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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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reduced their towns to subjection, and after
several alternations of fortune, and the appoint-
ment of Hanno to a share in the command,
the war was brought to a successful close, 238
B.C. Hamilcar now projected the formation of a
new empire in Spain, to be a source of strength
to Carthage, and the point whence hostilities
might be renewed against Rome. This policy
was ably prosecuted after his death by Hasdru-
bal and Hannibal. Hamilcar penetrated into the
heart of the country, reduced some cities and
tribes, and acquired vast wealth. He passed
nine years in Spain, and fell in a battle against
the Vettones.

Hamilton, Alexander, American states-
man and soldier : b. Charles Town, in the island
of Nevis, W. I., 11 Jan. 1757; d. New York 12
July 1804. His parentage is uncertain, but it is
generally accepted that he was the son of James
Hamilton, a Scotch merchant in Nevis, and
Rachel Levine, the daughter of a French physi-
cian. Hamilton's father was unfortunate in his
business ventures, and having become a bank-
rupt it was necessary for Alexander, at the age
of 12 years, to earn his own living. He secured
a position as clerk in the counting-house of
Nicholas Cruger of Saint Croix. His a genius
for affairs* was soon apparent, and after two
years we find him entrusted with the full man-
agement of the business. But ambition for
something more than a commercial career had
already taken hold of the young man's mind,
and he began to write for the local press. A
very strong and vivid description of a West
Indian hurricane, which had devastated the
islands, attracted general attention and aroused
the lad's friends to provide the necessary funds



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HAMILTON



to enable him to come to America to complete
his education. He arrived at Boston in 1772,
and was put in a school at Elizabethtown, N. J.,
where he industriously prepared himself for col-
lege, and in 1774 he entered King's College
(now Columbia University), and made a bril-
liant record as a student. The friction between
England and the American colonies was con-
stantly growing more serious, and after studying
the question and being convinced that the col-
onists were right, Hamilton began the advocacy
of their cause in a speech at a public meeting,
6 July 1774. The meeting assembled to discuss
the calling of a general congress and was held
in the fields (now City Hall Park). He also
published two pamphlets,- asserting the colonists'
position in relation to the Crown and to Parlia-
ment, and justifying their appeal to arms. The
pamphlets were at first thought to be produc-
tions of well-known leaders, and when their
authorship became known it gave Hamilton a
national reputation. Hamilton now turned his
attention to preparation for military service in
the Revolution. He secured a commission as
captain of the first Continental artillery com-
pany and entered the patriot service in March
1770. His natural aptitude for organization and
command soon made the company a model of
discipline and efficiency. He participated in the
battles of Long Island, White Plains, Trenton
and Princeton, and won the commendation of
his superiors for his skill and courage. On 1
March 1777 Hamilton was appointed lieutenant-
colonel and aide-de-camp on the staff of Wash-
ington, whose entire confidence he secured, be-
coming the general's confidential secretary. He
took an active part in his chief's battles, as-
sisted in planning campaigns and in devising
means for the support of the army, and was
entrusted with the important and delicate mis-
sion of going to Albany to obtain troops from
Gen. Gates (who had previously been ordered
to send troops to Washington and had failed
to do so) — a duty which Hamilton performed
with skill and success. It was while on this
mission that he first met Elizabeth Schuyler, the
daughter of Gen. Philip Schuyler of New York,
whom he afterwards married (14 Dec. 1780).
Having received a reprimand from Washington
for a supposed delay he took offense and re-
signed from the staff 16 Feb. 1781. He had no
intention, however, of resigning from the Con-
tinental Army, and becoming the head of an
infantry regiment, he took part in the siege
of Yorktown, heading a storming party and
capturing one of the strongest British redoubts.
The war was now practically ended, and there
being no further opportunity for success in the
army, Hamilton returned to civil life. He was
yet but 24 years old, but by his natural abilities
and capacity for leadership he had attained a
foremost place among the great men of his day.
The activity of Hamilton's mind is seen in
the fact that while still in active military service
he found time to study the great questions of

fovernment and finance. In a letter to James
)uane he clearly set forth his views on the
Constitution, that: ^Congress should have com-
plete sovereignty in all that relates to war,
peace, trade, finance, and to the management of
foreign affairs. 9 A letter to Morris on the
establishment of a national bank induced him
to offer Hamilton the place of receiver-general



of Continental taxes, which he accepted and
originated a new system of national taxation.
The receiver's office did not prove congenial,
and he was relieved of its duties by his election
to the Continental Congress from New York

I Oct 1782. Congress proved a disappoint-
ment. Such were the deplorable conditions
then prevailing, the looseness of the Constitu-
tion and the financial chaos of the government,
that Hamilton's efforts to carry through reforms
utterly failed. He resigned from Congress in 1783
and returned to the practice of law in New York,
where his melodious voice, dignified deportment
and unanswerable logic of reasoning, soon placed
him in the highest rank of his profession.

