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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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dition to China in 1815, a 'trip which supplied
him with the materials of his first work, < A Voy-
age of Discovery to the West Coast of Corea,
and the great Loo Choo Island in the Japan Sea.*
This work, first published in 1818, had a very
extensive circulation. In 1827 he made a tour
in Canada and the United States, and published
his ( Travels m North America > (1829), a work
which excited much adverse criticism .in' the
United States by reason of its outspoken and
somewhat supercilious comments and observa-
tions. ( Fragments of Voyages and Travels*
appeared in 1831-33, and was followed by
^chloss Hainfield, or a Winter in Styria* and
< Patchwork* (1841).

HaH, Bolton, American lawyer and lec-
turer: b. Ireland 1854. A son of John HaH
(q.v.), *he was graduated from Princeton in
1875, became known as a writer and lecturer in
connection with various reforms, and has been
identified with the University extension move-
ment Among the causes advocated by him are
the cultivation of vacant lots by the unemployed,
and the restoration of the land to the people,
His publications include: < Even as You and I?

HaH, Charles Cuthbert, American Preaby-
terian clergyman: b. New York 3 Sent 1852;
d. New York 25 March 1908. He was
graduated from Williams College in 1872,
studied theology at the Union Theological
Seminary 1872-3, and at the Presbyterian Col-
lege in London and the Free Church College,
Edinburgh. He was pastor of the Presby-
terian Cnurch, Newburg, N. Y.. 1875-7, and of
the 1st Presbyterian Church, Brooklyn, N. Y..
1877-97. In 1897 he was elected president of
Union Theological Seminary. He published
<Into His Marvellous Light* (1891): ( Does
God Send Trouble ?> (1894); <The Children,
the Church and the Communion > (1895) ; <The
Gospel of the Divine Sacrifice* (1896).

Hall, Charles Francis, American Arctic
explorer : b. Rochester, N. Y., in 1821 ; d. Thank
God Harbor, Greenland, 8 Nov. 1871. Becom-
ing interested in the fate of the Franklin expedi-
tion, he devoted his leisure to gathering informa-
tion about Arctic America, and made two search
expeditions, in 1860-2 and 1864-9, living alone
among the Eskimo, and bringing back relics of
the Franklin expedition and the supposed bones
of one of Franklin's company. Natives whom
he encountered in i860 near the southern shore
of King William Land gave him a report of the
fate 0179 of the 105 who perished by starvation
in that region. He thus contributed much to
the details of the expedition's final history. In
187 1 he sailed in command of the government
ship ( Polaris^ on an expedition to the North
Pole. On 29 August he reached 82 11' N., at
that date the highest north latitude ever reached.
Then turning south he went into winter quarters
at Thank God Harbor. Greenland (8i° 30 N.).
Here he was taken suddenly ill, and died. Over
his grave a grateful epitaph was placed by the
British polar expedition in 1876. His compan-

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ions left Think God Harbor in August, 1872,
but in October, through the ice-anchor slipping,
. 1$ men were left with stores on a floe, and only
after five months of severe sufferings were they
rescued by a sealer off the Labrador coast in the
following April. The < Polaris > drifted to the
coast of Greenland, at a point not far south of
Smith Sound, and thence m the spring the party
set out in boats and was rescued by the Scotch
whaler < Ravenscraig, ) off Cape York. Among
the valuable results of Hall s work were the
exploration of Kennedy channel, the discovery of
Robeson Channel and Hall Basin, and the exten-
sion of Greenland and Grinnell Land ij4° N.
Hall was less a scientist than a fearless and
resourceful explorer. He published Arctic
Researches, and Life among the £squimaux >
(1864) ; and mainly "from his papers was com-
piled the < Narrative of the Second Arctic Expe-
dition (1879).

