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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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(1860-70) Yemen, where he obtained copies of
not less than 686 inscriptions, largely Himyaretic
and Sabaean. He was appointed assistant libra-
rian of the Asiatic Society, and adjunct-professor
of Ethiopic in the Ecole des Hautes Etudes.
Well known also as a Biblkal critic and Assyri-
ologist, he founded (1893) the <Revue Semitique
d'epigraphie et d'histoire ancienne,* and pub-
lished numerous works, including: ^rchse-
ologtc Mission to Yemen* (1872) ; journey to
Nedjran* (1873); c Sab«n Studies* (1875);
<The Origin of Babylonian Civilization* (1876) ;
* Miscellany of Criticism and History Regardina;
Semitic Peoples* (1883).

Halevy, Ludovic, lu-dd-velc, French dram-
atist and novelist : b. Paris, France, 1 Jan. 1834 ;

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d. there 8 May 1908. He was unsuccess-
ful at first, but finally worked his way into
public favor, especially after associating his pen
with that of Henri Meilhac In collaboration
with the latter, he wrote many of the librettos of
Offenbach's most brilliant and satiric operettas,
including ( The Perichoie,* <The Brigands,* the
*Belle Helene,> and <The Grand Duchess of
Gerolstein.* Several serious librettos of high
excellence are from the same hands, including
that for Bizet's ( Carmen. } In spoken drama,
^Frou-Frou > and ^ricoche and Cacolet ) are
among the most popular plays the two drama-
tists produced together. In 1881 he ceased writ-
ing for the stage, and turned to fiction. ( L'AbW
Constantino the first of his novels, is also the
most popular, and opened to him the French
Academy. It was for more than one season
the French story of the day. It is a charming
story, full of fresh air and sun, simply and
skilfully told. It presented a view of American
character and temperament not usual in French
fiction; and irreproachable in its moral tone,
has become a sort of classic for American
schools and colleges. <La Famille Cardinal y
(The Cardinal Family) and 'Crichette* are
studies in fiction of aspects of Parisian life.
*Notes and Souvenirs ) embody observations
during the Prussian invasion of 1871. They
are interesting, as giving faithful pictures of the
temper of the people during those days. Among
his short stories, <Un Manage d' Amour > (A
Marriage for Love) is one of the best.

Half Blood, in law, the relationship of
persons born of the same father but not of the
same mother, which is called a consanguinean
relation; or of those born of the same mother
but not of the same father, which is termed
uterine. In the succession to real or landed
property a kinsman of the half blood inherits
next after a kinsman of the whole blood in the
same degree, and after the issue of such kinsman
when the common ancestor is a male, but next
after the common ancestor when sucn ancestor
is a female. So that brothers consanguinean in-
herit next after the sisters of the whole blood
and their issue; and brothers uterine inherit
next after the mother.

Half-breeds, the children of parents of
different races ; a term usually confined to whites
and American Indians. There are two tribes of
Indian half-breeds, at Red River Settlement,
chiefly employed in agriculture and hunting.
The rise of independent half-breed tribes is *the
first step toward the evolution of a distinct race.*

Half-caste, a person bom of a European
father and a Hindu or Mohammedan mother, or
more rarely of a Hindu or Mohammedan father
and a European mother; an East Indian.

Half-crown, a British silver coin of the
value of two shillings and sixpence (60 cents).

Half-dollar, a silver coin of the United
States of the value of 50 cents. Authorized in
April 1792, its coinage at a weight of 208 grains
was begun in 1704; its issue was suspended from
J798 to 1800 inclusive and in 1816. In 1853 its
weight was reduced to 193 grains. The half-
dollar is legal tender to the amount of ten dol-

Half-eagle, a gold coin of the United
States of the value of five dollars, so called from

the national emblematic bird which figures upon
the reverse. Authorized in 1792 the coinage was
begun m July 1795; there was no issue in 1816
and 1817.

Half-King, the name given by the Eng-
lish to a Seneca Indian, chieftain of an Ohio
tribe, who accompanied Washington during his
expeditions in 1753-54, and was present at the
defeat of the French at Great Meadows. His
summary of the prowess of the respective com-
batants was that *the English acted like fools
and the French like cowards.*

Half Moon, the name of the vessel com-
missioned by the Dutch East India Company in
1609, and commanded by Henry Hudson for a
voyage of exploration in search of a Northwest
Passage. In this ship he entered New York
Bay and explored the river which bears his

Half-tones, pictures produced by printing
from plates made by the half-tone process, which
will here be described. Except that used in line-
drawing, until early in the eighties there
was no process by which paintings, wash-draw-
ings, or photographs could be done into the
form of a surface printing-block for the press,
and the introduction then of the half-tone block
marked a revolution in the history of photo-
graphic illustration. The development of the
process was the result of a kind of evolution of
Bullock's (1866). Meisenbach of Munich pat-
ented a half-tone process in 1882.

