Wilfrid Richmond.

The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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mer. Philadelphia and Boston furnish the best
markets for fresh haddock, but the demand from
the interior is constantly growing. Though
considerable quantities are salted at Province-



town, the haddock when so .prepared is .much
inferior to the cod. The Scotch method of dry-
ing and smoking produces the much superior
* Finnan Haddies," and is largely practised at
Portland and Boston.

Had'don Hall, an old English baronial
mansion, the seat successively of Avenells, Ver-
sions, and the Rutland family, stands on a slope
overlooking the Wye in Derbyshire, £3 miles
north-northwest of Derby. The styles of archi-
tecture range from Norman to the 16th century.
Reference is made to it in Scott's ( Peveril of
the Peak.* Although it is not inhabited it is in
fine condition and remarkable as one of the
most interesting extant examples of the country
house of a great land owner in the late Middle
Ages.

Haddonfield, N. J., a borough of Camden
County, five miles southeast of Camden, a junc-
tion of two branches of the Camden and At-
lantic railroad. Its industries, are mainly agri-
cultural ; and it has also manufactures of stoves,
tinware, watchcases, etc Pop. (1910). 4,142.

Ha'den, Sir Francis Seymour, English
etcher and surgeon: b. London 16 Sept 1818;
d. Bradford, Eng., 1 June 1910. He
studied at the Sorbonne and in the Paris
and Grenoble medical schools, and in 1857 be-
came a Fellow of the Royal College of Sur-
geons. The < Etched Work of F. S. Haden>
contains 185 plates by him and still others have
been published in ( Etudes a l'Eau Forte >
(1865-6). His work as an etcher is noted for
both vigor and breadth. He was president of
the Society of Painter Etchers, was knighted
in 1894, and wrote < Etched Work of Rem-
brandt > (1870-80); < About Etching> (1881).

Hades, ha'dez, the Greek name of a god,
in large measure corresponding to the Roman
Pluto, who reigned over the infernal regions.
Both Greeks and Romans supposed the infernal
regions to be in the centre of the earth. To
enter these, the river Styx had to be crossed by
the dead in the wherry of Charon. If, by any
chance, the body lay unburied, the shade was
detained 100 years on the banks of the Styx
before crossing.

The Greek word Hades is rendered in the
authorized version by the ambiguous term hell
(q.v.). Expressions, most of them b obviously
figurative, used of Hades, represent it as sub-
terranean ; as having gates with keys in the hand
of Christ, and as having, in a portion of it, souls
in torment.

Had'is, or in Arabic plural, Ahadis, narra-
tions or traditions, which relate to the Prophet
Mohammed, and are not found in the Koran.
There are numerous collections of these float-
ing traditions, anecdotes and legends. A search
for such data was first undertaken by Abdul
Malik ibn Juraisch (d. 772 a.d.). Others con-
sider that the collection of Imam Malik (d. 801)
is the earliest extant. The following six Hadis
collections are considered by the Sunnite Mos-
lems to be canonical scriptures: 1. The Hadis
of Mohammed Ismail al Buchari (d. 878).
2. Of Muslim ibn ul Hajaj (d. 883). 3. Of Abu
Isa Mohammed al Tirmisi (d. 901). 4. Abu
Daud al Sajistani (d. 807). 5- Of Abu Abd ur
Rahman al Nasai (d. 925). 6. Of Abu Abdal-
lah Mohammed Ibn Wajah (d. 895). None of
these have ever been printed.



