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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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hake (Phycis chuss) and white hake (P. ten-
uis), both also called ling or codling, are
common bottom fish on our Atlantic coast from
1 Virginia northward. The silver hake or whit-
ing (Merluccius bilinearis) has a similar, range,
but is less common in shallow waters and leads'
a roving Hfe in search of herrings and other
smaller fishes. Various other species occur in
the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The
hake fishery is of considerable extent, and the
product is salted and sold chiefly as boneless
cod. The dried air-bladders are utilized in the
manufacture of isinglass.

Hakim, ha-kem', a Turkish word, signify-
ing lord and frequently in the Koran applied
to Allah, God, as in the Greek and English
versions of the Jewish Scriptures the word Lord
is used for Jehovah. It is now-a-days especially
given as a title of honor to the imperial physi-
cian of the Sultan, who is Hakim bashi, that is
to say, the chief of the physicians, always a
Turk; whilst the physicians in the seraglio
under him are western Europeans, Greeks and

Hakluyt, hak'loot, Richard, English geog-
rapher: b. about 1553; d. London 23 Nov. 1616.
He entered Christ Church College, Oxford, in
1570, and became so eminent for his acquaint-
ance with cosmography that he was appointed
public lecturer on that science. In 1582 he pub-
lished a small collection of voyages and discov-
eries, forming the basis of a subsequent work
on a larger scale. In 1584-88 he was in Paris
(as chaplain to Sir Edward Stafford. On his
return he published (in 1589) his famous col-
lection of Mhe Principal Navigations, Voyages,
and Discoveries of the English Nation, made
by Sea, or over Land, within the Compass of
these 1500 Years.* The first volume of a new
edition of his great work was published in 1598,
the second and third in 1599 and 1600. In 1602
he became prebendary, and in 1603 archdeacon,
of Westminster, and next year he was appointed
a chaplain of the Savoy. He was interred in

Westminster Abbey. He published several other
geographical works, among them ( Virginia
Richlv Valued, etc* (1609), a translation from
the Portuguese. An edition of his chief work
appeared in 16 vols. 1885-90. The manuscript
papers of Hakluyt were used by Purchas in his

Hakluyt Society, of Great Britain, organ-
ized in December 1846, for the purpose of print-
ing and distributing among its members rare
volumes on voyages and travels, and geograph-
ical records. Between 1847 and 1900 fully 100
volumes were issued under the editorial super-
vision of eminent authorities. Among these
Sublications were: ( Select Letters of Columb-
us* (1849); Raleigh, <Guiana> (1848); and
( Danish Arctic Expedition* (1897).

Halbig, Johann, yo'han hal'big, German
sculptor: b. Dormersdorf, Lower Franconia, 13
July 1814; d. Munich 29 Aug. 1882. He studied
at the Munich Academy, and elsewhere, finally
establishing himself at Munich, where he became
a professor in the Polytechnic School in 1845.
His most important work is the quadriga with
four colossal lions for the triumphal gateway,
Munich. He also executed the Platen memorial
at Ansbach, the bronze statue of Fraunhofer
at Munich, the Emancipation* group in New
York, the Crucifixion* group for Oberam-
mergau, and numerous busts.

Haldeman, hal'de-man, Samuel Stehman,
American naturalist: b. Locust Grove, Pa., ia
Aug. i8i2;<d.;QliickiflB^ Pa., 10 Sept. 1880. Ht
was educated at Dickinson College, Pa., was
professor of natural sciences at the University
of Pennsylvania in 1851-5; and of comparative
philology there 1869-80. He published ( Fresh-
Water Univalve Mollusca of the United States*
(1840); Zoological Contributions* (1842-3);
( Elements of Latin Pronunciation* (1851) ;
1 Affixes in Their Origin and Application*
(1865) ; ^Pennsylvania Dutch* (1872) ; 'Out-
lines of Etymology* (1877) ; < Analytic Orthog-
raphy* (1858) ; etc.