The American Frederic Eugene Ives and
others have since experimented and published
results, and by them within a few years the
process as it now exists was practically estab-
lished Americans were first in the field with an
improved device for breaking up the image into
dots, which was so much superior to anything
invented in Europe that almost every other
method was dropped in its favor. The diamond-
ruled screen, which was introduced in this coun-
try by Max Levy, is essential to advanced work
in half-tone. To make ope oi the screens, a
sheet of the finest plate-glass is coated with a
varnish of asphalt and wax, and placed on the
bed of an automatic ruling-machine capable of
ruling lines of any fineness up to 500 to the inch.
The cutter is diamond-pointed and gauged to cut
lines of any desired width. The lines are ruled
diagonally at 45 ° across the glass, the number to
the inch varying as required The ruled surface
is treated -with hydrofluoric acid, which eats into
or etches the lines laid bare by the diamond and
forms a channel which is filled up with an opaque
pigment. This enamel is baked in the lines in
an oven, and then the surface is polished until
the lines are perfectly level and the spaces repre-
sented by the clear glass are bright and trans-
parent Two of these ruled glasses are required
for each screen, laid together with the lines
crossing at right angles and cemented with Can-
ada balsam.

To produce a half-tone block from a picture,
wash-drawing, or photograph, this ruled grating
is placed in front of the sensitive plate, not in
contact with it, but at a distance which must be
nicely determined by experience. Everything is
represented by dots so accurately graded in rela-
tion to the light and shade of the original that
the eye scarcely detects them, and the half-tone
picture appears as a practical facsimile of the
original from which it was photographed.

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Most half-tone blocks are now etched on cop-
per, and the sensitizing solution generally
employed for this metal is a compound of fish-
glue, albumen, chromic acid, water, and bichro-
mate of ammonia. The copper is cleaned with
tripoli and washed; the sensitizing solution .is
flowed oyer it two or three times ; it is placed on
a revolving table and rapidly whirled to spread
the coating thinly and evenly; the coating is
dried by gentle heat in a yellow-lighted room,
and the plate is now ready for exposure under
the half-tone negative. Three to ten minutes'
exposure to an electric arc-light completes the
printing, then the plate is given a bath in cold
water, and is soaked and washed under a spray
of water until the compound not acted upon is
dissolved out The image on the metal at this
stage is almost invisible. To facilitate an exam-
ination of the film, the plate is dipped into a solu-
tion of methyl-violet, which stains the film and
brings the picture into view. If all is right, the
surface is dried either by flowing it with methyl-
ated alcohol or by gentle heat. The next opera-
tion is the hardening of the glue-picture into a
substance resembling enamel — hence the *enam-
eline process.* The plate is highly heated over
the flame of a large Bunsen burner; during the

Progress of this ^burning in* or enameling, the
lue picture gets pale, then gray, and vanishes;
as the plate gets hotter, the image appears as a
faint brown, and increases in strength to a rich
chestnut-brown tint, when the heat must be
withdrawn, and the plate cooled off. The plate
has now upon it a picture formed of a strong,
hard, impermeable coat of enamel which will
bear any reasonable etching without further pro-

The etching-bath is made up of neutral per-
chlortde of iron dissolved in water, and of a
strength which registers 35 with a Baume's
hydrometer. The plate is first subjected to a
general etching, so that it may be inked over
with a printers roller, and a first proof of the
photo-etched picture be pulled in the press. The
dulling of the general effect caused by the inter-
position of the necessary screen-grating has to be
removed as far as possible, and this is done by
artists who are specially trained for the work.
The parts of the picture which are in shadow
and are usually correctly rendered by a properly
exposed negative are covered over with varnish,
and the next tones are etched again; then these
tones are covered up and the high lights are
treated until the resulting picture, when proofed,
correctly represents the original. The plates are
then trimmed by engravers, beveled to admit of
being riveted to the wood-mounts, and are
mounted type-high for use in the printing-press.
Invention and experiment are now active
toward the next great step in half-tone work,
the production of surfaces without the mechan-
ical smoothness hitherto so persistent. What is
aimed at is the making of pictures which are
free from mechanical effect, and are yet suf-
ficiently delicate in texture to retain the finer