Hall, Charles Winslow, American lawyer
and author: b. Chelsea, Mass., 2 Nov. 1841. He
was admitted to the Suffolk bar in 1806 and
besides editing various New England journals
has written: ( Arctic Rovings* (1861) ; <Twice
Taken> (1867) ; Adrift in the Icefields > (1877) ;
<Drifting Round the World* (1881) ; 'Legends
of the Gulf } ; ( Cartegena, or the Last Brigade* ;
c Regiments and Armories of Massachusetts. *

Hall, Chester Moor, English inventor: b.
Leigh, Essex, England, 9 Dec 1703 ; d. ' Suttten,
Essex, 17 March 1771. He was a* large land-
owner in Essex, and convinced from study of the
human eye that achromatic lenses were possible,
he discovered two varieties of suitable glass in
1729, and in 1733 made several telescopes later
declared by experts to be achromatic. Indiffer-
ent to his claims of priority, he did not appear at
the trial of Dollond v. thampness. Later his
invention of the achromatic telescope in the year
1733 was adjudged by Lord Mansfield con-
clusively proven.

Hall, Christopher Newman, English Con-
gregational clergyman: b. Maidstone, England,
22 May 1816; d. London 18 Feb. 1002. He was
educated at Highbury College and ordained in
1842, his first charge being at Hull. In 1854 he
was made pastor of Surrey Chapel, Blackfriar's
Road, London, from which place he moved with
his congregation into Christ Church, Westmin-
ster Bridge Road, erected mainly through his
exertions, and of which he became pastor emer-
itus in 1893. During the Civil War he did much
by tongue and pen to give his countrymen cor-
rect ideas of the nature of the struggle in the
United States. In 1865 he visited this country
and again in 1873 when he delivered lectures in
the principal cities. He was the author of ( The
Christian Philosopher ; ( Land of the Forum
and the Vatican > ; lectures in America > ; and of
a famous tract ( Come to Jesus ) (1840) of which
millions of copies have been issued, etc.

Hall, Edward Henry, American Unitarian
clergyman and author: b. Cincinnati, Ohio, 16
April 183 1. He was graduated from Harvard
m 1851, ordained to the Unitarian ministry in
1859, and was pastor at Plymouth, Mass., 1850-
67; Worcester, Mass., 1869-82; and at Cam-
bridge, Mass., 1882-93. His writings include,
besides a volume of ( Discourses > ; ( Orthodoxy
and Heresy in the Christian Church' ; ( Lessons
on the Life of St. PauP ; ( Papias and his Con-

temporaries: a Study of Religious Thought in
the 2d Century* (1899).

Hall, Fitxedward, American philologist:

b. Troy, N. Y., 21 March 1825; d. Marlesford,
England, 1 Feb. 1901. He was graduated from
Harvard in 1846; spent many years in India;
made a thorough study of its tongues, and con-
tributed to its local journals original transla- !
tions and original articles. In 1850 he became j
tutor, in 1853 professor, in the government col- |
lege at Benares ; in 1855 was transferred to '
Ajmere as inspector of schools for Ajmere and
Maiwara ; and in 1856 to a like post in the Cen-
tral provinces. In 1862-79 he was professor of
Sanskrit, Hindustani, and Indian jurisprudence
in King's College, London; in 1864 became
examiner in Hindustani and Hindu to the civil-
service commission; in 1880 examiner in San-
skrit to succeed Max Miiller; and in 1887 also
examiner in English. He was the first American
to edit a Sanskrit text — <The Atmabodha, with
its Commentary, and the Tattvabodha > (1852).
He prepared also an edition of the < Vishnu-
purana/ containing numerous quotations from
manuscripts owned by him ; and editions of many
other Sanskrit books. His collection of 1,000
Oriental manuscripts and 1,000 works on special
subjects, he gave to Harvard. He wrote
further: < Modern £nglish > (1873), 'Doctor
Indoctus > (1880), and other works on English
philology, and ^contributed to the <New Oxford
'Dictionary:^ ^ * •*>

Hal), Florence Marion Howe, American

author and lecturer: b. Boston 25 Aug. 1845.
She is a daughter of Julia Ward Howe (q.v.).
Prominent in the women's club movement, she
became vice-president of the General Federation
of Women's Clubs, and chairman of the educa-
tional department of the New Jersey State fed-
eration of women's clubs. In 1893-1900 she was
president of the New Jersey Women's Suffrage
Association. Her writings are: i Social Cus-
toms* (1887); < The Correct Thing* (1888).