Hal'dimand, Sir Frederick, Swiss soldier
in the English service: b. Canton of Neuchatel,
Switzerland, October 1718; d. Yverdun, Switzer-
land, 5 June 1 79 1. He served in the army of
Sardinia and in that of Prussia under Frederick
the Great, later became a member of the Swiss
guard at The Hague, and was there stationed
when with Henry Bouquet (q.v.) he enlisted in
1756 in the British army for service in America.
He organized, largely from Pennsylvania, a
regiment composed of Swiss, Germans, and
others and known as the < Royal Americans,*
and became its commander. In 1759 he won
distinction by his successful defense of Oswego
against the attack of 4,000 French and Indians,
in 1767-73 commanded the garrison at Pensa-
cola, Fla. and assisted Gage in the siege of
Boston. From 1778 to 1784 he was governor
of Canada, severely repressed Canadian sym-
pathy with the Revolution, and offered an asy-
lum to royalist refugees. His valuable official
correspondence is in the possession of the Brit-
ish Museum. Upon his return to England
actions for false imprisonment were success-
fully brought against him.

Hale, Charles Reuben, American Protes-
tant Episcopal bishop: b. Lewiston, Pa., 14
March 1837; d. Cairo, 111., 25 Dec. 1900. He

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was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania
in 1858; entered the Episcopal ministry and in
1892 was made assistant bishop of Springfield,
111., with the title of Bishop of Cairo. He was
an authority upon matters pertaining to the
Greek Church and his writings, all of a very
scholarly cast, mainly relate to the history,
liturgies and customs of that communion.

Hale, Edward Everett, American Unitarian
clergyman and author: b. Boston, Mass., 3
April 1822; d. 10 June 1900. His father was
Nathan Hale (q.v.), the first editor of the
Boston Daily Advertiser, and the son was
educated at the Boston Latin School and
Harvard College. Later he studied theology
and was pastor of the Church of the Unity,
Worcester, Mass., 1846-56. He then became
pastor of the South Congregational Society in
Boston, a Unitarian Church, and has been its
pastor emeritus from 1901. In the Unitarian
body he has long been one of its foremost men,
and of a radical rather than a conservative type,
while yet strongly loyal to the Unitarian faith.
As a preacher he has always been popular, and
his talents for organization have borne fruit in
such humanitarian societies as the Harry Wads-
worth Clubs, King's Daughters, Look Up
Legions, and others. For several years he ed-
ited 'Old and New,* a magazine afterward
merged in ( Scribner's Monthly,* and has edited
< Lend a Hand,* a journal of organized charity,
since 1886. Since his retirement from active
pastoral work he has been active in various de-
nominational and other religious and social en-
terprises, and still continues to preach and lec-
ture at frequent intervals. His 80th birthday
was celebrated by a gathering in Symphony
Hall, Boston, composed of representative per-
sons from all denominations in his native city,
as well as of civic and state officials, assembled
to testify to the regard in which he was held,
irrespective of creed or race. To Americans in
general, however, he is best known as an author,
and in spite of his countless clerical labors he
has been one of the most voluminous of Amer-
ican writers. Much of his work is from neces-
sity ephemeral in its nature, but when he has
consciously wrought with an artistic end in view
his level of attainment has been high. His
short story, <The Man Without a Country,* has
long been accounted an American classic, and
even more skilful in construction and perfect in
finish, <My Double and How he Undid Me,*
and < In His Name > have been almost equally
popular. In extravaganzas like ( The Brick
Moon, 1 such an absolute air of verisimilitude is
preserved that the absurdest conceptions of the
tale appear more than half credible. ( The Man
Without a Country* was indeed accepted as a
record of fact by many readers on its first ap-
pearance in 1863, although the theme is
in its conception most improbable, and its
author was obliged to state at a later
date that it had no foundation in fact
The list of his published works is a long
one, including nearly 70 titles and besides
those already named may be cited < Margaret
Percival in America ) (1850): 4 Elements of
Christian Doctrine> (i860) ; <If, Yes, and Per-
haps 1 (1868); ( Sybaris and Other Homes*
(1&60); <The Ingham Papers* (1869); <His
Level Best and Other Stones* (1872); < Philip
Nolan's Friends > (1876) ; <The Fortunes of