The condition of the States at this time is
graphically depicted by Senator Lodge in his
<Life of Hamilton ) : ^Divided among them-
selves, with no army, no navy, no cohesion*
floundering wilfully and helplessly in a sea of
unpaid debts and broken promises, bankrupt in
money and reputation alike.* To secure some
relief the Annapolis Convention (q.v.) was held

II Sept. 1786, five States only being represented
— New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Dela-
ware and Virginia. Hamilton was one of the
delegates from New York. This convention
adopted an address, drafted by Hamilton, recit-
ing the intolerable conditions and calling for a
convention to meet the following May in Phila-
delphia to form a Federal Constitution. (See
Constitution, Framing op the.) Upon his re-
turn to New York he was elected to the State
Legislature which convened in January 1787,
and began a fight to induce the State to send
delegates to the Philadelphia convention. In
this he succeeded, and three delegates were ap-
pointed, of which Hamilton was one; but the
other two were Anti-Federalists, bitterly op-
posed to Hamilton's idea of a strong general
government When the convention met the
vote of his own State was cast against him on
every question; the Anti-Federalists withdrew
from the convention, leaving New York without
a vote. Hamilton, however, presented his views
of a plan of government to the convention —
an aristocratic republic, with a president and
senators chosen for life, and the State governors
appointed by the Federal government After
the presentation of this plan, which found no
support in the convention, Hamilton withdrew,
only returning to engage in the final debates,
and at the close he heartily embraced the work
of the convention and signed the Constitution
as actually adopted.

The Constitution was still to be ratified by
the States. New York was opposed to its adop-
tion. There were numerous internal strifes and
jealousies, but with great power and determina-
tion, Hamilton combated and won over all op-
ponents in the legislature, and by his essays in
the federalist, 5 assisted by Madison and Jay, he
successfully fought the great battle for the Con-
stitution, winning a hostile majority to its sup-
port. Of these essays George William Curtis
declared they a gave birth to American constitu-
tional law, which was thus placed above arbi-
trary construction and brought into the domain
of legal truth *

Washington was inaugurated President in
April 1789. In September 1789 Congress passed
an act establishing a Treasury Department, and
Washington at one* made Hamilton the first



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ALEXANDER HAMILTON.



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Univ. Library, DC Santa Cruz 2001



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HAMILTON



Secretary of the Treasury. His creative, con-
structive and practical mind was now confronted
with the problem of giving to his country a
workable system of national administration.
With a master's hand he organized the Treasury
Department; reduced the confused finances to
order; provided for a funded system and a
sound system of national taxation; induced
Congress to assume the State debts; authorized
methods for the establishing of a national bank
and a mint, the raising and collection of inter-
nal revenue, the management of the public lands,
and the purchase of West Point by the govern-
ment In 1 791 his Report on Industry and
Commerce appeared, wherein he discussed with
profound ability and clearness the economic
problems of his time, and inaugurated, in a very
moderate way, the protective tariff system. His
methods to strengthen the national government
were vigorously opposed by those antagonistic
to centralization, chief among whom was
Thomas Jefferson (q.v.), and the controversies
that then divided parties have been continued
by the rival political parties to the present En-
grossed as he was with the home affairs of the
government, Hamilton was nevertheless a deep
student of foreign relations and advocated a
position of strict neutrality on the part of the
American government with regard to the diffi-
culties of nations. He ably sustained Wash-
ington in his proclamation of strict neutrality
between France and England, both in the cabinet
and in the public press, and when M. Genet, the
ambassador of the French republic, tried* ty> in-
volve this country in a war with England, Ham-
ilton was vigorous in his condemnation. It was
at this time that Jefferson, then Secretary of
State, took sides with editor Freneau of the
Philadelphia ( National Gazette,* in his criticism
of the administration and especially of the
treasury department. Hamilton replied and the
controversy became typical of the two great po-
litical parties — the Federalists and the Repub-
licans. Jefferson's position in the cabinet was
most uncomfortable and he resigned 1 Jan. 1794.
In 1704 the Whiskey Insurrection (q.v.) occurred
in Pennsylvania in opposition to the excise laws
passed by Congress. Hamilton advised a vigor-
ous policy and when troops were sent by Wash-
ington against the insurgents, Hamilton accom-
panied them and the "rebellion- quickly faded
away.