Hall, Francis J., American Episcopal
theologian: b. 24 Jan. 1856. He was graduated
from Kacine College, Wis., and the General
Theological Seminary, New York, and has been
professor of dogmatic theology in the Western
Theological Seminary from 1886. He has pub-
lished theological Outlines ) (1892-5) ; his-
torical Position of the Episcopal Church*
(1896); <The Kenotic Theory > (1808).

Hall, George Henry, American artist: b.
Boston 1825. He studied art at Diisseldorf,
Paris, and Rome; established his studio in New
York; and became known as a still-life and fig-
ure painter. In 1868 he was elected a national
academician. Among his works are i April
Showers* ; ( Studies of Grapes* ; ( The Seasons * ;
and 'Bric-a-Brac of Damascus*.

Hall, Gertrude, American writer: b. Bos-
ton 8 Sept. 1863. She has written <Far from
To-day, * a collection of short stories; 'Alle-
gretto,* a book of verse; <Foam on the Sea,
and Other Tales > ; <The Hundred and Other
Stories* (1898); <The Age of Fairy Gold,>
verse (1899); ( April's Sowing' (i960). Her
work, both in verse and prose, is distinctively

Hall, Gordon, American missionary at
Bombay: b. Tolland, Mass., 8 April 1784; d.
Bombay 20 March 1826. He was graduated at

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Williams College in 1808 and having studied
theology, offered himself as a missionary to the
American board of commissioners for foreign
missions. Ordained at Salem in February 1812,
he sailed the same month for Calcutta and arriv-
ing at Bombay in 1813, spent 13 years in mis-
sionary labors. No missionary in western India
has been more respected among the Brahmins
and higher classes than he. Beside publishing
several missionary tracts he revised the Mah-
ratta New Testament

Hall, Granville Stanley, American psy-
chologist and college president : b. Ashneld,
Mass., 6 May 1845. He was graduated from
Williams College in 1867, studied also at Ber-
lin, Bonn, Heidelberg, and Leipsic, was professor
of psychology in Antioch College (Ohio) in
1872-6, and lecturer on psychology at Harvard
and Williams in 1880-1. From 1881 to 1888 he
was professor of psychology in the Johns Hop-
kins University; and in 1888 became president
of Clark University, then newly founded at Wor-
cester, Mass., and professor of psychology in the
institution. He soon became known as an
authority on education and a leader in the *new
psychology* As editor of the i Pedagogical
Seminary > and the < American Journal of Psy-
chology/ he published: Aspects of German
Culture ) (1881) ; ( Hints toward a Select and
Descriptive Bibliography of Education > with
Mansfield (1886); < Methods of Teaching His-
tory } ; ( How to Teach Reading ) ;,etc.

Hall, Isaac Hollister, American Oriental
scholar: b. Norwalk, Conn., 12 Dec. 1837; d.
Mount Vernon, N. Y., 2 July 1896. Graduated
from Hamilton College in 1859, he was there
tutor until 1863, in 1805 was graduated from the
Columbia Law School, and until 1875 was a prac-
titioner in New York. In 1875-7 he was profes-
sor in the Syrian Protestant College at Beirut,
and later at Cyprus aided Gen. di Cesnola, then
United States consul, in the arrangement of the
Cypriote collection now in the Metropolitan
Museum of New York. From 1884 until his
death he was curator of sculpture and archaeol-
ogy in the Metropolitan Museum. He also lec-
tured on New Testament Greek at the Johns
Hopkins University; published (1884) an
account, with facsimile pages, of the Syrian
manuscripts of the Gospels, Acts, and the larger
part of the Epistles, discovered by him ( 1876) at
Beirut; and compiled a ( Critical Bibliography
of the Greek New Testament (1884).