Half-way Corenant, a concession in
church requirements made by the New England
Synod convened at Northampton in 1657,
whereby persons who had been baptized in their
infancy, who assented to the doctrines of faith,
entered into covenant with the church, and led
decent and respectable lives; were admitted to

the privileges and prerogatives of church-mem-
bership with the exception of the Lord's Supper,
although they might give no evidence of conver-
sion and had neither the ability nor willingness
to make profession of religious experience. This
a half-way covenant® as it came to be called
aroused bitter controversy which did not die out
until the 19th century ; among its most strenuous
opponents were Jonathan Edwards and his fol-
lowers. The contention is baseless that it
entailed certain civil privileges in relation to the
State franchise, its chief aim being to admit
children to baptism and to transmit to them the
same degree of church membership as their
parents. Consult Walker, c Creeds and Plat-
forms of Congregationalism > (1893).

Haliburton, hall-ber-t6n, Thomas Chan-
dler, Canadian humorist: b. Windsor, Nova
Scotia, December 1796; d. Isleworth, near Lon-
don, 27 Aug. 1865. He practised law in Halifax,
and in 1842 became judge of the supreme court
of Nova Scotia, but subsequently gave up his
profession, and went to live permanently in Eng-
land. His first work was a ( Historical and Sta-
tistical Account of Nova Scotia > (1829). In
1835 he contributed a series of letters to a Hali-
fax newspaper, under the pseudonym of € Sam
Slick,* clock-peddler. These were published
with considerable alterations and additions, in a
collected form in 1837, under the title of < The
Clockmaker, or Sayings and Doings of Samuel
Slick of Slickville, ) and became very popular.
A second series followed in 1838, and a third in
184a In <The Attache, or Sara Slide in Eng-
land,* his hero is represented as attache of the
American embassy at the court of St James,
and again appears in c Sam Slick's Traits of
American Humor > (1852). Another work of
his of some importance is <RuIe and Misrule of
the English in America > (1851). In 1859 Hali-
burton was elected member of parliament for

Hal'ibut, the largest of the flat fishes
(Hippoglossus vulgaris), and one of the most
important and highly prized food-fishes. It
occurs in all Northern waters, south to France,
New York and San Francisco. It reaches a
weight of 400 pounds, and is characterized by
having the eyes on the right side, the ventral
fins and mouth symmetrical, and the lateral line
arched in front. It is dark brown on the right
side, and white on the left or lower side. It was
formerly very abundant along the whole eastern
coast of the United States, at times proving a
nuisance from its numbers to the cod-fishers. It
has gradually become scarcer, and at the same
time the appreciation of it as a food-fish has
increased, so that the halibut fishers have gone
farther and farther for it until now a good pro-
portion of the catch comes from the waters
around Iceland. A second species, the Green-
land halibut (Rtinhardtius hippoglossoides)
occurs in the Arctic Atlantic, but is not very
common. It is yellowish brown and has a
straight lateral line. In the trade this is not dis-
tinguished from the common species. Halibut
are taken with hook and line (or trawls) using
fresh fish (herring, etc) for bait

Halifax, Charles Montague, Earl of, Eng-
lish politician: b. Horton, Northamptonshire, 16
April 1661; d. 19 May 1715. He first* attracted
notice by his verses on the death of Charles II. ;

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I. City of Halifax from the Citadel 2. North West Arm

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and in 1687, m conjunction with Matthew Prior,
wrote *The Town and Country Moused a par-
ody on Dryden's c Hind and Panther.* He
became a lord of the treasury in March 1692, in
1604 was made chancellor of the exchequer; in

1695 carried out the much needed re-coinage,
appointing Newton warden of the mint; and in

1696 he devised the system of exchequer bills.
His administration was distinguished by the
adoption of the funding system, and by the es-
tablishment of the Bank of England. In 1700
he was raised to the peerage, under the title of
Baron Halifax. In the reign of Anne he
remained out of office, but he actively exerted
himself to promote the union with Scotland,
and the Hanoverian succession. George L cre-
ated him an earl, and bestowed on him the order
of the Garter. The <Life and Miscellaneous
Works of Lord Halifax > were published in 1715,
and his poems were included in the edition of
'English Poets* by Dr. Johnson.