Desiring to give more attention to his pri-
vate interests Hamilton resigned from the Cab-
inet 31 Jan. 1795. He declined the office of
Chief Justice of the United States Supreme
Court and returned to his law practice in New
York city where he was at once acknowledged
the leader of the bar. But he still Continued to
take an active interest in political affairs. In
1794 Chief Justice John Jay (q.v.) was nom-
inated by Washington as envoy extraordinary to
negotiate a commercial treaty with Great Brit-
ain. With Lord Granville a treaty was drawn
up known as Jay's Treaty (q.v.), the terms of
which were so hard and unjust that when the
treaty was published there was a violent out-
burst of indignation. Hamilton, however, in a
series of essays signed a Camillus,» defended the
treaty as the best obtainable and after a severe
struggle in Congress it was ratified. Washing-
ton thoroughly appreciated the judgment and
genius of Hamilton, often consulted him on im-



portant matters, and received much help from
him in the preparation of his messages and
speeches. The "Farewell Address would have
been less perfect as a composition, 9 says Ren-
wick, "had it not passed through the hands of
Hamilton*

Hamilton had supported John Adams (q.v.)
for the Presidency, but Adams was jealous of
the power and influence of Hamilton over mem-
bers of the Cabinet, and made war upon him,
expelling his friends from office and assailing
him personally. Hamilton blamed Adams for
the loss of the elections in New York State, and
denounced hhn bitterly. Adams was renom-
inated in 1800 for the Presidency, but he was
beaten by Jefferson, and the Federalist party
never won another election. Owing to a de-
fective clause in the Constitution (see Jeffer-
son-Burr Imbroglio) the election was thrown
into the House of Representatives, Jefferson and
Burr having received an equal number of votes.
Hamilton exerted his great influence with the
Federalists and Jefferson was elected.

In 1804 the Federalists nominated Aaron
Burr (<Ly.) for Governor of the State of New
York. The contest was a bitter one and again
Hamilton was instrumental in Burr's defeat,
and the latter challenged him to a duel on the
ground of an alleged insult. Under the idea
that the continuance of his personal influence
and the peculiar condition in which the affairs
of the country were at the time demanded his
acceptance of the challenge, he consented to
meet Burr, and tbe duel was fought at Wee-
hawken, $. J.,* 'i»i July 1804. Hamilton was
wounded and died the following day, univer-
sally mourned by his countrymen.

American history presents no more striking
character than Alexander Hamilton. He was
not popular, nor did he strive after popularity,
but after 100 years his name still holds a noble
eminence. He lived for the public good. Elo-
quent and refined, able and brilliant, the em-
bodiment of devotion, integrity and courage, he
has left as deep a mark upon our political insti-
tutions as any other statesman our country has
produced. Hamilton's works were published by
H. C. Lodge in nine volumes (1885-6) . Con-
sult: Hamilton, ( History of the Republic of the
United States as Traced in the Writings of
Alexander Hamilton and His Contemporaries y
(4th ed. 1879) ; Morse, ( Life of Alexander
Hamilton > (2 vols. 1876) ; Lodge, Alexander
Hamilton> (1882). For his writings, etc., con-
sult <Bibliothica Hamiltonia* (1886).

George Edwin Rines,
Editorial Staff ^Encyclopedia Americana?

Hamilton, Andrew, American lawyer: b.
Scotland about 1676 ; d. Philadelphia 4 Aug.
1741. His early career is unknown. He was
for a time called Trent, and it is not certain at
what period he took the name of Hamilton.
About 1697 he appeared in Accomac County,
Virginia, where he opened a classical school.
In 1716 he went to Philadelphia, the next year
became attorney-general of Pennsylvania. From
1721 to 1724 he was in the provincial council,
and in 1727 was elected from Bucks County
to the provincial assembly, continuing to hold
his seat, with a year's exception, until 1739, and
in 1729 was speaker. He is best known for his
gratuitous defense of John Peter Zenger, a New
York printer, who was charged with libel in



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HAMILTON



publishing in a newspaper owned by him state-
ments regarding the interference by the gov-
ernor with the process of the law-courts. Ham-
ilton's defense was based on the truth of the
statements in the alleged libel. He was success-
ful, was granted the freedom of New York,
and, having thereby secured a freer discussion
of public officers, was termed by Morris the
•day-star of the Revolution. )} He became judge
of the vice-admiralty court of Pennsylvania in
^737.