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HADLEY — HADRIAN



Hadley, Arthur Twining, American col-
lege president: b. New Haven, Conn.. 23 April
1856. A son of James Hadley (q.v.), he was
graduated from Yale in 1876, and took graduate
studies in political science at Yale and the Vni-
versity of Berlin. In 1879-83 he was a tutor at
Yale, and during that time wrote for several
journals, including the ( Railway Gazette } and
the ( Financial Chronicled He was commissioner
of labor statistics for Connecticut (1885-7), and
was in 1885 a witness before the CuHom State
committee which prepared the Interstate Com-
merce Law. In 1886 he became professor of
political science at Yale, and in 1899 was made
president of the university. He was president
of the American Economic Association for two
years. In 1885 he published < Railroad Trans-
portation: Its History and Laws.* which is
everywhere recognized as one of trie chief au-
thorities on the subject, and has been translated
into French and Russian; his other works in-
clude < Report on the Labor Question ) (1885);
K Economics, an Account of the Relations be-
tween Private Property and Public Welfare )
(1896), presenting the theories of political econ-
omy in accordance with the most modern re-
search and thought ; and 'The Education of the
American Citizen * (1901). His writings show
him to be not only a scholar, but also a man of
affairs well acquainted with the business world,
an:l in this regard he is one of the best repre-
sentatives of the modern type of university
presidents.

Hadley, Henry K., American composer: b.
Somerville, Mass., 1871. He was a pupil of
S. A. Emery and G. W. Chadwick in Boston,
studied also in Vienna, and in 1895 returned to
the United States and was appointed instructor
in music at St Paul's School, Garden City,
L. L His symphony, <The Four Seasons,* re-
ceived the prizes given by the Paderewski Fund
and the New England Conservatory of Boston.
His works further include a concert overture
* Hector and Andromache* ; a symphony, < Youth
and Life* ; a cantata, <In Music's Praise* ; a
festival march; trios, quartettes, and more than
150 excellent songs and pianoforte compositions.

Hadley, James, American philologist: b.
Fairfield, N. Y., 30 March 1821 ; <L New Haven.
Conn., 14 Nov. 1872. When a boy he suffered
an injury to his knee, which developed se-
riously, and crippled him for life. He was
graduated from Yale in 1842, took graduate
studies in mathematics and also a theological
course. In 1844 he was tutor at Middlebury
College, Vt, and in 1845 became a tutor at Yale.
In 1848 he became assistant professor of Greek
there, and in 1851, professor of Greek. He
was familiar not only with Greek, Latin, and
the chief modern languages, but also with He-
brew, Arabic, Armenian, Gaelic, Irish, San-
skrit, Gothic, and Old English, and won a high
reputation as a linguist distinguished for exact-
ness and thoroughness in detail, united with
breadth of view; he also was successful and
influential as a teacher. He published a ( Greek
Grammar* (1861), based on Curtius, and wrote
the < Brief History of the English Language*
in the 1864 edition of Websters ^Dictionary* ;
after his death, his introduction to Roman
Law* (1873) and ( Philological and Critical
Essays* (1873) were published.



Hadley, John, English mathematician and
astronomer: b. 1682; d. 14 Feb. 1743. He be-
came a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1717, and
was the inventor of Hadley's quadrant (see
Sextant) and of a reflecting telescope (1723).
The credit of having invented the sextant is
claimed for Hadley, Godfrey, and Newton, but
each seems, nevertheless, to have made his own
discovery independently. Hadley described his
instrument, which he called an *octant,* to the
Royal Society in May 1731.

Hadley, Mass., town, which includes sev-
eral villages, in Hampshire County; on the
Connecticut River and on the Boston & M.
Railroad ; three miles northeast of Northampton
and four miles southwest of Amherst It was
settled in 1659, and was first called Norwottack;
but in 1661, when it was incorporated, it was
given the name Hadley, from Hadley in Eng-
land. William Goffe and his father-in-law
Whalley, who fled from England to America in
1660, and who lived for a time near New Haven,
sought concealment in Hadley, in 1664, where
Goffe died in 1679. According to tradition,
when Hadley was at one time attacked by In-
dians, and the people were called from the
meeting-house, they stood helpless until Goffe
appearing, took the lead and repelled the enemy.
Hadley is an agricultural region, and its in-
dustries are chiefly connected with farm prod-
ucts. Pop. (1910) 1,099.

