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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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Hallowell, Richard Price, American au-
thor and wool merchant: b. Philadelphia 16
Dec. 1835 ; d. Medford, Mass., 5 Jan. 1904. He
was prominent in the abolition movement, was
appointed by Gov. Andrew of Massachusetts
special agent to recruit negro regiments, and
subsequently was vice-president of the New
England Woman Suffrage Association. He
published 'The Quaker Invasion of Massachu-
setts > (1883). etc.

Hallowell, Me., city in Kennebec County,
on the Kennebec River, and on the Maine Cen-
tral railroad; two miles south of Augusta and
four miles north of Gardiner. The first perma-
nent settlement was made in 1754. It was in-
corporated as a township in 1771, and chartered
as a city 29 Aug. 1850. At the time of its be-
coming a chartered city it included within its
limits Chelsea, Manchester, and Farmingdale.
The city is governed by a mayor and a council
of seven members elected annually. It has two
banks with a combined capital of $150,000. The
industries of the city include granite works,
shoe manufactories, glue works, cotton goods,
machinery, etc. The Hubbard Free Library and
the Maine Industrial School are public institu-
tions. Pop. (1910) 2,864.

Hall'atatfc Epoch, a name taken from the
necropolis of Hallstatt, Upper Austria, not far
from Salzburg, and applied to that culture in
Europe — parts of Germany, France, Italy, and
m Switzerland, Bohemia, etc. — distinguished as
the last bronze and first iron stage, dating back
at least as far as 1000 b.c. According to some
ethnologists in the eastern highlands of the Alps
this culture was of a higher evolution than that
of a partially Oriental cast in the west during the
Neolithic epoch.

HMllstrdm, Ivar, e'var heTstrem, Swedish
composer: b. Stockholm 5 June 1826; d. there
11 April 1901. He studied law at Upsala, then
turned his attention to music, in 1861-72 was di-
rector of the institute founded by Lindblad, and
from 1881 instructor to the Royal Opera. His
works include the operas ( Den Bergagna >
(•The Mountain King* 1874); and < Neaga )
(libretto by Carmen Sylva, 1885) ; cantatas,
numerous songs, and an < Idyle > for orchestra,
chorus, and solo voices, for which he received
(i860) a prize from the Stockholm Musical

Hallucina'tions, are morbid conditions of
mind in which the patient is conscious of a per-
ception without any impression having been made
on the external organs of sense. Hallucinations
are to be distinguished from delusions, for in
these there are real sensations, though they are
erroneously interpreted. All the senses are not
equally subject to hallucinations; the most fre-
quent are those of hearing; next, according to
many, come those of sight, smell, touch, and
taste ; and hallucinations of several senses may
exist simultaneously in the same individual.
They may also be complicated with certain de-
lusions. Often even the hallucination of one
sense is confirmed by the delusion of another,
so that it is neither possible nor necessary
always to distinguish hallucinations from delu-
sions. The simplest form of hallucinations of
hearing is the tingling of the ears; but the
striking of clocks, the sounds of musical instru-
ments and of the human voice are often heard,

and in these instances, as in those of the per-
turbations of the other senses, there must be
a diseased sensorium, though there should be
no structural derangement of the nerves. Hal-
lucinations are not confined to those whose
mental faculties have been alienated, but occa-
sionally assail and torment even the sane. The
second Earl Grey was haunted by a gory head,
but he could dismiss it at will. Swedenborg
had a similar faculty; and Bernadotte, king of
Sweden, was besieged in his rides by a woman
in a red cloak, being perfectly conscious of
the hallucination under which he labored. Lord
Brougham proposed that the existence of hallu-
cinations should be established as an authorita-
tive test for the existence of insanity ; but, as will
have been seen, this would be no test at alL
The proportion of the hallucinations of the va-
rious senses has been by some tabulated thus:
— hearing, 49; vision, 48; taste, 8; touch, 3;
smell, 1. All are more frequent in mania than
in monomania, and in mania errors of vision
are more numerous than those of hearing. See
Apparitions; Dreams; Ghosts; Insanity.

Hallux Valgus, a deformity of the great
toe consisting of a turning of the toe toward its
neighbor, with a marked enlargement of the
head of the bone. The synovial sac on the inner
side of the toe is often chronically inflamed
from constant pressure, forming a bunion. Ad-
vanced cases may require the excision of the
bony outgrowths, but early cases may be re-
lieved by a properly adjusted shoe.

Halmahera, hal-ma-ha'ra. See Gilolo.

