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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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medicine, and found the means chiefly by the
translation of English medical works. At a
later period he went to Vienna, and after some
years he returned and completed his studies at
Erlangen. He afterward practised medicine at
various places, but gave it up for a time, until,
in 1789, by the translation of Cullen's Materia
Medical lie was led to adopt a new method of
cure. His system was fully explained in his
( Organon der rationellen Heilkundc* (1810).
In 1820 the government prohibited him from
dispensing medicines, and thereby, from his
inability to have them prepared by druggists,
obliged him to give up his practice. Duke Fer-
dinand of Anhalt-Kothen, however, gave him
an asylum at Kothen, and conferred upon him
the title of Hofrath. Here he remained till 1833,
when he proceeded to Paris, where he hoped to
find a wider sphere for his operations. The
result equaled his expectations; and a royal
decree issued in 1835 authorized him to practise
Homoeopathy. Among his works should be
named dictionary of Materia Medical his
'Essays on Poisoning by Arsenic, and on the
Effects of Coffee, > and his treatise on < Chronic
Affections. )

Haidarabad, hl-da-ra-bad'. See Hyderabad.

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Hail Colombia, a national song of the
United States. The words written during a
period of great political excitement in 1798, by
Judge Joseph Hopkinson, were set to the melody
of the < President's March,* composed the same
year in honor of President Washington, by
Pfyles, orchestral leader at the John Street
Theatre, New York. The composition first sung
at a theatrical benefit attained great popularity,
and on account of its patriotic sentiments has
become a representative national song.

Hail Mary. Ave Maria, or Angelical Salu-

iisting of three parts: the

vhich the angel addressed

1 Luke I. 24) with the word

the second, the words by

essed Mary (Luke 1. 42),

1 dded t}ie word Je9us; the

1 oly Mary, Mother of God,

I ow an<J at the hour of our

< s name, <( Angelical Saluta-

1 e first part of the prayer,

i >n of the angel. The first

i ken from the Bible, were

i t form in early times; but

1 I part were varied until the

] he present form was ap-

1 by Pope Pius V. The

] se among Roman Catholics

j r Anglican books of devo-


ee Dalrymple, Sir David.
jge, England, an institu-
1 _ . lertford, 20 miles north of

London, founded by the East India Company in
1806, as a training school for admittance to the
service of the company. It attained a high repu-
tation, and numbered among its alumni, the most
distinguished names connected with the Indian
administration of the 19th century. After the
Indian Mutiny of 1857-8, and the government
reorganization of the Indian Civil Service, the
college was closed for four years. It was re-
opened under a royal charter in 1862 as a public
school, and while maintaining many of the tradi-
tions of its famous predecessor is no longer an
Indian service training ground. Handsome
modern buildings have been added to the old
college quadrangle, built in 1809; the surround-
ing grounds cover nearly 100 acres. Consult:
Lowell, Colonial Civil Service ) (1900) ; Mo-
nier-Williams, ( Memorials of Old Haileybury
College> (1804).

Hailmann, haTman, William Nicholas,
American educator: b. Canton Glarus, Switzer-
land, 20 Oct. 1836. He studied at the medical
college of Louisville, Ky., was director of the
German-American Seminary at Detroit in 1878-
83, in 1894-3 was national superintendent of
Indian schools, and in 1898 became superin-
tendent of instruction at Dayton, Ohio. Among
his writings are: < History of Pedagogy > (1870) ;
<The Application of Psychology to Teaching >
(1887) ; < Place and Development of Purpose in
Education (1899).

Hair, strictly speaking, the peculiar epi-
dermal covering of the body in mammals,
although by analogy the term is loosely applied
elsewhere, as to the setae of annelids, the slender
modified spines of caterpillars, etc. Hair is
present in every mammal, although the amount
may be greatly reduced so that in certain whales
Vol. 10 — 22

it occurs only in the foetal stage, in others
is limited to two bristles on the lips. The struc-
ture is best understood by following the develop-
ment. In the earliest stage (Fig. 1) there is
merely a thickening of the Malpighian layer of
the epidermis (see Skin) at the points where
the hair is to be found. This thickening in-
creases in amount, and thus forms a solid plug
(Fig. 2) which projects into the underlying


Fie 1. — Section Through the Earliest Stage of
Hair Formation.