Hadramaut, ha-dra-mat', Arabia, the name
given to the coast region from Aden to Cape
Ras-al-Hadd. It consists of a plateau, parted
from a mountain chain, the birrier of the in-
terior desert, by a complex of valleys. Com-
merce, agriculture, cattle-breeding, and the chase
are the chief occupations. The climate is dry
but healthy. Pop. about 150,000.

Hadrian, ha'dH-an (Publius ^uus Had-
sianus), Roman emperor: b. Rome 24 Jan. 76;
<L Baiae 10 July 138. For his ardor in the study
of Greek he earned the nickname of Grseculue.
A nephew of Trajan, he was adopted by that
emperor, fought under him against the Dacians
with some glory, and, having been entrusted
with the praefecture of the East and the com-
mand of the Roman armies in the East early
in 117 when Trajan left the field, Hadrian,
upon Trajan's death later in the same year was
made emperor by his soldiers. He quickly re-
alized that he could make no forcible head
against the simultaneous attacks of the Par-
tisans and, in Dacia and Moesia, of barbarian
foes, to say nothing of revolt in Syria and
Egypt. With the true insight of a diplomat he
foresaw that the extreme East must be either
surrendered voluntarily or lost, and chose the
former alternative as the least costly. Hence
he gave up Armenia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria,
all comparatively new Roman provinces, to the
Parthian power, and withdrew the Roman
eagles to the west of the Euphrates. In
119, for the purpose of becoming acquainted
with the state of the provinces, he began his
celebrated journey, which he is said to have
performed chiefly on foot, marching bareheaded
20 miles a day and sharing cheerfully the hard
fare of the humblest soldier. He visited Gaul,
Germany, Britain, where he built the famous
wall extending from the Solway to the Tyne,
Spain, Mauritania, Egypt, Asia Minor, and



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ARTHUR TWINING HADLEY,

PRESIDENT VALE UNIVERSITY.



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HADRIAN'S WALL —HEMATOXYLIN



Greece, whence he returned to Rome after his
circuit of the empire in 126 or 127 a.d., and re-
ceived the title of "Pater Patriae.* Hadrian
spent the years 132 and 133 in Athens, which
aty he adorned with splendid and costly build-
ings. After once more visiting Syria and crush-
ing a desperate Jewish revolt, he returned to
Italy, and spent the last years of his life at
Rome and his villa. During his reign the army
was vigorously disciplined and reorganized.
As a civil ruler he merits high praise for the
just and comprehensive view he appears to have
taken of his duties as a sovereign. Hence to
him is attributed, more than to any other, the
consolidation of the monarchical system of Rome.
Hadrian also divided Italy into four parts under
four consuls, to whom was entrusted the ad-
ministration of justice. Hadrian had a passion
for building: his most splendid edifices were
a famous villa at Tibur (now Tivoli), and in
Rome the Aelian bridge, built in 136, and now
styled the Pont Sant' Angelo. This bridge leads
to the emperor's splendid mausoleum, the
Moles Hadnani. He likewise laid the founda-
tion of several cities, the most important of
which was Adrianopolis. He was a lover of
the fine arts and set a high value on Greek lit-
erature. No fragment of ancient literature has
been more famous than the verses attributed to
the dying Hadrian :

Animula vagula, blandula
Hospes comesqtae corporis
Quae nunc abibis in loca
PalHdula, rigida, nudula,
Nee ut soles dabis jocos? '

David Johnston, in his < Translations, Literal
and Free, of the Dying Hadrian's Address to
his SouP (1877), gives no fewer than 116 trans-
lations of all degrees of excellence. Among
well-known writers, Byron, Prior, Pope, and
Merivale have attempted renderings. Consult:
Gregorovius, <Der Kaiser Hadrian > (1884) ;
Durr, <Die Reisen des Kaisers Hadrian > (1881).