Halo, the name given to colored circles
sometimes seen around the sun or moon, and to
other connected luminous appearances. Some-
times as many as three circles are seen round
the sun. A white band across the sun, parallel
to the horizon, is also sometimes seen ; and some-
times a second white band, perpendicular to the
first These bands form a cross, and stretch
out so as to cut the circles of the halo. It is
on these bands that parhelia or mock suns are
formed. The explanation of halos is complex
and difficult Marriotte attributed the colored
rings to refraction of light through small crys-
tals of ice in the air, and calculation appears
to confirm his hypothesis. The third circle is
probably due to refraction of light that has
undergone internal reflection in the crystals in
a way similar to that which occurs in the for-
mation of the rainbow. On the other hand, the
white bands crossing the sun must be due
to reflection of light from the surfaces of the
crystals. See Light ; Parhelion ; Sun.

Halogen, hal'd-jen, in chemistry, an ele-
ment, or inorganic radical, which unites directly
with a metal to produce a saline substance, such
as common salt. The term is usually confined to
the elements fluorin, chlorin, bromin, and iodin,
and the compound known as cyanogen.

Halophytea, hal'd-flts, a group of plants
considered with reference to their habitat, and
including those which inhabit salt marshes, and
by combustion yield barilla, as Salsola, Salicor-
nia, and Cheno podium. For further examples
see Beach -plants and Desert Plants.

Hal'pine, or Halpin, Charles Graham,
American soldier and author : b. Oldcastk, Coun-
ty Meath, Ireland, ao Nov. i8ao; d. New Yorir

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3 Aug. 1868. After study at Trinity College,
Dublin, he came to Boston, Mass., in 1851, was
there assistant editor of the Post, and with B. P.
Shillaber began the < Carpet Bag,* an unsuc-
cessful humorous periodical. Later Washington
correspondent of the New York Times, he then
went to New York, where he was connected
with the Herald^ and wrote much ephemeral
matter for magazines. Upon the outbreak of the
Civil War he enlisted in the 69th New York
volunteer infantry, and was afterward on the
staff of Hunter as assistant adjutant-general,
of Gen. Halleck with the rank of colonel. In
1864 he resigned from the service and was
brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers. He
was best known for his burlesque verses, writ-
ten in the character of an Irish private, 'Miles
O'Reilly* over which pseudonym they appeared.
*Life and Adventures, Songs. Services, and
Speeches } was published in 1864, and his com-
plete < Poetical Works* in 1869.

Hals, hals, Frans, Dutch painter: b. An-
werp about 1584; <L Haarlem 7 Sept 1666.
When young he went to Haarlem, where he
studied painting under Karel van Mander, and
he was one of the civic guard, director of an
art school, and chief of the painters' guild.
His first dated work is a portrait belonging to
the year 1613, his next, the ( Banquet of the
v Officers of the Haarlem Corps of Arquebusiers
of St. George* (1616), one of the earliest pic-
tures belonging to the Dutch school of genre
painting, of which Hals is sometimes regarded
as the founder. He executed ( The Jolly Trio,*
( Herring Vender,* and <Fool Playing a Lute,*
and seems to have found in genre painting
a scope and a possibility of humor much to
his taste. He executed also many single-figure
pieces, as ( Hille Bobbe* (National Gallery,
Berlin; replica in the Metropolitan Museum),
and numerous portraits, all of high value artis-
tically. Hals is ranked among the foremost of
portrait artists, being notably successful in il-
luminating the character of the face. Adrian
van Ostade, Wouwerman, and Adrian Brouwer
were among his pupils. He is said to have been
improvident in his habits, and latterly received a
pension from the municipality of Haarlem. His
brother Dirk, d. Haarlem May 1656, and his
son, Frans Hals, the Younger, b. about 1620;
d. about 1669, were also excellent painters.

HaTtey, Francis Whiting, American jour-
nalist: b. Unadilla, N. Y., 15 Oct. 1851. He
was a member of the editorial staff of the New
York Tribune 1875-80, and was attached to that
of the New York Times 1880-1002, editing the
Times Saturday Review* from 1896. He has
published <Two Months Abroad* (1878); <The
Old New York Frontier* (1901) ; < American
Authors and their Homes* ; Assays* ; ( Our
Literary Deluge* (1902).