Hall, Sir James, English geologist and
chemist: b. 1761; d. Edinburgh 23 June 1832.
Early interested in geological questions, he made
the acquaintance 01 James Hutton (q.v.) and
Play fair, and himself states that he came to
adopt Hutton's system after three years of almost
daily discussion with its founder. In the exam-
ination of this system, whose leading principle
explains the conformation of the earth s crust by
the action of constant natural changes, he trav-
eled in Scotland, the Alps, Italy, and Sicily.
Hall was the first geologist directly to apply
chemical laboratory tests to the hypotheses of
geology, but published no results of his work in
this field until after the death (1797) of Hutton
who objected to the judgment of the vast opera-
tions of nature through € having kindled a fire
and looked into the bottom of a little crucible *
He was elected president of the Royal Society of

Edinburgh, invented a machine for the regula-
tion of high temperatures, and in 1807-12 repre-
sented Michael (or Mitchell), Cornwall, in Par-
liament He wrote various scientific memoirs.

Hall, James, American lawyer and author:
b. Philadelphia 19 Aug. 1793; d. near Cincin-
nati, Ohio, 5 July 1868. He served in the army
1812-18, and subsequently studying law became
judge of the circuit court of Illinois, and also
State treasurer. In 1833 he took up his resi-
dence in Cincinnati, and devoted himself to
banking and literature. His chief works are:

< Legends of the West* ; ( Harpe's Head, a Leg-
end of Kentucky > (1833) ; Sketches of the
West> (183S); r Tales of the Border> (1835);

< Notes on the Western States> (1838); <His-
tory of the Indian Tribes y (183S-44) with
McKenney; ( The Wilderness and the War-
Path* (1845) ; 'Romance of Western History*

Hall, James, American geologist and
palaeontologist: b. Hingham, Mass., 12 Sept
181 1 ; d. near Bethlehem, N. H., 7 Aug. 1898.
He studied at the Rensselaer Polytechnic School
for six years, and was subsequently professor of
geology there, and in 1837 was appointed to a
position on the New York Geological Survey.
In 1855 he was appointed State geologist of
Iowa. In 1850 he was elected by the Royal Geo-
graphical Society of London one of its 50 for-
eign members, and in 1858 received the Wollas-
ton Medal from that scientific body. He was a
distinguished member of many scientific societies
at home and abroad and was held in the highest
esteem for his attainments in geology and palae-
ontology. Among his publications may be
named < Geology of New York* (1843);

< Palaeontology of New York* (1847 et seq.) ;
< Graptolites of the Quebec Group* (1865); as
well as parts of the Geological Reports of Iowa
(1858-9); and Wisconsin (1862).

Hall, John, American Presbyterian clergy-
man: b. near Armagh, Ireland, 31 July 1829; d.
Bangor, County Dowtl Ireland, 17 Sept 1898.
He was educated at Belfast College and after
holding several pastorates in Ireland, in 1867
became pastor of the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian
Church, New York. He was chancellor of the
University of the City of New York 1882-00,
and was also trustee of Princeton University,
Union Theological Seminary, and of Wellesley
College. He was noted for his simple eloquence
and impressive sincerity and was one of the
most prominent clergymen in his denomination.
He wrote < Family Prayers for Four Weeks*
(1868); <Papers for Home Reading> (1871);
'Questions of the Day> (1873) ; < God's Word
through Preaching (1875); 'Foundation-Stones
for Young Builders * (1879) I *A Christian
Home: how to Make and how to Maintain It*

HaH, John M., American railroad presi-
dent: b. Willimantic, Conn., 16 Oct 1841; d,
New Haven, Conn.. 27 Jan. 1905. He was
graduated from Yale in 1866 and from the
Columbia Law School in 1868. He took up the
practice of law in his native town and became
a judge of the superior court in 1889, resigning
in 1893 to become vice-president of the New
York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad Com-
pany. On the death of President Clark in 189&
Judge Hall succeeded him as president