Halifax, Canada, the capital of the prov-
ince of Nova Scotia, and county-seat of Halifax
County, a city and port of entry on Halifax
Harbor, on the Intercolonial and Dominion, and
Canadian Pacific R.R.'s. The harbor, originally
known as Chebucto, *chief of havens,* is one
of the best in the world It is 16 miles long
from north to south, with an average width of
a mile, and terminates in Bedford Basin, a
beautiful sheet of water four milqs wide, afford-
ing 10 square miles of safe anchorage. The
North West Arm, an inlet on the west of the
city, is a charming bay, on the shores of which
are many of the villa residences of the wealthier
Haligomans. The harbor is protected by 11
forts and batteries. A citadel crowns the hill,
on the slopes and at the base of which the town
is built The streets are regularly laid out on
a rectangular plan, are lighted by gas and elec-
tricity, and have electric street-car lines. The
public buildings are built chiefly of freestone;
the houses of wood. The most notable struc-
tures include Government House, the official
residence of the lieutenant-governor, the ar-
mories, the post-office, the custom-house, the
Province building, court-house, city-hall, Ma-
sonic Temple, Academy of Music, the Admiralty
House, the Wellington barracks, several hos-
pitals, and other charitable institutions, the Ro-
man Catholic and Anglican cathedrals, and Saint
Paul's church, the oldest Protestant church
building in British North America. Among
the higher educational institutions are the
non-sectarian Dalhousie University and Col-
lege (q-v.)» the Roman Catholic College
of Saint Mary, the Presbyterian Theolog-
ical College, the Halifax Ladies' College
and Conservatory of Music, and a high
school. The city maintains a free library, an
excellent waterworks system, and fine parks, in-
cluding Point Pleasant Park, and the handsome
public gardens covering 17 acres. Halifax is
the chief British naval station in North America,
and has extensive dockyards; besides Esquimalt
it is the only military post in Canaaa garrisoned
by British imperial trooos; in 1901 the garrison
amounted to 1,784 soldiers. Halifax has rail-
road communications with all parts of the Do-
minion and the United States, and steamship
Jines connecting with Great Britain, the . West
Indies, Boston, and New York. A United

States consul-general is resident in Hali-
fax. The chief occupations of the inhabitants
are commerce and fisheries. The city has con-
siderable West Indian trade, exporting lumber,
fish, and agricultural products, and importing
sugar, rum, molasses, and other sub-tropical
products ; most of the commerce of the province
is carried on through Halifax. The principal
manufactures are iron castings, machinery, ag-
ricultural implements, nails, paints, gunpowder,
cordage, leather, boots and shoes, clothing, soap
and candles, cotton and woolen goods, and
woodenware; there are also sugar refineries,
distilleries, and breweries.

Halifax was founded in 1749 by the Hon.
Edward Cornwallis, and named in honor of the
Earl of Halifax. The following year it was
made the capital of Nova Scotia, then including
New Brunswick, in place of Annapolis; in 181 7
it was declared a free port ; in 1842 it was incor-
porated as a city. It is governed by a mayor,
elected annually, and by 18 aldermen, elected
triennially. The city and county send two mem-
bers to the Canadian House of Commons, and
three to the Provincial Legislature. Pop.
about 45.000. John Forrest,

President Dalhousie College.

Halifax Commission, the designation for
the commission of representatives of Great Brit-
ain and the United States which met at Halifax,
Nova Scotia, in 1877, to determine the amount of
• compensation to be paid by the United States for
the privileges which under the provisions of the
fisheries treaty of 1871 between the two countries,
had allowed the fishermen of the United States
to take fish along the shores of Canada and New-
foundland. The great value of the British
fishing waters was admitted and the sum of
$5,500,000 was awarded Great Britain. The ten*
year treaty which went into operation in 1873
was terminated by the U. S. government in 1885,
and an attempt to renew it by the Chamberlain-
Bayard Treaty in 1888 was frustrated by the
rejection of the United States Senate. A modus
vivendi, however, was arranged for, which the
Dominion Parliament enacted as a law m 1890.

