island slopp-

ing towards the north which is low and level.
Guernsey is noted for its healthful climate, for
the fertility of its soil, for its horticultural and
floricultural products grown chiefly under glass,
and for its magnificent breed of cattle. The
chief towns are St. Peter Port (q.v.), the capi-
tal, and Saint Sampson, the latter with an
important export trade in blue granite. With
the adjacent islands of Sark, Alderney, Herm
and Jethow, Guernsey forms an autonomous

Guerrero, Teodoro, ta-6-do'r6 ger-ra'rd,
Cuban dramatist: b. Havana 9 Nov. 1824. He
was educated in Spain, returning to Cuba in
1845, in which year his first volume of poems,
'Teordorelas,* was published. His comedy,
'La Cabeza y el Corazon* ('The Head and the
Heart*), was successfully performed at Havana
in 1861, and 'Lecciones do Mundo* ('The
Lessons of the World*), didactic verse, reached
many editions. The author published other
dramas and several works of fiction and was
active in Cuban educational affairs.

Guerrero, Mexico, a state bounded by the
states of Morelos and Mexico on the north,
Puebla on the northeast, Oaxaca on the east
and southeast, and by the Pacific Ocean on the
southwest. Its area is given as 64,756 square
kilometres, or 24,926 square miles. It is moun-
tainous throughout almost its entire extent, the
northern section being occupied by the spurs
of the ranges of Morelos and Mexico, and the
southern by the Sierra Madre del Sur (highest
peaks 2,800 metres). Between these two sec-
tions runs the Mexcala or Balsas River, to
which all the streams of the state are tributary.
The principal lakes are Pazahualco, Chantengo,
San Marcos, and Nexpa. The Pacific coast
line is low and sandy, and has excellent har-
bors. The bay of Acapulco, the chief port, is
deep and spacious. The mineral resources of
the state have been as yet very imperfectly
developed. Gold, silver, lead, mercury, iron,
coal, sulphur, marble, granite, opals, topazes,
and diamonds are mentioned among its prod-
ucts. The climate is unhealthy. On the coast
the heat (from 95 ° to 9A80 F.) and rainfall
are both excessive; and in the belt above 6,500
feet, the cold is sometimes severe. Fevers,
leprosy and affections of the respiratory and
digestive organs are the prevailing diseases.
The annual value of the agricultural products
is about $2,200,000, and the total value of live
stock is estimated at $3,000,000. Manufactures
are limited to sugar-cane products, mescal
wine, palm-oil, cotton fabrics, and leather.
Plans for a number of railways have been
made, but have not been carried out. There
are, however, telegraph and telephone lines,
and a few wagon roads. Steamers of the
Pacific Mail and the Mexican International
Company touch at Acapulco. The state is di-
vided into 14 districts: La Union, Mina, Alar-
con, Hidalgo, Alvarez, Zaragoza, Morelos,
Abasolo, Allende, Tabares (chief town
Acapulco de Juarez, with population of 5,780),
Galeana, Chilpancingo (principal town and cap-
ital of the state Chilpancingo de los Bravos,
with population of 6,321), and Guerrero. Total
population of the state 420,336.

Guerrilla, ge-rflla, an irregular mode of
carrying on war by means of small independent
bands of armed men, self-constituted and un-

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connected with the regular army. The name
originated in the Spanish war for independence
(1808-14), when the term guerrillas was ap-
plied to the bands of Spanish peasants, organ-
ized to harass the French armies that then
occupied Spain. Guerrilla warfare was carried
on to some extent during the Revolution and
also in the Civil War, particularly by the Con-
federates. Guerrilla methods were also ef-
fectively used by the Cuban patriots.

Guesclin, Bertrand dvu See Du Guesclin.

Guess, George. See Sequoyah.

Guest-bees, a large genus (Nomada) of
little bees of both Europe and America, which
lay their eggs in the nests of burrowing bees
of the genera Andrena and Halictus, where the
young share the food gathered for the young
of their hosts, and the adults live harmoniously
together, — apparently a case of partnership
rather than of parasitism. Compare Cuckoo-

Gug'genheimer, Randolph, American law-
yer and politician: b. Lynchburg, Va., 20 July
1848; <L Elberon, N.~ Y., 12 Sept. 1907. He
studied at New York University and began his
business career as clerk in a woolen goods house
in New York. He later entered a law office,
studied law, was admitted to the bar, and be-
came the head of a law firm, which was partic-
ularly successful in important negotiations wit\
English syndicates, investing capital in Ameri-
can industries. He also was active in the polit-
ical life of the city as a Democrat; was a
member of the board of education for three
years; and was also president of the board of
aldermen, in which capacity he served as acting
mayor of Greater New York.