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Hall, Joseph. English prelate: b. near
Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Leicestershire, i July 1574;
4. near Norwich 8 Sept 165& While yet in col-
lege he published his ^irgidemiarum,* a series
of poetical satires t remarkable for elegant and
energetic versification, strong and lively coloring,
and masterly traces of genuine humor. Having
taken orders he obtained the rectory of Halsted,
near St. Edmund's Bury, where he published a
very popular work, <A Century of Meditations.*
In 161 7 he became dean of Worcester, and was
• raised to the see of Exeter in 1627. After the
open rupture between the king and Parliament,
he came forward in defense of the liturgy and
discipline of the church, against the views which
the leading Nonconformists had published, in a
treatise called, after the initials of the names of
its authors, ^mectymnuus* (q.v.). In the end of
1641 Bishop Hall was translated from the see of
Exeter to that of Norwich, but was later impris-
oned in the Tower with the other prelates who
had protested against their expulsion from the
House of Peers. In 1643 he was specially named
in the ordinance passed for sequestering what
were called ^notorious delinquents. 9 His prose
works edited by Philip Wynter were published in
1863. Among the latter, the best known and
most popular is his 'Contemplations,* which
still finds many readers.

Hall, Lyman, American patriot: b. Wal-
lingford, Conn., 12 April 1724 ; d. Burke County,
Ga., 19 Oct. 1790. He was graduated from Yale
in 1747, studied medicine, and began practice in
Wallingford, Conn., but finally settled near Sun-
bury, Ga., where he became a leading physician.
The settlers in this locality were from New Eng-
land, and on the outbreak of trouble with Eng-
land, they with Hall as leader took active part in
the rebellion, though Georgia was slow in join-
ing the patriot cause. Half was sent by them as
a representative to the Continental Congress,
where he was admitted by a unanimous vote, and
took part in all debates, but did not vote when
the vote was taken by colonies, until Georgia
was represented as a colony. In 1776 it was so
represented, and Hall continued a member of the
Congress till 1780, being one of those who signed
the Declaration of Independence. He was
elected governor of Georgia in 1783, and m an
energetic administration of one year, he did much
to repair the damage done by the war, established
land offices and schools, and then retired from
public life. Consult: Dwight. Signers of the
Declaration and an article, * Lyman Hall* in
the ( Magazine of American History,* XXV. 35.

Hall, Marshall, English physician and
physiologist: b. Basford, near Nottingham, 18
Feb. 1790; d. Brighton, England, 11 Aug. 1857.
In 1809 he commenced the study of medicine at
the University of Edinburgh, and took his degree
in 1812. In 181 7 he commenced practice at Not-
tingham, and soon rose to eminence. In 1826 he
settled in London, where he carried on a most
successful practice. He paid especial attention
to the symptoms of illness and in 1817 published
diagnoses of Diseases,* and in 1824 his Med-
ical Essays* appeared. His < Essay on the Cir-
culation of the Blood* (1831) contained an
account of his discovery of the so-called «caudal
heart* in the tail of the eel. The more impor-
tant of his other writings are: < Lectures on the
Nervous System and its Diseases* (1836), the-
ory and Practice of Medicine* (1S37) 5 < Theory

of Convulsive Diseases* (1848). His services to
the cause of humanity were numerous and val-
uable, and among these one of the most widely
known is the method which he invented of
restoring suspended respiration, now generally
adopted in the case of persons partially drowned.
It is known as the * Marshall Hall Method*
See Drowning.

Hall, Robert, English Baptist clergyman:
b. Arnsby, Leicestershire, England, 2 May 1764;
d. Bristol, England, 21 Feb. 1831. He studied at
the Baptist College at Bristol and King's College,
Aberdeen, and entered the Baptist ministry,
becoming in a few years not only the most prom-
inent minister in his denomination but one of the
very foremost of English orators. He was also
widely known as a master of prose style, his
most noted writings being ( Apology for the
Freedom of the Press* (1793) ; Modern Infidel-
ity* (1800); Reflections on War* (1802). He
was subject to attacks of insanity but in spite of
this misfortune accomplished a vast amount of
intellectual work and was a tireless student His
complete works in six volumes reached an nth'
edition in '1853.