Hadrian's Wall, a wall in the north of
England, called also the Roman Wall and the
Wall of Severus. Before Agricola advanced into
Scotland he established forts between the estu-
ary of the Tyne and the Solway Firth, to protect
him from attack in his rear. He adopted the
same precaution before leaving the Lowlands
of Scotland for the Highlands, placing encamp-
ments between the firths of Forth and Clyde.
Afterward walls were constructed on these two
lines. On the English side of the Border is
a stone wall with a ditch on its north side. At-
tached to it are stationary camps, mile-castles,
and turrets for the accommodation of the sol-
diery who # manned it. To the south of the
stone wall is a series of ramparts generally called
the vallum. This fortification consists of three
aggers or mounds and a ditch. The military
way along which the soldiery moved lies between
the murus or stone wall and the vallum. The
wall was not intended as a mere fence to block
out the Caledonians, but as a line of military
strategy. Hadrian is now generally believed to
have been the builder of the whole structure.
Severus, however, repaired it before he advanced
into Scotland. Agricola came to Britain in 78
a.d. Hadrian came toward the close of 119 A.D.
Severus died in 211 a.d. Considerable portions
of Hadrian's Wall yet remain. In two places
the wall stands nine feet high. See Colling-
wood Bruce, c The Roman WalP (1851); and



<Handbook to the Roman WalP (1863) ; Neil-



1863)
; Cr<



son, ( Per Lineam Valli ) (1891); Creighton,
<Carlisle> (1889).

Hadrosaurus, h&d-ro-sa'rus, or Trachodon,
a genus of duck-billed dinosaurs of the Cre-
taceous rocks of North America. Compare
Claosaurus.

Haeckel, hek'el, Ernst, German naturalist:
b. Potsdam, Germany, 16 Feb. 1834. He studied
at Berlin, Wurzburg, and Vienna, taking his
medical degree in 1858 and practising that pro-
fession a short time in the former city. During
1859 and i860 he made a journey through Italy
and Sicily in the interest of science, his work
on ( The Radiata 1 (1862), being a result Later
portions were added in 1887 and 1888. In 1861
«e settled in Jena for the study of comparative
anatomy, but soon turned to the specific investi-
gation of zoology, and after holding subordinate
positions, was appointed in 1865 full professor at
Jena. His researches had to do especially with
the lower ranks of marine animals, and above
all, with deep-sea life in its simplest forms.
The material for such ctudy was gathered from
many and extended experiences in the North
Sea, the Mediterranean, the Canary Isles, and
the Indian Ocean. These travels and researches
were the basis of works like the ( History of the
Development of the Siphonophora* (1869) ; and
'Biological Studies 1 (1870). These, however,
were introductory to greater representative
works on natural philosophy and the develop-
ment theory, v such* 'as < Calcareous Sponges >
(1S72T; 'Natural History of Creation* (1868),
— which has received the honor of translation
into twelve languages, — and his master work
< General Morphology of Organisms > (1866).
More popular writings, making him known to a
public much wider than the biologist ever ad-
dresses, are those <On the Division of Labor in
Nature and Human Life > (1869), <On the
Origin and Genealogy of the Human Race >
(1870), <Life in the Great Marine Animals 1 ;
<The Arabian Corals 1 (1873) ; <The Syste;.i of
the Medusa 1 (1880) ; and <A Visit to Ceylon.>
For many years he has devoted hi3 attention
to the deep-sea explorations of H. M. S. Chal-
lenger expedition, of which he has written
voluminous reports in English. His general
biologic conclusions regarding the life and
growth of deep-sea organisms are given in his
T Plankton Studies 1 (1890), while his Monism
as the Link between Religion and Science 1 may
be considered as in a certain sense his confes-
sion of faith.

Haematemesis, hfc-ma-tem'2-sls, vomiting
blood, which comes from the stomach, or oesoph-
agus. It may result from alcoholism, poisoning,
or cirrhosis of the liver. It is more frequent in
later life than haemoptysis (q.v.) but niay occur
in the acute perforating ulcers of the stomach in
young women. It is frequently associated with
cancer, but it results also from external violence.