Rachel* (1884) ; 'Boys' Heroes> (1886) ; <Ltfe
of George Washington Studied Anew 1 (1887);
<They Saw a Great Light> (1889) ; <The Story
of Christopher Columbus 1 (1801) ; <The Story of
Massachusetts 1 (1801); <The New Harry and
Lucy* (1892); <East and West or the New
Ohio 1 (1892); <A New England Boyhood 1
(1893); ( Fifty Years: Poems 1 (1803); <If
Jesus Came to Boston 1 (1894) ; < Susan s Escort 1
(1895) ; <Historic Boston 1 (1898) ; < Lowell and
His Friends 1 (1899); ( Memories of a Hun-
dred Years 1 (1900). With his sister Susan
Hale (q.v.) he has written a series of travel
books entitled family Flights through France,
Germany, etc, 1 and he has also edited numer-
ous volumes from ( The Rosary 1 (1848) to c Un-
published Essays of Emerson 1 (1895).

Hale, Eugene, American politician: b.
Turner, Oxford County, Me., 9 June 1836.
After study of law he was admitted to the bar
in 1857, began practice at Ellsworth, Me., and
was a member of the Maine legislature in 1867,
1868 and 1880. In 1868 he was elected repre-
sentative to Congress, and in that capacity served
until 1878, acting on the committee on appro*
priations, and during his last term being chair-
man of the Republican congressional committee.
In 1868, 1876 and 1880 he was a delegate to the
Republican national conventions of those years,
in 1874 was offered the post of postmaster-gen-
eral and in 1877 that of secretary of the navy,
but declined both. He was a member of Grant's
commission appointed for canvass of the Louisi-
• ana presidential vote in 1876. He succeeded
Hannibal Hamlin in the United States Senate in
1881 , and was re-elected in 1887, 1893, 1899 and
1905. In the Senate he became known as a
Republican leader, interesting as a speaker and
skilful in matters of legislative routine.

Hale, George EUery, American astrono-
mer: b. Chicago 29 June 1868. He was gradu-
ated from the Massachusetts Institute of Tech-
nology in 1890, studied also in the Harvard
observatory and at Berlin, was professor of astro-
physics at Beloit College in 1891-3, lecturer in
astrophysics in Northwestern University, 1891-3,
associate professor of astrophysics in the Uni-
versity of Chicago 1892-7 ; director of the Yerkes
Observatory (Williams Bay, Wis.) of the uni-
versity 1895-1905, professor of astrophysics 1897-
1905, and in 1905 director of the Solar observa-
tory of Carnegie Institution at Mt. Wilson, Cal.
He edited the 'Astrophy steal Journal* from 1895,
and published papers on astronomical subjects.

Hale, Horatio, American ethnologist: b.
Newport, N. H., 3 May 1817; d. Clinton, On-
tario, 29 Dec. 1896. He was a son of Sarah J.
Hale (q.v.). He was graduated from Harvard
in 1837 and the next year was appointed phijolo-
gist to the government exploring expedition
under Captain Wilkes, and was thus enabled to
study the languages, of the Pacific Islands, North
and South America, Australia, and Africa. The
results of his observations were published in
( Ethnography and Philology * (1840V. He then
studied law, was admitted to the Chicago bar,
and removing to Canada in 1855 practised law
at Clinton. His other works are: 'Indian Mi-
grations as Evidenced by Language > (1883) ;
<The Iroquois Book of Rites* (1883); *A Re-
port on Blackfoot Tribes* (188O. He was
classed among the foremost philologists of his

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courtesy of the book lovers magazine. Copyright by Davis & Sanborn.


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Univ. Library, UC Santa Cruz 2001

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time and was a member of learned societies at
borne and abroad.