Hall, Robert Henry, American soldier: b.
Detroit, Mich., 15 Nov. 1837. He was educated
at West Point and served in the Federal army
during the Civil War, and was in command of a
brigade during the war in the Philippines. He
became a brigadier-general in the United States
army in 1001. He has published ( Register of
the United States Army 1789-98* ; < History of
the Flag of the United States*; 'History of
United States Infantry Tactics.*

Hall, Ruth, American novelist: b. Scho-
harie, N. Y., 10 April 1858. Besides more or less
journalistic work she has written : ( In the Brave
Days of 01d> (1898); <The Boys of Scrooby*

ii«99) ; ^he Black Gown,* a novel of colonial
.lbany (1000) ; 'The Downrenter's Son,* a
novel of the anti-rent troubles in New York
State (1902) ; 'The Golden Arrow* (1903).

Hall, Samuel Carter, English miscella-
neous writer: b. Topsham, Devonshire, Eng*
land, 1801 ; d. 16 March 1880. For over 40 years
he was the editor of the 'Art Journal,* which
he founded in 1839. With his wife (Anna
Maria) (q.v.) he published: 'Ireland, its Scen-
ery and Character* (1841-3) ; 'Book of Royalty*
(1838); <A Woman's Story* (1857); <Th«
Book of the Thames* (1859) ; ( A Companion to
Killarney* (1878) ; and others. His separate
works were: 'A Book of Memories*; 'Book of
British Ballads* ; 'Baronial Halls* ; 'Retrospect
of a Long Life* (1883).

Hall, Thomas, American inventor: b. Phil-
adelphia 4 Feb. 1834. He was educated at the
University of Pennsylvania, and subsequently
studied mechanics in Europe, and at the Paris
exposition in 1867 placed a keyed typewriter on
exhibition. His numerous inventions include a
mechanism for printing by touching keys; a
keyed typewriter, the Hall typewriter, first
offered for sale in 188 1 ; several sewing-machines,
as well as drill-grinding and other machinist
tools, eta

Hall, Thomas Coming, American theolo-
gian: b. Armagh, Ireland, 25 Sept 1858. He
was graduated from Princeton in 1879, ^om
the Union Theological Seminary in 1882, studied
also in Berlin and Gottingen, and was a pastor iq,

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Omaha and Chicago. In 1898 he became pro-
fessor of theology in the Union Seminary.
Among his works are : <The Power of an End-
less Life* (1893) j ( The Social Significance of
the Evangelical Revival in England* (1899) ;
and <The Synoptic Gospels > (1900).

Hall-marks. See Plate-marks.

Hall of Fame, a memorial to famous
Americans, at the New York University. The
institution received a gift of $100,000 with which
it built a colonnade 500 feet long on University
Heights, a beautiful site. in upper New York,
overlooking the valleys of . * the Harlem and the
Hudson. Large panels to the number of 150,
two feet by eight, will bear simple inscriptions
of the names and dates of birth and death of
the famous native Americans who are chosen
as the 150 greatest men. Of these, 29 were
chosen in 1900, 11 in 1905 and 11 in 191a The
public was invited to make nominations; and
such nominations as were seconded by the
Senate of the University were submitted to
100 judges, representing every State in the
Union. These judges were university and col-
lege presidents, professors of history, scientists,
publicists, editors, authors, and judges of the
supreme court, national and state. Ninety-
seven of these sent in their votes, and 29 great
men, native and 10 years dead, chosen by this
vote, and thereafter ratified by the Senate of
the University, were the first of these im-

The 29 candidates elected on the first ballot
(1900) and the number of votes received were
as follows: George Washington, 07; Abra-
ham Lincoln, 96; Daniel Webster, 96; Benja-
min Franklin, 94; Ulysses S. Grant, 92; John

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 92 of 185)