E, epidermis, showing in m, the Malpighian layer, the
elongation of the cells; d, derma, with proliferation of
cells to form the papilla shown in Fig. 2.

derma. At the same time the cells, which are
scanty in most parts of the derma, become
abundant beneath the ingrowing plug, and form
the basis of the future papilla. Next a ring-
shaped pit appears on the outer surface of the
plug and gradually becomes deeper, cutting the
epidermis into two parts, an outer root-sheath
and an inner rod-like part, the hair itself, while

Fig. 2. — Second Stage in Hair Formation.

The epidermis, E has now formed a solid plug ex-
tending down into the derma; the papilla, P, has begun
to form at the apex of the epidermal ingrowth.

the pit forms the follicle (see Fig. 3). The
papilla grows into the base, bearing blood-ves-
sels, while the Malpighian layer at this point
forms the tissue from which the hair grows. In
the hair itself several parts are recognized — a
central pithy axis, the medulla; next, a layer of

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tells, the cortex, and outside this, forming the
outer surface of the hair, the cuticle. Farther
down in the follicle is the inner root-sheath,
formed of two layers of cells known respectively
by the names of the two anatomists, Henle and
Huxley, who first described them. The Mai-
pighjan cells, at the base of the follicle, divide
continually, and the new cells thus formed are
pushed outward and are transformed into the
hair. From this it will be seen that the hair is
not a se cre ti on but is composed of cornined cells.
It is also apparent that the hair is not hollow.

The differences between the different kinds
of hair are largely those of shape and of the
amount of the various parts present. Thus in
many animals two kinds of hair occur, longer
and coarser hair on the outside, and beneath
this a closer and softer under-fur. The coarser
hairs may be enlarged into bristles, or still more
enlarged to form spines, like those of the porcu-
pines and hedgehogs. Again the hairs may be-
come united to each other, the result being the
formation of scales like those of the pangolins
of horns like those of the rhinoceros. In some

render the hairs to a certain extent organs of
touch, as in the whiskers (vibrissa) of cats;
and muscles for the erection of the hair
(erectorespilz). Tins erection may be to in-
crease the warmth of the body by entangling a
layer of air among the hairs, or it may have the
purpose of protection against injury, either by
terrifying some enemy or by affording a loose
envelope around the body some distance from



bv, blood vessel; c, cortex; ct, cuticle; e, epidermis;
/, follicle; he, Hcnle's layer; hm, Huxley's layer (he and
hu making up the inner root-sheath); m, medulla; n,
nerve; os, outer root-sheath; s, sebaceous gland; sm,
Malpighian layer of epidermis.

cases the hair is perfectly straight, again it may
be curly. The straight hairs are circular in
section, the curly are flattened, the amount of
curl being proportional to the amount of flatten-
ing. Certain hairs (wool of sheep, etc.) have
the property of felting. This depends upon the
scale-like projections of the cells of the cuticular
layer. The color of the hair is due to the pres-
ence of pigments belonging to the group of

Several accessory structures (Fig! 5) are
connected with the hair : sebaceous glands which
empty an oily substance into the follicle to keep
the hair in a moist, soft condition ; nerves which
are distributed to the wall of the follicle and thus

Fig. 4. — Hair tracts on
the back of an embryo
cat (after Mauexr).

Fie 5. — A Ham.
Vertical section
of akin, showing
hair - follicle ana
related parts: tf,
epidermis; b, hair;
c t hair-bulb; d, i,
oil-glands; e, fat-

the flesh. Usually the hair is shed (molted)
at regular intervals, but there are exceptions, as
in the mane and tail of horses, as well as in the
case of man. The hair is not scattered irregular-
ly over the body but occurs with more or less
regular arrangement In the early embryos it
is not uncommon to find it distributed in regular
lines (Fig. 4). Later the lines become broken up
into groups of hairs, the arrangement being char-
acteristic of the species, but without any broad
morphological significance. It should be noted
that although hair and pin-feathers closely re-
semble each other in general appearance they
are very distinct structures, hair originating in
a thickening of the epidermis, while feathers
(q.v.) like scales are dermal in origin. Most of
the literature relating to the hair is in German.
Consult the writings of Maurer, Meigerle,
Weber, and Poulton, < Quarterly Journal of
Microscopical Science,> Vol. XXXVI. (1894).