Hale, Irving, American soldier and elec-
trician: b. North Bloomfield, N. Y. ? 28 Aug.
1861. He was graduated from the United States
Military Academy in 1884, was assigned to the
engineer corps, was instructor in engineering at
the Military Academy in 1888-9, and in 1890
resigned from the army. He became manager of
the General Electric Company for the district
comprising Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, and New
Mexico, with headquarters at Denver; upon the
outbreak of the Spanish-American war was ap-
pointed colonel of the 1st regiment of Colorado
volunteers, was promoted brigadier-general for
distinguished service in the Philippines, and
later b revetted major-general. In 1899 he was
honorably discharged from the volunteer service.
His writings include papers on electrical sub-
jects in scientific and engineering journals and
in the proceedings of the Colorado Scientific

Hale. John Parker, American legislator
and diplomat: b. Rochester, N. H., 31 March
1806; d. Dover, N. H., 19 Nov. 1873. After
graduation from Bowdoin in 1827 and study of
the law at Rochester and Dover, he was ad-
mitted 10 the bar in 1830, in 1832 was elected
a Democratic representative m the State legis-
lature, and in 1034-41 was United States dis-
trict attorney. In 1842 he was elected to Con-
gress, where, though remaining a Democrat, he
stoutly opposed the *gag-rule* which sought
die exclusion of anti-slavery petitions. He was
renominated; but previous to the election the
annexation of Texas was made a plank of the
Democratic platform, and the State legislature of
New Hampshire directed its congressmen and
senators to support the measure. Hale in a
public statement refused to do this and the
Democratic State Convention was then reas-
sembled and his name stricken from the ticket
Hale ran as an independent Democrat, but no
candidate received a majority. In 1846, after
a spirited canvass known as the "Hale storm of
1845,* he was elected to the lower house of the
legislature, and became its speaker. In 1847 he
was elected to the United States Senate, where
he was the first, and, until joined by Salmon
P. Chase in 1849, the only avowed anti-slavery
member. He was an orator of fine abilities, and
besides opposing the slave system, secured laws
abolishing flogging and grog-ration in the navy.
He was nominated for president by the Free-Soil
Democrats in 1852, and received 157,685 votes.
In 1855 he was elected to the Senate for the
four years of the unexpired term of C. G. Ather-
ton, deceased, and in 1858 for a full term.
Daring the Civil War he supported the Lin-
coln administration. He was United States
minister to Spain in 1865-9.

Hale, Lucretia Paabody, American author,
sister of E. E. Hale (q.v.) : b. Boston, Mass., 2
Sept. 1820; d. there 12 June 1900. She was very
popular as a writer for young people, and in ad-
dition to < The Lord's Supper and Its Observ-
ant (1866); < The Service of Sorrow > (1867);
<The Wolf at the Door> in the <No Name
Series > (1877), she published for young readers
<The Peterkin Papers> (1882), and <The Last of
the Peterkins> (1886). She also wrote <The
New Harry and Lucy> (with E. E. Hale). She

will be longest remembered as the creator of
the Peterkin Family, who have become widely
recognized types of character.

Hale, Sir Matthew, English jurist: b. AI-
derley, Gloucestershire, 1 Nov. 1609; d. there 25
Dec 1676. He was educated at Oxford and Lin-
coln's Inn, and is said to have studied 16 hours
daily, extending his researches to natural philoso-
phy, mathematics, history, and divinity, as well as
the sciences more immediately connected with
his profession. He was called to the bar before
the commencement of the civil war; and in
the conflict of parties which took place his
moderation, accompanied as it was by personal
integrity and skill in his profession, secured him
the esteem of both royalists and parliamentarians
in his own time. In 1654 he became a judge of
the Common-bench (the former KingVbench},
in which station he displayed firmness of princi-
ple sufficient to give offense to the Protector.
He was a member of the parliament which re-
stored Charles II., and one of the members most
active in passing the Act of Indemnity. In
1660 he was knighted, and made chief baron of
the Court of Exchequer. He was the last Eng-
lish judge who sanctioned the conviction of cul-
prits for witchcraft. He was raised to the chief-
justiceship of the KingVbench in 1671. After
his death appeared his < History of the Pleas of
the Crown > ; ( Jurisdiction of the Lords' House 1 ;
and ^he History of the Common Law of Eng-
land. He also wote several works on scien-
tific and religious subjects.