Guiana, ge-a'na, the name applied to all
that tract of country in South America bounded
by the Atlantic Ocean, the Amazon River and
its branches, and the Orinoco River and its
branches. It lies between lat. 8° 40' N. and lat.
3° 30' S., between Ion. 50 and 6o° W. Its
greatest extent east and west is 1,090 miles; its
greatest breadth, from Punta Barima, to the con-
fluence of Rio Negro with the Amazon, is 710
miles. The total area is more than 800,000
square miles. The western districts belong to
Venezuela; the southern and eastern districts
to Brazil. The three European colonies, the
British, Dutch, and French Guianas, extend from
the seacoast to the frontiers of those republics.

Early voyages to this part of South America
are mentioned in the article Discoveries, etc.
The first settlements on the northern coast lay
much farther toward the west, and exploration
and colonization east of the Orinoco began
when European adventurers continued in this
new field their search for Eldorado. Spanish
and Portuguese expeditions into Guiana during
the 16th century were very numerous, but always
disastrous. The English undertook its con-
quest, believing, in the words of Sir Walter
Raleigh, *that whatever prince shall possess it,
that prince shall be lord of more gold, and of a
more beautiful empire, and of more cities and
people, than either the king of Spain or the
great Turk* Capt. Laurens Keymis, sent by
Raleigh in 1506 to explore the region, reported
that tf the like occasion seldom nappeneth in
many ages. 9 In the articles, Dabaiba and El-
dorado, it is shown that the birthplace of the
Vol. 10 — 19

Eldorado myth was the region now known as
Colombia, and that the time of its birth was
near the beginning of the 16th century; but in
the course of 100 years the site of Eldorado
was transferred to central Guiana, and Schom-
burgk asserts that the possibility of its existence
in that locality continued to occupy the imagina-
tion and attention of adventurers until the
close of the 18th century. Humboldt was the
first to prove that a lake c like unto Mare Cas-
pium* as Raleigh described it, no longer existed,
and it was erased from the maps; Schomburgk
identified the locality where it was sought with
the small lake Amucu near an Indian village
named Pirara. Raleigh led several armaments
from England with the hope of conquering the
golden capital. When these undertakings ended
in disappointment, Capt. Keymis committed sui-
cide, and Raleigh ff paid the forfeit of his illusions
with his life upon the scaffold.® Dutch traders,
who arrived about 1580, settled on the Pomeroon
and Essequibo rivers; and after the establish-
ment of the Dutch West India Company land
on the Berbice River was granted to van Peere.
The Pomeroon colony was abandoned owing to
attacks by the English in 1666 and by French
privateers. In 1740 English planters from the
West Indies established themselves on the Esse-
quibo, as a result of the "open door* policy
adopted by the Dutch with respect to that region
alone. Next, the overflow of immigration
settled in the Demerara district; and in 1781 all
three colonies, Essequibo, Demerara, and Ber-
bice, were taken by the British. Recaptured be-
fore the year was out by the French (who were
then allies of the Netherlands), they were again
taken by the British in 1796. The peace of
Amiens restored the original status; but English
troops interposed once more, and the colonies
were ceded to Great Britain by the treaties of
1814-15. They were united in 1831, forming
British Guiana.

In the region east of Berbice, a few English
people attempted to form a colony at the vil-
lage of Paramaribo (1626), but abandoned the
project. Ten years afterward the French in-
vested Paramaribo, but relinquished it, pro-
ceeded to Cayenne, and there founded what is
now known as French Guiana. In 1652 a body
of English settlers again arrived at the Coma
River, and succeeded in establishing themselves.
This colony was granted in 1662 by Charles II.
to Lord Willoughby, who changed the name
Coma River into Surryham, in honor of the Earl
of Surrey. Hence we have a Surinam, 5> the name
often used instead of Dutch Guiana. The British
crown bought the colony from the heirs of Lord
Willoughby, but it passed into the hands of
the Dutch about the time when Holland gave up
the attempt to keep New Amsterdam, now New
York. The statement often repeated, that
Surinam was ^exchanged* for New Amsterdam
is incorrect.