Hamilton, Anthony, Count, English cour-
tier, and man of letters: b. probably Roscrea,
Tipperary, Ireland, 1646; d. St. Germain-en-
Laye, France, 6 Aug. 1720. He was descended
from a younger branch of the family of the
dukes of Hamilton in Scotland. His parents
were Catholics and Royalists, and removed to
France after the death of Charles I., and young
Hamilton became domiciliated there. He, how-
ever, made frequent visits to England in the
reign of Charles II. His sister was married to
Count Grammont (q.v.). On the ruin of the
royal cause he accompanied James to France,
where he passed the rest of his life. Hamilton
is chiefly known as an author by his < Memoirs
of Count Grammont, J a lively and spirited pro-
duction, exhibiting a free and, in the general
outline, a faithful delineation of the voluptuous
court of Charles II. It is an admirable chron-
icle of the frivolous life of the French and
English courts of that time. His other works
are < Poems ) and c Fairy Tales,* which, as well
as the < Memoirs,* are in French, and are really
masterpieces of grace and sprightliness.

Hamilton. Edward John, American edu-
cator: b. Belfast, Ireland, 20, Nov. 1834. He
was graduated at Hanover College, Indiana, in
1853, and at Princeton Theological Seminary
in 1858; was professor of mental philosophy at
Hanover College in 1868-79, and of philosophy
at Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y. t m 1883-91.
Prom 1895-1900 he was professor of philosophy
in the State University of Washington. He is
the author of what is known as ^erceptionism*
(a system of metaphysical philosophy), and has
published i A New Analysis of Fundamental
Morals* (1870); <The Human Mind> (1883);
<The Modalist> (1883) ; < The Perceptionalist
vr Mental Science ) (1899).

Hamilton, Frank Hastings, American sur-
geon : b. Wilmington, Vt, 10 Sept. 1813 ; d. New
York 11 Aug. 1886. He was graduated from the
medical department of the University of Penn-
sylvania in 1833; in 1861 went to the war as
surgeon of the 31st New York volunteers, was
made brigade surgeon after the battle of Bull
Run, and surgeon of Gen. Keyes' corps in 1862.
A year later he became medical inspector of the
United States army. He was one of the found-
ers of Bellevue Hospital Medical College in
1861, and was professor of surgery there till he
resigned in 1875- Dr. Hamilton was associated
with Drs. Agnew and Bliss in the care of Pres-
ident Garfield. He wrote on the principles and
practice of surgery three works, regarded as
standard on the subjects treated: ( Treatise on
Fractures and Dislocations* (i860); ( Practical
Treatise on Military Surgery* (1861); and
< The Principles and Practice of Surgery*
(1872).

Hamilton, Gail '*e Dodge, Mary Abigail



Hamilton, Gavin, Scottish painter: IT
Lanark, Scotland, 1730; d. Rome, Italy, 1797.
Sent when yery young to Rome, he there devoted
himself during the remainder of his life to
historic painting. One of his greatest works was
his Corner, 1 consisting of a series of pictures
representing scenes taken from the c Iliad.* He
published in 1773 ( Schola Picture Italia;,* com-
posed of a number of fine engravings by Cunego,
making part of the collection of Piranesi; he
there traces the different styles from Leonardo
da Vinci to the Carraccis; all the drawings were
made by Hamilton, and this admirable collection
now forms one of the principal treasures in
the first libraries in Europe. He spent the lat-
ter part of his life in conducting archaeological
excavations in various localities near Rome.

Hamilton, Lord George Francis, English
politician : b. Brighton 1845. He was a Con-
servative member of Parliament for Middlesex
in 1868^85, for Ealing division in 1885-1902. » n
1874-8 was under-secretary of state for India,
and in 1878-80 vice-president of council. In
1885-6, and again in 1886-92 he was first lord of
the admiralty, and from 1895 unt *l nis resigna-
tion in 1903 was secretary of state for India.
His naval reconstruction plan of 1889 was the
most extensive of the kmd ever adopted by
Great Britain. As secretary for India he dis-
played great ability in dealing with the numer-
ous difficulties which arose during his adminis-
tration.