Hal'stead, Murat, American journalist: b.
T*oss, Butler County, Ohio, 2 Sept 1829; d.
Cincinnati, O., 2 July 1008. At 18 he began
writing for newspapers, studied at Farmers'
College, near Cincinnati, and did local news-
paper reporting on several Cincinnati papers.
In 1853 ne became manager of a department
on the Cincinnati Commercial. The follow-
ing year he acquired a pecuniary interest in
the paper, which began rapidly to increase in
circulation and influence. The Commercial

combining with the Gazette, its rival, the Cin-
cinnati Commercial-Gazette, became the recog-
nized organ of the Ohio Republicans. In 1890
he removed to Brooklyn, N. Y., where he
edited the Standard Union. Later he was a
contributor to magazines and as a special cor-
respondent went to the Philippines during the
Spanish- American War. He wrote: < The
Story of Cuba* ; <Life of William McKinley* :
<The Story of the Philippines*; <History of
American Expansion* ; <Life of Admiral
Dewey*; <The Boer and British War; <The
War Between Russia and Japan* (1905) ; etc

Halsted, George Bruce, American mathe-
matician: b. Newark, N. J., 25 Nov. 1853. He
was graduated from Princeton in 1875 and
since 1884 has been professor of mathematics
in the University of Texas. He has published
Mensuration* (1881) ; ( Elements of Geometry*
{1885) ; ( Elementary Synthetic Geometry*
(1892); <Pure Projective Geometry* (1895).

Ham, one of the three sons of Noah, from
whom the earth after the Deluge was peopled.
He is first mentioned between the other two—
Shem, Ham, and Japheth; but afterward is ex-
pressly designated the younger son of Noah,
that is, relatively to the other two. He had
four sons — Cush, Mizraim, Phut, and Canaan.
The three first traveled southward, and from
them chiefly sprang the tribes that peopled the
African continent, as Canaan became the father
of the tribes that principally occupied the terri-
tory of Phoenicia and Palestine. Ham is also
used as a designation of Egypt, probably on
account of its population having sprung from
a son of Ham, and the name Ammon, by which
the chief god of the northern Africans was often
called and worshipped, may very likely derive
its origin from the same source.

Ham, the joint which unites the thigh and
the leg of an animal, but more generally under-
stood to mean the cured thigh of the hog.
Ham-curing is now an important branch of
business, especially in Great Britain and Amer-
ica, and the details of the process are generally
the same everywhere. The meat is first well
rubbed with salt, and a few days after it is
rubbed again with a mixture of salt, saltpetre,
and sugar, though sometimes the saltpetre is
omitted. After lying in the tub for eight or
ten days it is ready for drying. Wet-salting re-
quires three weeks, and dry-salting four. The
smoking of hams is carried on in smoke-houses,
the meat being hung as high as possible, and
subjected to the smoke of a fire kindled on
the ground-flat, and which ascends through holes
in the flooring. The process of smoking is for
the most part carried on in winter, the fire being
kept in a smouldering state for five or six weeks.
Wood is used in preference to coal in the pro-
cess of smoking. See Pork.

Ham-beetle, or Paper-worm, a small clerid
beetle (Necrobia rufipes), sometimes a pest of
considerable importance because of the occur-
rence of its larvae or *worms, p the paper-like
cocoons and beetles on hams in such numbers
as to render them unmerchantable. Its injuries
are generally confined to the exterior and are
due to carelessness in packing and to the crack-
ing of the ham coverings. This is one of three
cosmopolitan species of the same genus, all of
which are carnivorous scavengers.

Digitized by



Ham-fly, a name of the cheese-fly (q.v.),
due to the occasional appearance of its maggots
or ^skippers* in the fatty exterior portions of
preserved hams.

Hama, ha'ma, or Hamah, Syria, the Bibli-
cal Hamath, a very ancient city, on the El-Asi
(Orontes), no miles northeast of Damascus.
It is surrounded by gardens, and has narrow,
crooked streets, with houses built of timber, and
sun-dried bricks. There are manufactures of
yarn and coarse woolens, and a general domes-
tic and caravan trade. Hamath is frequently
mentioned in Old Testament history as in con-
flict with the Assyrians ; first as early as 854 rc
After the Graeco-Macedonian conquest it became
known as Epiphania. In 639 it was captured by
the Moslems. Abulfeda, the Arabian geographer,
was prince of Hama from 1310-31. In 1812
Burckhardt here discovered the four Hittite
stones, the inscriptions of which are still unde-
ciphered. Pop. (est) 45,000.

Hamadryad, ham'a-dri-ad. (1) A baboon
(q.v.). (2) The king-cobra (Naja bungarus),
one of the Oriental cobras, found from Southern
India to China and the Philippines, and closely
allied in structure, markings, and habits to the
cobra di capello, but much larger, reaching the
length sometimes of 13 feet, making it the
longest of venomous serpents. It is also the
most fierce in disposition, but fortunately is
nowhere common, and feeds wholly on other
snakes. Consult Fayrer, ( Thanatophidia of In-
dia> (1874).