1. British Guiana is situated approximately
between lat. i° and 8° 40' N. It is bounded on
the north and northeast by the Atlantic Ocean,
on the east by Dutch Guiana, on the south by
Brazil, and on the west by Brazil and Vene-
zuela. Its area is 104,000 square miles. The
old settlements of Essequibo, Berbice, and Deme-
rara form counties with the same names. Of
these, Demerara contains the capital of the
colony (see Georgetown) ; Essequibo, the town

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of Bartica, the point of departure for miners
going to the gold-fields ; and the capital of Ber-
bice County is New Amsterdam. One of the
chief points on the new boundary line with
Venezuela, Mount Roraima, is an immense sand-
stone mass rising with perpendicular sides
2,000 feet above the slopes (themselves 6,000 feet
above sea-level) which form its base. Some of
the neighboring mountains resemble it in form,
but are less imposing. Midway between this
group and the Atlantic coast is the Imataca range,
extending east-southeast to the confluence of the
Cuyuni and Essequibo. The latter with its
tributaries drains nearly the whole interior of
the colony ; the Demerara, though much smaller,
is more important, because it flows through the
region which has become the centre of popula-
tion ; the Corentyne is the boundary between
British and Dutch Guiana.

Geology and Mineral Resources. — The origi-
nal sea beach is found far inland, where it now
appears as long stretches of white sand reefs,
the sand being derived from a barrier of pri-
mary, volcanic and metamorphic rocks, which im-
pedes the navigation of the rivers. The strip
between this barrier and the ocean front — com-
posed of layers of soft mud, clay, sand, broken
shells, and decomposed vegetable matter — is
really an enormous mud-flat, about 100 feet in
depth, and covered with a rich, heavy loam, and
in places, with a kind of peat called pegass.
The whole interior of the country, between the
agricultural coast-strip and the range culminat-
ing in Roraima, is an auriferous region. The
gold is commonly found inv^ombiuation «- wkh
silver. Quartz-mines have been worked in
'upper Demerara, but placer-mines in the beds
of former streams or the channels of existing
ones are more usual. Other mineral products
are iron, sapphires, diamonds, mercury, gar-
nets, antimony, and plumbago. A sandstone for-
mation characterizes the southwest, from Mo'unt
Roraima to the Potaro and Essequibo rivers,
thence extending eastward across the Demerara,
Berbice, and Corentyne. The sandstone is inter-
bedded with volcanic rocks. In many parts of
the colony there are red, yellow, and blue clays;
and fine white clay, suitable for the manufacture
of porcelain, is also found.

Soil and Climate. — The surface of the coast
alluvium is so fertile that alter nation of crops,
is not required; it is, however, ver> neavy and
hard to cultivate. The thermometer ranges
generally from 76 to 86° F., with little differ-
ence in this respect between day and night.
Rainfall in some years 130 inches, in others not
more than 70 inches. The year is divided into
two rainy seasons (November-February and
May-July), and two dry seasons. Neither
destructive earthquakes nor hurricanes occur.
There has been only one serious outbreak of
yellow fever during 50 years. Death rate of the
colony about 35 per 1,000.

Flora and Fauna. — Characteristic forest prod-
ucts are exceedingly hard and heavy woods.
The greenheart, mora, and wallaba are valuable
for building; the simaruba, letter-wood, and
crabwood, for making furniture, etc. Vegeta-
tion in Guiana is remarkable on account of the
altitude of the trees and the great size of leaves
and flowers. The gigantic water-lily, Victoria
Regia, is very common. Some of the orchids
form large masses, with flower-stems 12 feet high.
Common mammals are sloths, deer, ant-eaters,

tapirs, armadillos, peccaries, jaguars, cavies, and
ring-tail monkeys. Monkeys belong to two
families which are entirely confined to this re-
gion, and bats develop here their most extraor-
dinary specializations. In some parts of the
forest vampires are a ready to suck the foot or
even the cheek of the unwary traveler.* The
manatee (vulgo "mermaid* or "water-mamma*),
inhabiting some of the large rivers, and coming
to the surface at intervals to breathe or to grazo
on the plants which line the banks, owes its
popular designations to the circumstance that it
suckles its young at the breast. The represent-
ative families of birds are, with few exceptions,
peculiar to this region, the list of such birds
including greenlets, tanagers, hang-nests, sugar-
birds, tree-creepers, manakins, and cotingas.
Alligators and boa constrictors both attain to
great size in this region; iguanas and smaller
kinds of lizards are numerous. Among the in-
sects, the variety of genera and species can, it is
thought, scarcely be equaled in any other part
of the world. Uncommon brilliance of coloring
is characteristic of both the birds and the in-

Agriculture. — About 80,000 acres are under
cultivation, or, say, one acre out of every 100
available for the purpose; and of this amount
71,766 acres are in sugar plantations. Only a
very small portion is devoted to coffee and cocoa.