J. S. Kings ley,
Professor of Zoology, Tufts College.

Hair-dressing. As the hair is the greatest
ornament of the human body, the arrangement
of it has always been one of the most important
duties of the toilet. The ancient Hebrews es-
teemed fine hair a great beauty, as several pas-
sages of Scripture show. The Hebrew women
plaited their hair, confined it with gold and silver
pins, and adorned it with precious stones. Herod-
otus informs us that the ancient Egyptians

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let the hair of the head and heard grow only
when they were in mourning. Even' in the case
of young children they were wont to shave the
head, leaving only a few locks on the front,
sides, and back. The women, however, wore
their natural hair long and plaited, often reach-
ing down in the form of strings to the bottom of
the shoulder-blades. A practice the very op-
posite seems to have prevailed among the an*
cient Assyrians, as regards men at least. In
the Assyrian sculptures the hair always appears
long, combed closely down upon the head, and
shedding itself in a mass of curls on the shoul-
ders. The beard was also allowed to grow to
its full length. To the Greeks the hair was an
object of great importance, and they devoted
much time to it. Homer regularly applies to
the Greeks an epithet denoting that they had
ample flowing locks.

The Athenians curled their hair, and fastened
it up with small golden ornaments shaped like
grasshoppers, in token of their being a sons of
the earth. 9 Gold, pearls, precious stones, flow-
ers, and ribbons were employed to ornament
the tresses, and nets were also worn. False
hair seems to have been latterly used, and in
great quantities, both curled and frizzled. Mar-
ried women were distinguished from the un-
married by the manner in which the hair was
parted in front The Romans generally wore
oo covering on their heads except at sacred
rites, games, festivals, and in war. Women in
later times wore great quantities of false hair,
and dyeing the hair was common. They were
particularly addicted to frizzling and curling their
hair, raising it into stories of curls, some of great
height. Long hairpins were used to fix the curls.
Arranging the hair was a matter of great im-
portance. Slaves frizzled and adjusted it, and
a number of females learned in the art of the
coiffeur superintended the process, while the
fair dame herself watched the growing edifice
of curls, gold, precious stones, crowns of flowers,
in a mirror of polished steel, brass, tin, or silver.
On the introduction of Christianity the apos-
tles preached against the prevailing fashion of
dressing the hair. St. Paul regarded it as a
shame for a man to have long hair, though the
reverse for a woman. It then became common
for men to cut the hair short; hence the clergy
soon wore the hair quite short, and afterward
even shaved their heads in part. In the time of
Francis I., king of France, long hair was worn
at court; but the king, proud of his wound on
the head, himself wore short hair, in the Italian
and Swiss fashion, which soon became general.
In the reign of Louis XIII. the fashion of wear-
ing long hair was revived, and as it became de-
sirable to have the hair curling, the wigs were
also restored.

Among the Anglo-Saxon women the custom
prevailed of parting, curling, and turning the
hair over the back. Anglo-Saxon men wore their
hair long at the time of the Norman invasion,
while the conquerors adopted the singular fash-
ion of shaving the back of the head. Under
Elizabeth, false hair was greatly worn, padded
with cushions, under-propped, with forks, wires,
etc, and adorned with gold, pearls, and precious
stones. It is well known that the gallants of
Charles I/s time wore their hair in long flowing
locks, while the closely-cropped hair of the
Puritans brought the name of Roundheads down

upon them. In the Queen Anne era, while the
ladies wore their hair long, they generally tied
it in a knot, and almost completely covered it
up by extravagant head-dresses of wire and
paste-board, or feathers and ribbons. At that
time, and for long after, the coiffure of a lady
was such a serious affair, and the hair-dressers
were so fully employed, that fair wearers were
often compelled to have that part of their toilet
done two days before a ball, and pass the night
on a chair for fear of disturbing the elaborate
arrangement. This was the period of the prev-
alence of whitening the head with hair-powder,
a preparation of pulverized starch and perfume.
The custom of wearing it was introduced from
France into England in the reign of Charles
II. To make the powder hold, the hair was
usually greased with pomade. In 1795 a tax
was put upon the use of hair-powder in Great
Britain, and at one time yielded $100,000 per
annum, but the result was that hair-powder fell
out of general use, and the French Revolution,
which overturned so many antiquated cus-
toms, further contributed to throw it into
disfavor. The chignon was introduced and
had its day of popular favor in the 19th century,
bringing back the fashion of false hair and
padding to a greater or less extent. With re-
spect to men's hair ? short cutting is now uni-
versal, long hair being considered as a sign of
slovenliness or eccentricity.