Hamadryads, in Greek mythology, the
eight daughters of Hamadryas. They received
their names from trees, and are the same as
the Dryads (q.v.). They were conceived to
inhabit each a particular tree, with which they
were born, and with which they perished.

Hamamelis. See Witch Hazel.

Haman, ha'man, a minister of the Persian
king Ahasuerus. Because Mordecai the Jew
refused to pay him homage, he resolved on the
destruction of all the Jews in the Persian
monarchy. By falsehood and intrigue he suc-
ceeded in obtaining a decree for this purpose;
but Esther, the Jewish consort of Ahasuerus,
interposed for their deliverance, and Haman
was hanged on the very gibbet he had caused
to be prepared for Mordecai. His history is
contained in the book of Esther.

Hamath, ha'math. See Hama.

Ham'blin, Joseph Eldridge, American sol-
dier: b. Yarmouth, Mass., 1828; d. New York
3 July 1870. Not long after the commencement
of the Civil War, he became adjutant of the
5th New York, later was transferred to the
65th, whose commander he soon became, and
with which he participated in Sheridan's victori-
ous movements in the Shenandoah. For services
at Cedar Creek he was brevetted brigadier-
general, and was mustered out in 1866 with full
rank of brigadier and brevet of major-general.
Subsequently he was active in the affairs of
the New York State National Guard.

Hamblin, Thomas Sowerby, American
actor: b. Pentonville, near London, England,
14 May 1800 ; d. New York 8 Jan. 1853. He was
early a member of the corps of the Sadler's
Wells and Drury Lane theatres, was a tragedian
at Bath, Brighton, and Dublin, came to the

United States in 1825, appeared at the Park
Theatre, New York, and acted in leading Amer-
ican cities. He was manager of several New
York theatres, and among his roles were those
of Macbeth, Hamlet, Othello, Rolla, Pierre, Vir-
ginius, and Coriolanus. He was esteemed second
only to Forrest and the elder Booth, and made
the standard drama a feature of his manage-
ment, under which the Bowery Theatre saw
its historic days.

Hamburg, ham'berg (Ger. him'boorg),
Germany, a free city and state of northwestern
Germany, the city occupying 30 square miles
of the state's total area of 157.18 square miles.
The city is the greatest commercial port on
the European continent, the chief of the three
Hanse towns, and the seat of the upper Han-
seatic court. It is situated at the junction of
the Alster and the Bille, on the right bank of the
northern branch of the Elbe, about 93 miles
from the North Sea. With its connecting sub-
urbs Altona and Ottensen it has a river front-
age of over five miles. The river is spanned by
two fine bridges, and there are numerous bridges
across the canals which intersect the east and
lower part of the city in all directions, and
across the Alster which flows through the city
and forms two ornamental pieces of water, the
Aussen-Alster and the Binnen-Alster or Alster-
Bassin. The latter is surrounded by fine quays,
the Alter Jungfemstieg and the Neuer Jung-
fernstieg, lined with handsome residences, ho-
tels, and stores, and constituting the chief thor-
oughfare in the city. The harbor accommoda-
tion is extensive ; the principal quays along the
Elbe where the ocean steamships lie are the
Kaiser-Quai and the Sandthor-Quai. The bou-
levards or Anlagen occupy the site of the
ancient encircling walls, removed since I&5-
The modern portion of the city, rebuilt since the
destructive fire of 1842 in a magnificent and
expensive style, is in striking contrast to the
older low-lymg portion, with its back streets,
bordered by warehouses, and the meaner class
of dwelling houses. The most important pub-
lic buildings are the Exchange, a noble edifice
consisting chiefly of a magnificent hall sur-
rounded by a fine colonnade and containing a
large commercial library; the modern Rathaus
in Renaissance style, and the Deuts;.:es Schau-
spielhaus. Among ecclesiastical structures are
the 19th century Gothic church of St. Nicholas
with a tower and spire 473 feet high; the 18th
century Renaissance church of Saint Michael's,
with a spire 426 feet high, the 15th century
church of St Catherine's, the 14th century
church of St. James, and a fine Jewish syna-
gogue. Besides the numerous private and pub-
lic schools the educational institutions include
the Johanneum institution founded in 1528, con-
taining a college, museums, and the city's ex-
tensive library; the Kunsthalle with a large
art collection; and zoological and botanical gar-
dens, etc. Among the many charitable and be-
nevolent institutions are well endowed hospitals,
orphan, and insane asylums, and there is also
an organized system of municipal poor rehwj
The sewerage system has been modernized, and
the general sanitary conditions improved, espe-
cially since the severe choleraic epidemic of 1892.
The municipal waterworks, dating from i53i»
have been added to at various dates and a mod-
ern filtering plant installed since 1893; municipal

Digitized by



bath and wash houses are maintained; food
adulteration is keenly looked after; the gas
and electric lighting plants are civic property;
and a large revenue is obtained from the electric
street railroads, which are operated by private
companies, paying state subventions.