Haem'atin, or Hem'atin. See Hemoglobin.

Haematoxylin, he-ma-taVd-lin (CuH M Ot),
the coloring matter of logwood, or Hatnatoxylon
Campechianutn, got from the extract by allowing
it to stand some days in contact with ether,
decanting, removing the ether, and adding water.
Hematoxylin gradually deposits, and the crys-
tals by pressure and recrystallization from water
containing a little ammonium sulphite can be



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HEMATURIA — HEMORRHOIDS



got nearly colorless. Combined with three mole-
cules of water it forms dimetric, with one of
water trimetric crystals. The crystals are large,
transparent, and brilliant, and have a sweet
taste. Hematoxylin dissolves sparingly in
water, but it is taken up very freely by solu-
tion of borax, by hypo-sulphite of sodium, phos-
phate of sodium, and some other salts. It is
also soluble in ether and in alcohol. By acids
it is not readily affected, but it reacts at once
with alkalies, forming colored solutions, and
with metallic oxides forming precipitates of
various colors. By joint action of air and bases
hematoxylin is oxidized and becomes trans-
formed into haematein.

Hematuria, hem-a-tu'ri-a, the presence of
blood in the urine, which points to disease
of the kidney or bladder. It is a symptom of
some gravity. The treatment of the cause will
probably remove this affection * in all cases com-
plete rest is very important. See Trematoda.

Haemoglobin, or Hemoglobin, an organic
coloring matter, which constitutes about nine
tenths of the weight of dried red blood corpus-
cles, and serves as a carrier of oxygen from the
lungs to the general tissues of the body. It is
an exceedingly complex substance, and its for-
mula is not certainly known. Zinoffsky gives
it as CroHiuoNsuSaFeOsu ; but this can hardly be
regarded as more than a guess. According to
many authorities, haemoglobin is not a definite
chemical compound, but a more or less variable
mixture of simpler substances. It gives all the
general reactions of the proteids, but," unlike
most of the proteids, it may easily be obtained
in crystalline form, its crystals commonly occur-
ring in rhombic plates or prisms, varying some-
what in shape, according to the source from
which the substance is prepared. The exceeding
physiological importance of haemoglobin depends
upon the fact that it readily combines with
oxygen to form a very unstable compound
known as oxy haemoglobin. The combination
takes place as the blood corpuscles containing
the haemoglobin pass through the lungs ; and the
loosely-combined oxygen is given off again as
the corpuscles pass through the capillaries, the
oxyhemoglobin being thereby again reduced to
haemoglobin. Haemoglobin also combines with
carbon monoxid to form a similar but far more
stable substance known as carboxy haemoglobin.
In poisoning by the inhalation of coal-gas the
carbon monoxid present in the coal-gas com-
bines with the haemoglobin in the lungs, and
the carboxyhaemoglobin so formed does not
break up again. As the absorption of the coal-
gas proceeds, a continually increasing quantity
of haemoglobin is therefore destroyed, so far
as its utility as an oxygen-carrier is concerned.
In extreme cases of such poisoning, transfusion
of blood is resorted to, in order that the patient
may have a sufficient supply of haemoglobin to
transport the requisite quantity of oxygen from
the lungs to the other tissues of the body.