Hale, Nathan, American revolutionary offi*
cer: b. Coventry, Conn., 6 June 1755; d. New
York 22 Sept. 1776. He was graduated at Yale
in 1773, and engaged as a teacher, first at East
Haddam, and afterward at New London. His
parents intended him for the ministry; but on
the Lexington alarm in 1775 he wrote to his
father, in a Connecticut regiment, saying *that
a sense of duty urged him to sacrifice every-
thing for his country,* and soon after entered
the army as lieutenant (1775) and in a few
months was promoted to be captain (1776).
While with the troops near Boston he was vig-
ilant and faithful in every point of duty; and
according to a tradition of doubtful authenticity,
in September 1776, when in New York, he, with
an associate, planned and effected the capture of
a British sloop laden with provisions, taking
her at midnight from under the guns of the
man-of-war Asia, and distributing her prize
goods to the American soldiers. After the re-
treat of the army from Long Island, when it
was all-important to understand the plans of
the enemy, Washington applied for a discreet
and practised officer to enter the enemy's lines
and procure intelligence, and Hale volunteered
for the service. He passed in the disguise of a
Dutch schoolmaster to the British camp and
made full drawings and memoranda of all the
desired information, but on his return was
apprehended and taken before Howe, by whom
he was ordered to execution the next morning.
He was denied a Bible and the aid of a clergy-
man; and was hanged, saying with his last
breath: «I only regret that I have but one life
to lose for my country .» A statue of Hale is
in City Hall Park, New York* Consult the
< Iife > by Johnston (1901); Holloway, Nathan
Hale, the Martyr Hero > (1899).

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Hale, Nathan, American journalist: b.
West Hampton, Mass., 16 Aug. 1784; d. Brook-
line, Mass., 9 Feb. 1863. He was a nephew of
the patriot Nathan Hale (q.v.) and father of E.
R. Hale (q.v.). He was graduated from Wil-
liams College in 1804, and after studying law
was admitted to the Boston bar in 1810, in 181 1-4
was editor of the Boston ( Weekly Messenger,*
and in 1814 purchased and became editor of the
Advertiser, established in 181 3 and the first New
England daily. At first Federalist in politics, the
Advertiser became successively Whig and Re-
publican and was at all times very influential.
In 1820 it opposed the Missouri bill, in 1854 the
Kansas-Nebraska bill, and it was the first news-
paper to advocate the settlement o£ Kansas by
•Free-Soil* colonists. Hale was a founder of
the c North American Review* (1815), served at
various times in both houses of the Massachu-
setts legislature, published a series of stereotyped
maps after a method invented by himself (1830),
and wrote pamphlets on topics of internal im-

Hale, Philip, American music critic: b.
Norwich, Vt, 5 March 1854. Graduated from
Yale in 1876, he was admitted to the bar in
Albany (1880), studied music under Dudley
Buck and later in Europe with Haupt, Bargiel,
and Guilmant (1885-7), and was organist suc-
cessively of Saint Peter's. Albany (1870-82),
Saint John's, Trov (1887^), and the First Uni-
tarian Society of Roxbury, Mass. (1889). In
1880-97 he contributed music criticism to the
Boston press, from 1891 was critic of the Jour-
nal, in 1997 became editor of the < Musical Rec-
ord,* and in 1901 of the Musical World.* He
is known as one of the most discriminating and
interesting of American writers on musical sub-