Halite, the mineralogical name for native
common salt, rock salt, or sodium chlorid, NaCL
Halite crystallizes in the isometric system, usu-
ally in cubes. It has a hardness of 2.5, and a
specific gravity of 2.135 when pure, though it
often occurs mixed with calcium sulphate, and
with the chlorids of calcium and magnesium, the
specific gravity being modified accordingly.
Halite is usually colorless or white, though it is
sometimes colored by impurities. Its refractive
index for yellow sodium light is 1. 5442, and
transparent crystals of it are used somewhat in
the manufacture of prisms and lenses, since the
mineral is far more transparent than glass to the
infra-red rays of the spectrum. Tyndall made
extensive use of it in this way, for example, in
his researches on radiant heat. (Consult his
Contributions to Molecular Physics in the
Domain of Radiant heat.*) See Salt;

Hall, Alexander Wilford, American editor
and author: b. Bath, N. Y., 18 Aug. 1819; <L
ipo2. He became known as an evangelist espe-
cially through attacks on Universalist doctrine
and the theory of evolution presented by Darwin,
Huxley, and Haeckel. In 1881 he established

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'The Microcosm,* and in 1893 became president
of the Society for Philosophical Research. In
180/I he was elected fellow of the Philosophical
Society of Great Britain. His works include:'
<T Jniversalism Against Itself } ; ( The Problem of
Human Life*; ( The Immortality of the SouP;
and <The Hygienic Secret of Health. >

Hall, Anna Maria Fielding, British novel-
ist: b. Dublin, Ireland, 6 Jan. 1800; d. East
Moulsey, Surrey, England, 30 Jan. 1881. In her
15th year she went to London, where she was
married to the well known writer, S. C HaU
(q.v.). She published c Sketches of Irish Char-
acter > (1828); <The Buccaneer (1832); < Tales
of Woman's Trials* (1834); 'The Outlaw>
(1835); <The French Refugee,* a drama;
< Uncle Horace* (1837); c Lights and Shadows
of Irish Character* (1838); < Marian* (1839);
< Midsummer Eve> (1843); ( The Whiteboy*
(1845) ; etc Her < Stories of the Irish Peas-
antry J appeared originally in i Chambers's Jour-
nal.* Besides assisting her husband in writing
i Ireland: its Scenery, etc.* (1841-3) and other
works, she assisted in the establishment of a
hospital for consumptives, and the Nightingale
Fund, which resulted in the endowment of a
training-school for nurses.

Hall, Arthur Crawshay Alliston, American
Protestant Episcopal bishop: b. Benfield, Berk-
shire, England, 12 April 1847. He was graduated
from Christ Church, Oxford, in 1869, took
orders, entered the Society of St John the Evan-
gelist (Cowley Fathers), in 1874 became assist-
ant minister of the Church of the Advent, Bos-
ton, and from 1882 to 1801 was there minister of
the mission church of St John the Evangelist.
In 1894 he was consecrated bishop of Vermont,
after release from the Cowley order. His pub-
lications include: < Confess ion and the Lambeth
Conference* (1879) ; c Meditations on the Creed*
(1880); <Meditations on the Collects> (1887);
and other doctrinal and devotional works.

Hall, Asaph, American astronomer: b.
Goshen, Litchfield County, Conn., 15 Oct 1829;
& Annapolis, Md., 22 Nov. 1907. After private
study he attended Central College, McGraw-
ville, N. Y., in 1854-5, was for a term a pupil of
Francis Briinnow at the University of Michigan,
taught at Shalersville, Ohio, and later was
appointed assistant to Bond in the Harvard
observatory. He became assistant in the Naval
Observatory at Washington in 1862, and in 1863
professor of mathematics in the navy, with rela-
tive rank of captain. He continued in the
government service until 1891, when he was
retired on account of age, with relative rank of
captain. While at the Naval Observatory, he
was despatched on several expeditions, including
those for observation of solar eclipses to Bering
Strait in 1869, to Skily in 1870, and to Colorado
in 1878. He was also in charge of the American
party sent to observe the transit of Venus at
Vladivostock, Siberia, in 187^ and chief astron-
omer of the expedition to San Antonio, Tex.,
for the transit of 1882. Among his many dis-
coveries the most important is that of the moons
of Mars (August 1877), which he named Deimos
tad Paobos, and whose orbits he calculated.
Among his later work is a valuable study of
double stars. In 1 805-1001 he was professor of
astronomy at Harvard. He received the Lalande
prist of the French Academy of Sciences in
1878. its Arago medal in 1895, and the gold

medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in
1879. In 1902 he was president of the American
Association for the Advancement of Science.

Hall, Basil, British naval officer and
writer: b. Edinburgh 31 Dec. 1788; d. Ports-
mouth, England, 11 Sept 1844. He entered the
navy in 1802, accompanied Lord Amherst's expe-

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