Hair Manufactures, the industries by a
which the hair of animals is employed in the'
production of commercial articles of ornament or
utility. The strongest and most durable of hair-
cloth is woven from the tails of horses. The
horsehair from the mane is twisted into ropes
and after being boiled and then dried in an oven
is untwisted and in a half-matted condition
employed for stuffing beds and cushions. The
hair of cows is employed as a binder for plaster ;
in Europe it is sometimes woven into carpets, or
hose. The Chinese use pig's hair for the same
purposes. The stiff hair, or bristles from the
ridge of the hog's back, are made into brushes,
for the hair, teeth, or nails; as well as into
brooms, and the larger painting and whitewash-
ing brushes. Human nair is used for wigs,
toupees and frisettes. See Wig.

Hair Pencil, in painting, a fine brush made
of the hairs of the camel, sable, badger, squirrel,
marten, raccoon, goat, etc. The various sizes
require the quills of the crow, pigeon, goose,
turkey, or swan. Hair pencils are used by
artists in water colors, and by house and sign
painters in fine work.

Hair-tail. See Scabbard-fish.

Hair-worm. See Eelworm.

Hairless Dogs. Several races of domestic
dogs are bred in the warmer parts of the world,
whose skins are nearly hairless. In China and
Farther India a large dog of this description,
called polygar, is used in hunting. Central
Africa has a breed resembling a small black
greyhound. A hairless dog is found mummified
in prehistoric Peruvian tombs, and others were
formerly prevalent in the West Indies, or is still
known in Mexico. These have been cultivated
by fanciers in the United States, and constitute
a recognized show class. They are small and
terrier-like, brownish or bluish-black, wrinkled,

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and have only a few straggling hairs on the
body, with sometimes a tuft on the head.

Haiti, Hayti, or Santo Domingo, the sec-
ond largest island of the West Indies, lying
between Cuba and Porto Rico, the principal ad-
jacent islands being La Gonave, at the entrance
of Port-au-Prince, Tortuga Island, before Port
de Paix, and Vache Island, before Cayes. The
whole island is about 638 kilometres long with a
surface of 75*074 square kilometres. It comprises
two republics : the Republic of Haiti in the west
and the Dominican Republic (q.v.) in the east,
with a total population of 1,700,000. The land
is very fertile, being irrigated by 47 rivers; 14
mountain chains are spread over the island. The
mines are still to be worked and there is a large
field for investment. Haiti is healthful. From
June to September it is hot in the lowlands;
but regular land and sea breezes moderate the
temperature. In the mountains it is always
cool. There is a dry and a wet season. There
are no poisonous snakes or insects. The sani-
tary condition is excellent.

When, on 6 Dec. 1492, Columbus discovered
Haiti, the island was divided into five states or
•cacicats.® The inhabitants, called Indians, had
an easy life and were ruled by chiefs whose title
was ^cacics.® The natives could not stand the
hard work imposed on them by the Spaniards;
they died rapidly. Then began the import from
Africa of the black slaves. The Spaniards en-
joyed alone their new possession until 1630,
when the French adventurers known as *bucca-
neers® and a freebooters,* after occupying Tor-
tuga Island, undertook the conquest of what be-
came St Domingue.

From the intercourse between white and
black,' resulted in St. Domingue an intermediary
class, the mulattoes. Most of the latter, on ac-
count of their relationship, were not slaves ; and
their black mothers, their relatives, and other
slaves who could own enough money to redeem
themselves, little by little obtained their freedom.
These free colored people were not allowed any
political rights. They at first did not resent it
They endeavored to become land-owners.

When the French Revolution broke out in
1789 these free men or "affranchis,® who by that
time had accumulated wealth, asked for equality
of political rights. The Assemblee Nationale
granted them those rights. But the French
landlords or ^colons® were not at all pleased to
have the colored people for their fellow citizens.
A hard struggle began. The "colons* called
the English to their rescue.