Hale, Salma, American politician: b. Al-
stead, Cheshire County, N. H., 7 March 1787;
a. Somerville, Mass., 19 Nov. 1866. He was
early apprenticed to a printer of Walpole, N. H.,
in 1805 became editor of the Political Ob-
server^ a Republican journal of Walpole, held
various local offices, and in 1828 and 1844 was
a member of the New Hampshire house of rep-
resentatives, and in 1824 and 1845 of the State
senate. In 1845 be was appointed secretary of
the commission for the determination of the
northeastern boundary line of the United States.
He was elected to Congress in 1816 as a Repub-
lican (Democratic) representative, but declined
a re-election. His history of the United
States* (1821) won a prize of $400 and a gold
medal, offered by the American Academy of
Belles-Lettres, and appeared in many subse-
quent editions. He published also ( The Admin-
istration of J. Q. Adams ) (1826); and < Annals
of the Town bfKeene* (1826).

Hale, Sarah Josepha Buell, American au-
thor and editor: b. Newport, N. H., 24 Oct
1788; d. Philadelphia 30 April 1879. Her hus-
band dying in 1822 leaving her with five small
children, she supported her family by literary
work. She was editor of the Boston < Ladies'
Magazine* 1828-37, and when in 1837 this was
consolidated with < Godey , s Lady's Book,* pub-
lished in Philadelphia, she became editor of the
latter also, continufng in the position for forty

Sara. She retired from literary life in 1877.
er efforts in behalf of the Bunker Hill Monu-

ment fund, her interest in seamen, in foreign
missions, and in the higher education of women,
were untiring and successful For many years
she advocated the keeping of Thanksgiving Day
as a national festival, as it has been observed
since 1864, when President Lincoln adopted her
suggestion. Her most enduring publication is
( Woman's Record: or Sketches of All Dis-
tinguished Women ) (New York 1874).

Hale, Susan, American author and water-
colorist: b. Boston 5 Dec 1833. She has pub-
lished ( Life and Letters of Thomas Gold Apple-
ton* (q.v.) (1885 ), and with her brother, E. E.
Hale (q.v.) has written the popular ( Family
Flight* series of travel books for young people.

Hale, William Bayard, American writer:
b. Richmond, Ind., 6 April 1869. He was gradu-
ated from Harvard and the Episcopal Theolog u
fcal School (Cambridge, Mass.), and was rector
at Middteborough, Mass., 1899-9, and subse-
quently at Ardmore, Pa., retiring from the min-
istry in 1901. He has published < The Making;
of the American Constitution* ; <The Eternal
Teacher* (1895); ( The New Obedience*
(1898) ; < Phillips Brooks>; etc.

Hale, William Thooaaa, American writer:
b. Liberty, Tenik, 1 Feb. 1857. He practised
law for several years and has since been con-
nected editorially with St Louis and Tennessee
journals. He has published c Poems and Dia-
lect Pieces* (1894); ( Showers and Sunshine,*
verse (1896); <Tbe Backward Trail* (1899);
( An Autumn Lane and Other Poems* ( 1899) ;
c Great Southerners* (1900).

Halevy, Jacques Francois Fromental Efie,
zhak fran-swa frd-mdn-tal a>!€ i-Ia-ve, French
composer : b. of Jewish parentage, Paris 27 May
1799; d. Nice, France, 17 March iftSt. He
studied counterpoint under Cherubini for five
years, and in 1810. was sent to Italy to finish his
education. The first of his pieces performed
was a little comic opera, < L'artisan, > given at
the Theatre Feydau, in 1837. His chef d'oeuvre,
<La Juive,* appeared in 1835, and rapidly ob-
tained a European celebrity, and has been fre-
quently sung in the United States. Among his
other works are 'UEclaire* ; <Guido et Gin-
evra*; <La Reine de Chypre* ; <Le Val d'An-
dorre*; <La Fee aux Roses,* The melodies of
Halevy are always soft and flowing, the har-
mony correct and pleasing? but his works dis-
play on the whole more talent than genius.

Halevy, Joseph, zh6-zef, French Oriental-
ist arid traveler: b. Adrianople, Turkey, 15 Dec
1827. In 1868 he traveled in Abyssinia; and
for the Academie des Inscriptions he traversed

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 90 of 185)