The importance of Hamburg is due to its
great marine commerce, which has been facili-
tated by the engineering enterprises of the in-
habitants in deepening the bed of the river, cut-
ting canals, and since 1890 in the construction at
Cuxhaven, at the mouth of the river, of enor-
mous docks. Seven railroad lines enter the city,
which is connected also by rivers and canals
with nearly all parts of the German empire.
In 1900, 12,912 vessels with a net tonnage
of 8,148^218 tons entered, and 14,030 with a
net tonnage of 8,293,252 cleared the port. The
exports by sea in 1901 amounted approximately
to 4,695469 tons, valued at $454,886,750; the im-
ports by sea in the same year were approximately
9,701,346 tons, valued at $540,177,750. Raw ma-
terials, foodstuffs, especially coffee, and manufac-
tured articles are the chief imports, the last item
constituting also the bulk of the exports. The
city's manufacturing interests, though large, are
less important, including ship-building, iron-
founding, tobacco and cigar making, sugar re-
fining, distilleries, breweries, and numerous other
domestic industries. The banking, exchange,
and marine assurance business of Hamburg has
been on an extensive scale since the establish-
ment of the Hamburg giro-bank in 1619, and is
one of the most important in the world.

The city-state has a democratic constitution
and is administered by an executive senate of
18 life-members, including a first and a second
burgomaster elected biennially among the mem-
bers, and by the legislative House of Burgesses
composed of 160 members elected every six
years, one half of whom retire every three years.
The population of the city is second to that of
Berlin in the German empire; in 1910 it was
about 1,000,000.

The city was founded by Charlemagne, who,
between 80S and 811, built a citadel and a church
on the heights between the Elbe and the east
bank of the Alster as a bulwark against the
neighboring pagan Slavs. In 831 it became an
episcopal see. It was frequently devastated by
Danes and Slavs, but in the 12th century had be-
come an important commercial city, and in 1241
and 1249 combined with Lubeck and Bremen
in forming the Hanseatic League. It was de-
clared an imperial city by Maximilian in 15 10,
but was not formally acknowledged until 1618.
During the Thirty Years' War its population and
prosperity increased owing to the immunity of
its position, and in the following century ex-
tensive commercial relations with North Amer-
ica were developed. In 18 10 it was incorporated
in the French empire as the capital of the de-
partment of the Mouths of the Elbe, but was
occupied by the Russians in 1813. They were
driven out by the French under Davoust, two
months later, and the city underwent severe fi-
nancial spoliation at the hands of the conqueror
and extensive depopulation. In 181 5 it became
an independent state of the German federation,
forming with Lubeck, Bremen, and Frankfort,
the curia of the free cities. Its trade and im-
portance have increased ever since. In 1871

it united with the German empire as a free
city-state; but did not join the Zollverein or
German Customs Union until 1888.

Hamburg Fowls. See Poultry.

Hamilcar, ha-mTTkar, a name of common
occurrence at Carthage, and borne by several of
its most distinguished citizens, among whom
the chief was Hamilcak Bahca («lightning») :
b. Carthage; d. Spain 228 B.c. He was the
father of the celebrated Hannibal. While a
young man he was appointed to the command
of the Carthaginian forces in Sicily, in the 18th
year of the first Punic war, 247 B.C. He estab-
lished himself with his whole army on Mount
Hercte (now Monte Pellegrmo), where he not
only succeeded in maintaining his ground, but
sent out squadrons to plunder the coasts of
Sicily and Italy. In 244 he quitted his strong
position, and, landing at the foot of Mount Eryx,
converted the town of that name into a fortified
camp for his army. For two years he defied
all the efforts of the Romans to dislodge him;
but the Carthaginian admiral, Hanno, having
been totally defeated off the jEgate Islands, 241
B.c, he reluctantly consented to withdraw from
Sicily. His inability to perform the promisei
which, to keep them in obedience, he had made
to his mercenary troops, brought about their re-
volt after returning from Sicily, and as they
were joined by almost all the native Africans,
Carthage was brought to the brink of ruin. The
incapacity of Hanno, who had been entrusted
with the suppression of the revolt, led all par-
ties to concur in the appointment of Hamilcar.
He defeated the enemy with great slaughter,

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