The preparation of pure haemoglobin is a
difficult operation, and for its details reference
should be made to Gamgee's Physiological
Chemistry.* One of the best methods that have
been proposed consists in adding to defibrinated
blood about one sixteenth of its own volume of
ether, and shaking the mixture. This treatment
causes the red corpuscles to break up, and the
fluid becomes lake-colored. After a time, vary-



ing from a few minutes to three days, accord-
ing to the source of the blood, a heavy deposit
of minute crystals of oxyhemoglobin is thrown
down. This may be purified by washing with
25 per cent alcohol, and subsequent recrystalliza-
tion. Crystals of haemoglobin itself have also
been prepared. Pure haemoglobin has a purplish
color, which gradually passes into a scarlet or a
yellowish red, as the substance absorbs oxygen
and becomes thereby converted into oxyhaemo-
globin. Carboxyhaemoglobin is even more bril-
liantly red than oxyhaemoglobin. All three of
these substances exhibit marked absorption
spectra when in solution, and very small quanti-
ties of them can be easily detected by the spec-
troscope. It is said that the presence of one
part of haemoglobin in ten thousand parts of
water can be distinctly demonstrated by this
means.

When oxyhaemoglobin is acted upon by acids
or alkalies, or by the gastric juice, it is resolved
into a proteid substance and a definite com-
pound which has the probable formula GJ-UNt
FeaOio and is known as haematin. Haematin
may be best prepared by extracting blood clot,
directly, with hot alcohol to which a small quan-
tity of sulphuric acid has been added. The ex-
tract is next agitated with chloroform, which
takes upj the haematin. The chloroform is then
separated, washed with water to remove the acid,
and allowed to evaporate, when the haematin is
deposited in the form of a bluish-black powder.
Haematin is a very stable compound, and may
be heated to 350 F. without decomposition. At
higher temperatures it burns with evolution of
hydrocyanic acid, leaving an ash composed
chiefly of oxid of iron. It is insoluble in water,
ether, dilute acids, and pure alcohol; but it
dissolves readily in solutions of the caustk al-
kalies, and in alcohol to which a small quantity
of sulphuric acid has been added. Consult
Gamgee, < Physiological Chemistry. )

Haemophilia, a congenital inherited disease
characterized by a tendency to obstinate bleed-
ings. Women are very rarely affected, but trans-
mission of the disease seems to be from the
father through the daughters to the grandsons,
and from father to son. The disease usually
makes itself evident in early life, a slight wound
being followed by abnormal hemorrhage, where-
by the child becomes known as a "bleeder.* The
exact fault in nature's ordinary method in plug-
ging blood-vessels has not been discovered; the
shed blood will clot naturally. Besides the liabil-
ity to excessive hemorrhage, these subjects are
frequently afflicted with trouble in the joints,
probably a chronic inflammation, the result of
repeated small hemorrhages. Death is always
imminent, as nothing can stop the flow of blood
where large areas of the body are injured.
Chlorides are used with some success for those
mildly afflicted with the disease, particularly
the chloride of calcium.

Haemop'tysis, expelling blood from the
lungs, larynx or bronchial tubes by coughing,
which may be a symptom of phthisis. Morphine
is useful immediately after such hemorrhages,
but modern medicine rejects the use of styptics.

Haemorrhoids (Greek, haima, blood, and
rheo, to flow), literally, a flow of blood. Until
the time of Hippocrates this word was used,
conformably to its etymology, as synonymous
with hemorrhage. It was afterward used in a



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HAFIZ— HAGAR



narrower sense, to indicate the flux of blood
at the extremity of the rectum, and in some other
cases which were considered analogous to it;
thus it was applied to the flow of blood from
the nostrils, the mouth, the bladder, and the
uterus. It is at present used to signify a par-
ticular affection of the rectum, although the
disease is not always attended with a flux; in
this sense the affection is also called piles. Cer-
tain general causes may produce a predisposi-
tion to this disease; in some cases, it appears to
be the effect of a hereditary disposition ; in gen-
eral, it manifests itself between the period of
puberty and old a^e, although infants and aged
people are not entirely exempt from its attacks.
Men are oftener affected than women, in whom
it is sometimes produced by local causes. It
often shows itself in subjects who pass suddenly
from an active to a sedentary life, or from
leanness to corpulency. Any circumstance which
produces a tendency to pressure on the venous
return of blood in the pelvis is to be reckoned



Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 87 of 185)