yamilton, James, American statesman: b.
Charleston, S. C, 8 May 1786; d. at sea 15 Nov.
1857. He was educated for the bar, but en-
tered the army and served with credit as a
major in the Canadian campaign of 181 2. At
the end of the war he resumed the practice
of law in Charleston. For several successive
years Hamilton was chosen mayor, or, as it was
then termed, intendant of Charleston. To his
vigilance and activity was chiefly due the de-
tection of a formidable conspiracy in 1822 among
the negro population, led by Denmark Vesey, a
free mulatto from Haiti. In the same year he
was elected to the State legislature, and was
also chosen a representative in Congress, of
which he soon became a prominent and popular
member. He became noted for intense and ener-
getic opposition to the protective system and
favored direct taxation, regarding all indirect
processes for raising revenue as frauds upon the

f>eople, and as disparaging to the popular intel-
ect, as well as popular morals. He quitted
Congress to become governor of South Caro-
lina in 1830, at a period when the State had
resolved upon nullifying the tariff laws of the
federal government. On the settlement of this
question by Clay's compromise, Hamilton re-
tired from public life for a time. Later he be-
came interested in the cause of Texas, to which
he devoted his personal services, and a large
portion of his private fortune. In 1841, while
Texas was an independent republic, he was
her minister to England and France, where he
procured the recognition of her independence.
On the death of Calhoun in 1852, he was ap-
pointed his successor in the United States Sen-
ate, but declined the office.

Hamilton, John Church, American biog-
rapher and historian, son of Alexander Hamil-
ton (q.v.): b. Philadelphia 1792; d. 1882.



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Besides editing his father's works (1851), he
wrote : c Memoirs and Life of Alexander Hamil-
ton (1834-40) ; 'History of the Republic* (4th
ed. 1879) ; 'The Prairie Frovince > (1876),
sketches of travel.

Hamilton, John Taylor, American Mora-
vian clergyman: b. Antigua, W. I., 30 April
1859. He was graduated from the Moravian
College, Bethlehem, Pa., in 1875, and from the
Moravian Theological Seminary there in 1877.
He was pastor of the Second Moravian Church
in Philadelphia, 188 1-6, and has been a resident
professor at the Moravian College and Semi-
nary from the latter date. He has published
< History of the Moravian Church in the United
States * (1895) ; ( History of the Moravian
Church during the 18th and 19th Centuries*
(1900) ; < History of Moravian Missions* (1900).

Hamilton, John William, American Meth-
odist bishop: b. Weston, Va., 18 March 1845.
He was graduated from Mount Union College
(Ohio) in 1865, .and from Boston University in
1871, was ordained an elder of the Methodist
Church in 1870. He was subsequently pastor
of various congregations, including that of the
People's Church, Boston, founded by him. In
1900 he was appointed bishop. He was cor-
responding secretary of the Freedmen's Aid
and Southern Education Society (1802-1900),
and has published ( Memorial of James Lee*
(1875) J c Lives of the Methodist Bishops*
(1883); 'People's Church Pulpit* (1884); and
other works.

Hamilton, Kate Waterman, American nov-
elist: b. Schenectady, N. Y., 12 Nov. 1841.
Since 1870 she has lived in Bloomington, 111.
She is the author of <We Three* ; <Vagabond
and Victor* (1879) ; <Rachers Share of the
Road* (1882) ; ( Tangles and Corners* (1882) ;
<The King's Seal* (1887); <The Parson's
Proxy* (1896); <The Kinkaid Venture* (1900);
<How Donald Kept Faith* (1900) ; etc.

Hamilton, Patrick, Scottish reformer and
martyr: b. probably Glasgow about 1504; d. St
Andrews 29 Feb. 1528. Adopting during a short
residence on the Continent, the principles of
the Reformation, when he settled at St. An-
drews in 1523 he naturally cherished his new
convictions, and in 1526 announced them with a
decision that attracted the notice of Archbishop
Beaton, who proceeded to have him formally
summoned, and put on his trial. Hamilton had
meanwhile fled to Germany, where an intimacy
formed with Luther and Melanchthon deepened
his convictions, and after an absence of six
months he returned to Scotland. He openly
preached in the neighborhood of Linlithgow,
and Beaton, under pretense of a friendly con-
ference, contrived to allure him to St. Andrews
in January, 1528. The early stages of the con-
ference were marked by a conciliatory spirit, but
he was led into damaging avowals of opinion,
and the result of his trial, on the last day of



Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 95 of 185)