Commerce, Shipping, Railways, etc. — The
chief imports (1909-10) were tissues, flour, ma-
chinery, manures, rice, fish, hardware, coal, and
tobacco, cigars, and cigarettes. The total value
oi imports (principally from Great Britain and
British possessions) was £1,774,457. The chief
exports in the same year, with their values:
Sugar, £1,205,215; gold, £229,516; rum, £128,-
598; balatta, £95,507- timber and woods £24,
928; diamonds, £9,306; charcoal, £6,000; and
molasses, £5,000. The total value of exports
was £1,085,337. In 1901 the registered vessels be-
longing to British Guiana numbered 48, compris-
ing 33 sailing vessels ( 1,497 tons), and 16
steamers (2,213 tons). Total tonnage entered
and cleared, in 1901-2, was 725,867. (See also
routes of vessels under Georgetown.) There
are 108 miles of railways, 264 miles of good
roads, and 12 miles of the larger sort of canals,
used for navigation. Smaller canals, to carry
off superfluous water from the plantations, inter-
sect each other in every direction. The heavy
rainfall and the flatness of the coast region
oblige the planters to maintain these canals to
provide drainage, and by means of the larger
draining trenches the sugarcanes are taken to the
mills in punts. There are 73 post-offices, 46
telegraph offices, 9 traveling post-offices, about 559
miles of telegraphs and cables, and telephone
services (677 miles) in Georgetown and New

Money and Banking. — British gold and sil-
ver are used. There are 25 savings banks, with
21,266 depositors, and 2 banks with note circu-

Government — The governor is assisted in
executive and administrative matters by an
advisory council, composed of 3 colonists and 3
officials, all appointed by the king of England;
in legislative matters by the Courr of Policy (7
officials beside the governor, and 8 elective mem-
bers, chosen from inhabitants by constituency of
2.676 voters qualified by income or property).
The governor has a casting vote, and can decide

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any question against the votes of the represent-
ative members. The colonists are in the ma-
jority, however, in the Combined Court, which
votes the taxes and public expenditures.

Finances. — Total revenue for the year 1909-10
was -£540,269, derived mainly from customs,
licenses, duty on rum, and royalty on gold. Pub-
lic expenditures in the same year amounted to
£546,711. The public debt in 1910 was

Population, Schools and Judiciary. — The cen-
sus of 1891 showed: Negroes, 115,588; East In-
dians (Hindu coolies), 105465; aboriginal In-
dians, about 17463; Portuguese from Madeira,
12,166; whites of other nationalities, 4,558;
Chinese, 3,433; mixed races, etc., 29,376. The
total number of inhabitants 31 Dec. 1909 was
305,090. In 1901-2 the schools, numbering 213,
had 26,684 pupils. There are three judges, and, in
the several districts, a number of magistrates.
The criminal law is based on that of England;
in civil cases the Roman-Dutch law is applied,
with certain modifications.

History (including the boundary dispute with
Venezuela). — Prohibition of the slave trade
checked the agricultural development of the col-
ony, and emancipation of the slaves (1838)
ruined many planters, the freed negroes demand-
ing higher wages than the planters could afford
to pay. This crisis led to the introduction of
large numbers of laborers from Madeira, the
East Indies, China,, and Malta. Immigrants of
a different class began to arrive about 1886 in
consequence of the rediscovery of gold; but
serious difficulties arose precisely, on account of
the enhancement in the value of the auriferous
regions, some of the most promising of which
were located in the territory west of the Esse-
quibo claimed by both Venezuela and Great
Britain. The inland limits of the Spanish
(afterward Venezuelan), the British, the Dutch,
the French, and the Portuguese (afterward
Brazilian) Guianas were undetermined. In 184 1
Schomburgk surveyed the boundary line of Brit-
ish Guiana for the British government, and made
two maps ; the second or revised map placing the
boundary with Venezuela much farther toward
the west than the first Subsequently Venezuela
and Great Britain agreed not to encroach upon
the territory in dispute, pending a settlement
of the boundary question, but both countries
offended against the spirit of this compact. The
proposal for arbitration in 1887 was met by
England's prompt refusal to admit any doubt as
to her title to the lands east of the revised
Schomburgk line, and, a little later, by the es-
tablishment of British posts, and the declaration
that the region drained by the Barima River
was hers by right. It is necessary to bear
in mind that if England had accepted the views
of Venezuela and Brazil as to the boundaries of
British Guiana, that colony would have dis-
appeared from the map. Brazil claimed all but
about 12,000 square miles; Venezuela nearly the
whole of the old Essequibo colony, the Pomeroon
and the unsettled interior districts. When
President Cleveland, in 1895, called to the at-
tention of the British government the bearing of
the Monroe doctrine upon the question at issue,
his suggestion was at first not accepted. His
message to Congress went much farther. It
advised Congress that a commission should be
appointed for the determination of the true