At the end of the year 1793, the English
took possession of a part of the island. St. Do-
mingue was considered lost to France, being
occupied partly by the Spaniards, partly by the
English, when Toussaint Louverture (q.v.) es-
poused the cause of France. This extraordinary
man, who, up to 40 years of age, was a slave,
revealed himself a great general and a first-class
statesman. He succeeded in ridding the country
of the Spaniards and in expelling the English,
who, after an occupation of about five years,
were compelled to abandon their prey. The
French government rewarded him by appointing
him major-general and governor of the island.
Later on, Napoleon I. thought that Toussaint
Louverture was too powerful. In 1801 he ap-
pointed his brother-in-law, Gen. Leclerc, gov-
ernor of St Domingue. and sent a formidable

army to reduce the authority of Louverture
Toussaint Louverture, after a few skirmishes,
surrendered and retired on one of his properties.
Nevertheless, Gen. Leclerc caused him to be
arrested and deported to France m June 1802;
to that end the French general resorted to

The colored people took up arms against the
French domination in September 1802 under
the leadership of Gen. Dessalines. The fight
was very severe. And at the end of the year
1803, Rochambeau, who, at the death of Gen.
Leclerc, was in command of the French army,
hard pressed in the city of Cape Haiti by the
black troops, was compelled to capitulate. And
on 1 Jan. 1804 Haiti proclaimed its independence,
with Gen. Dessalines as its first ruler. Slavery
was abolished. Haiti was then the first country
to rid humanity of such a sad practice.

In 1822 the Spanish part came under the ad-
ministration of Haiti ; and the whole island was
ruled by one government. But in 1844 the Span-
ish part seceded and established an independent
government, known to-day as the Dominican

The Republic of Haiti is administered by a
president, elected for seven years, by the House
of Representatives and the Senate assembled in
a Assemblee Nationale.* The president is as-
sisted by six ministers or secretaries of state.
The House of Representatives is elected by the
people for three years, and the Senate is elected
by the House of Representatives for six years;
but every two years the third part of the Senate
is renewed.

The judiciary organization consists of a
supreme court (Tribunal de Cassation) of civil,
criminal, correctional courts, and of justices of
the peace.

Education is compulsory and gratuitous. The
primary as well as the high schools are freely
open to all. Haiti devotes now a sixth of its
revenues to education.

French is the language of Haiti, though the
country people speak a patois called a creole.*

The religion of the people is Roman Catholic.
There are an archbishop, three bishops, and in
every commune at least a priest. The pope
entertains a diplomatic representative, a legate,
at Port-au-Prince, and Haiti has a minister
accredited to the Holy See. Freedom of con-
science is, however, guaranteed; and all cults
are protected. Haitian citizens only can own
real estate. Any foreigner may easily be

Haiti produces coffee, cocoa, logwood, ma-
hogany, and cotton; tortoise-shells, all kind of
cabinet wood, hides, honey, bees-wax, etc, are
also exported ; for home consumption, they make
sugar, rum, soap, straw hats, pottery, matches,
artificial ice, etc. There is a railroad from Cape
Haiti to Grande Riviere and another one from
Port-au-Prince to ^L'Etang.* These railroads
are managed by Haitian companies; so are the
inland telegraph and telephone lines. The
area of the Republic is estimated at 26,000 square
kilometres and the population about 1,295/xxx

J. N. LtGER,

EnvoyS Extraordinare et Ministre PUmpoU*-
tiaire d' Haiti aux Etats-Unis.

Hake, Alfred Egmont, English journalist
and author. He is a son of Thomas Gordon
Hake (q.v.) and cousin of General C. E. Gor-

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Univ. library, UC Santa Cruz 2001

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don (q.v.), whose life be has written in <The
Story of Chinese Gordon* (1883). Other
works by him are: ( Paris Originals* (1878);
< Flattering Tales* (1882); <The Unemployed
Problem Solved> (1888); < Events in the Tai-
ptng Rebellion* (1891) ; < Suffering London 1

{1892) ; Gordon in China and the Soudan*
1896); 'Irish Finance* (1897).
Hake, Thomas Gordon, English poet and
physician: b. Leeds 1809; d. London 11 Jan.
1895. He took his medical degree at Glasgow
University in 1831, and practised his profession
in East Anglia, later becoming the physician
and friend of Dante Gabriel Rossetti. His
poetry is thoroughly original, but very subtly
philosophical. His works include: ( Poetic
Lucubrations* (1828); <Vates: A Prose Epic*
(1839); Madeline with Other Poems and Para-
bles* (1871); <New Symbols* (1875); ( Maiden
Ecstasy,* verse (1880); <The Serpent Play, a
Divine Pastoral* (1883) ; < Memoirs of Eighty
Years* (1892).

Hakes, Fishes of the family Gadida and
chiefly of the genera Phycis and Merluccius,
distinguishable from the cod and haddock by
having only two dorsal fins. Phycis has a chin
barbel 4 and filamentous ventral fins, both of
which are lacking in Merluccius. The squirrel-

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 89 of 185)