boundary, and declared in effect that any at-
tempt to extend British territory beyond the true
boundary should be resisted by the United
States, by force, if necessary. It was a threat
of war. Pursuant to the act of Congress 21
Dec. 1895, a commission was appointed 1 Jan.
1896. But before their report was submitted a
treaty providing for the reference of the matter
to a tribunal of arbitration had been signed at
Washington (2 Feb. 1897). Arbitrators were:
Chief Justice Fuller and Justice Brewer of
United States Supreme Court; Lord Herschell
(and, after his death, Lord Russell of Killowen),
and Justice Sir R. H. Collins ; and as president,
Prof. Martens. The tribunal met at Paris in
1899. The award, given 3 October, determined
the boundary nearly in correspondence with the
second or revised Schomburgk line, assigning
to Great Britain a region about 60,000 square
miles in area which Venezuela had claimed. On
the other hand, Point Barima, at the principal
mouth of the Orinoco, and certain gold-fields
near the headwaters of the Cuyuni, were awarded
to Venezuela. The territory of British Guiana,
thus defined, extends along the seacoast to
Point Playa, and includes the whole valley of
the Barima and that of the Cuyuni east of the
Wenamu — the larger part, though not the best
part, of the mining region.

2. Dutch Guiana or Surinam is bounded on
the north by the Atlantic Ocean, on the east by
French Guiana, on the south by Brazil, and on
the west by British Guiana. It extends from lat
2 to 6° N, and from Ion. 53 50' to 58 20' E.
Area 46,072 square miles. The political divi-

sions are disttfo%?i6$w number, and communes ;
the capital, Paramarioo, has about 31,817 inhabi-
tants. Chief products are: Cacao (75 planta-
tions), sugar (7 plantations), coffee, bananas,
rice, maize, rum, molasses, and gold (output
valued at about $571,000 in 1907). The mining
experience of this colony resembles that of
British Guiana; the metal has been sought
hitherto in beds of streams, etc., but is now
being taken also from mines which require
crushing machinery. Imports regularly ex-
ceed in value the exports; thus in 1907 imports
amounted to $1,531,068, and exports to
$1,300,837. During the years 1897 to 1901 the
value of exports remained almost stationary,
while that of imports steadily increased. Exec-
utive authority is vested in a governor. The
representative assembly, called the Colonial
States, is composed of members chosen for 6
years by a limited number of electors. The
council consists of 5 members, including the
governor himself as president, and represents the
sovereign. The revenues of the colony fall short
of the expenditures. The military force is about
as follows : Garrison, 20 officers and 351 men ;
militia, 27 officers and 41 1 men ; and civic guard,
59 officers and 1,061 men. There arc a few
guard ships and vessels of the royal navy. The
number of inhabitants in 1908 was somewhat
more than 81,000. Educational institutions are:

A normal school ; schools maintained by the
Moravian Brethren and the Roman Catholics;
^ private schools, with 4,822 pupils; and 20
public schools, with 2,342 pupils. The judicial
system comprises a court of justice (all the of-
ficers appointed by the queen), two circuit, and
three district courts. Slavery was abolished 1
July 1863, but the authorities imposed the con-

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ditions that for 10 years the emancipated negroes
should remain upon the plantations of the dis-
tricts in which they had formerly lived, and
should perform the same kind of work for wages
that they had been accustomed to while in
bondage. After I July 1873, the importation of
laborers to replace the freedmen became a mat-
ter of life and death in Surinam as in the neigh-
boring colonies, for agriculture was almost

3. French Guiana, lying between the Atlan-
tic Ocean, Brazil, and Dutch Guiana, has an area
of about 30,500 square miles. Besides Cayenne,
capital of the colony, and its only port (popula-
tion, according to the latest census, 12,612),

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