Wilfrid Richmond.

The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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ander, a founder of Princeton Theological Sem-
inary. It grants the degrees of bachelor of arts,
bachelor of science, and bachelor of literature.
In 1910 there were in attendance no students.
The library contained 15,000 volumes.

Hampton, Wade, American general: b.
South Carolina 1754; d. Columbia, S. C, 4
Feb. 1835. During the Revolutionary War he
served under Sumter and Marion. He was a
Democratic representative in Congress from
South Carolina 1795-97* and again from 1803 to
1805. In 1809, he was promoted to be brigadier-
general, subsequently was stationed in command
at New Orleans, was superseded; in 1813 he
was raised to the rank of major-general and ap-

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pointed to command the force stationed at Nor-
folk, whence he was shortly afterward ordered
to the northern frontier and placed in command
of the army on Lake Champlain, with directions
to threaten Montreal. The attack on Montreal,
for which 12,000 men had been concentrated near
Lake Champlain, was frustrated by Hampton's
unwillingness to co-operate with his colleague
General Wilkinson, with whom he had been
long at enmity. Hampton resigned his com-
mission 6 April 1 814, and passed the rest of
his life in agricultural pursuits.' He was con-
sidered the wealthiest planter in the United
States, and was reputed to be the owner of
3,000 slaves.

and 15 miles north by west from Norfolk. In
the last of the 16th and first of the 17th cen-
turies the Indian village Kiquotan occupied the
site of the present town of Hampton. John
Smith and Lord Delaware mention (160S-10)
the peaceful friendly Indians of Kiquotan, the
hunters and fishermen; but before 1610 there
were whites living along the shore and in this
Indian village which retained its Indian name
for some time after it became a white settlement.
In the first session of the Virginia House of
Burgesses or Colonial Legislature (1619), the
borough of Hampton was represented. In the
war of 1812 the town was attacked by the Brit-
ish and a large part was burned. In 1861 it
was again burned by the Confederates. The
Church of Saint John, Protestant Episcopal,

Lee's advance northward (1^63), was prominent
at Gettysburg, and later brilliantly opposed
Sheridan's progress in the Shenandoah valley.
He attained the rank of lieutenant-general in
1864, and was placed in command of Lee's en-
tire cavalry forces. In 1865 he commanded J. E.
Johnston's cavalry, and endeavored to prevept
Sherman's northward advance from Savannah.
After the war he was an active reconstruction-
ist; in 1876 was nominated as the Democratic
candidate for governor, and, after a contest re-
garding the election with D. H. Chamberlain,
the Republican nominee, served until 1878, when
he entered the United States Senate. He was
in the Senate until 1891, and in 1893-7 was
United States commissioner of railroads.

Hampton, Iowa, city, county-seat of
Franklin County; on the Chicago G. W., and
the Iowa C. R.R.'s ; about 29 miles by rail south
of Mason City and 60 miles north by west of
Marshalltown. It is situated in an agricultural
and stock-raising region. The chief industrial
establishments are cigar factories and aluminum
works; and its principal trade, in addition to
the manufactured articles, is in grain, tobacco,
live stock, and horses. Pop. (1910) 2,900.

Hampton (formerly Hampton Court-
house), S. C, village, county-seat of Hampton
County; on a branch of the Atlantic C. L., and
the Hampton & Branchville R.R.'s; about 67
miles southeast of Augusta. The village is in
the yellow pine section, but cotton, sweet pota-
toes, and Indian corn are the staple products
of the surrounding farm lands. Its chief manu-
factured article is lumber. Pop. (1910) 748.

Hampton, Va., town, county-seat of Eliza-
beth City County ; on the north shore of Hamp-
ton Roads, on the Chesapeake & O. R.R. ; about
two and a half miles from Fortress Monroe

Hampton Court, England, a royal palace
situated near Hampton, a village of Middlesex,
IS miles southwest of London. The palace ic
about one mile from the village. The original
edifice consisted of five quadrangles, of which
two remain; it was built by Cardinal V/olsey
in 1525, and presented in 1526 to Henry VIIL,
by whom it was subsequently enlarged, and
who formed around it a royal park or chase*
which he enclosed and stocked with deer. A
third quadrangle was added by Sir C Wren for
William III., who laid out the gardens and
park in Dutch style. Hampton Court con-
tains many valuable pictures by Holbein, Lely,
Kneller, West, etc. The gardens comprise about
44 acres, and contain a famous a maze* and
^wilderness.* Hampton Court was inhabited by
successive monarchs and their families until the
reign of George II. Suites of apartments in
Hampton Court palace are now set apart for
persons of rank in reduced circumstances. The
state apartments, picture gallery, gardens, and
home park are open to the public. In 1886 the
palace suffered considerable damage by fire.

Hampton Court Conference, a meeting at
Hampton Court (q.v.), on the 14th, 15th, and
16th of January 1604, which was convened on
the petition of the Puritan ministers to King
James I. for moderation and tolerance on re-
ligious questions. By the composition of the
conference, — on the episcopal side # being the
Archbishop of Canterbury, eight bishops, five
deans, and two doctors, and on the Puritan side
only four representatives, — the king sufficiently
indicated his attitude toward the aims of the
Puritans, and the proceedings consisted chiefly
of adulation of James on the part of the epis-
copal party, and lecturing of the Puritan mem-
bers by King James. A few alterations were
made in the Prayer Book, and a new version of
the Bible was agreed upon, the result being the
authorized version of 161 1.

Hampton Normal and Agricultural Insti-
tute, a school for negroes and ladians.

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opened in 1868, in Hampton, Va., under the
auspices of the American Missionary Associa-
tion. It was chartered by the State in 1870.
The school is owned and controlled by a pri-
vate corporation, administered by 17 trustees.
The charter gives the trustees power to choose
their own successors, and to hold property
without taxation to the amount of $800,000. In
1875 the General Assembly of Virginia passed
an act giving the Institute one third of the
agricultural college land-grant of Virginia (see
Colleges, Land-Grant) amounting to 100,000
acres, which was sold for $95,000 and which
pays regular annual interest. The school was
first opened in an old barracks (used during
the Civil War), with two teachers and 15 pupils.
It now owns 188" acres on Hampton River,
upon which have beeil erected dormitories,
a library, class-room buildings, a church,
gymnasium, saw and planing-mill, shops, hos-
pital, domestic-science school, trade school, — in
all numbering 60 buildings. The Institute owns
also a stock farm of 600 acres, about five miles
from the school. The farm land, and the work-
shops where trades are taught, furnish occupa-
tion for the boys and young men. The girls
are instructed and employed in sewing and
cooking classes, in all the domestic work of
the school, and wherever possible learning
trades side by side with the boys. In 1806 the
Armstrong and Slater Memorial Trade School
aras opened. (See Negro, Education op the.)
In this school is taught the theory and practice
of blacksmithing, carpentry, house painting,
tailoring, and general repairing. The pupils
are taught also, mechanical, civil, electrical, and
mining engineering. On the farms they are
taught how to care for stock, how to raise dif-
ferent crops, and the theory and practice of
farming in general. The students are charged
$10 a month for board, which is largely paid
in labor. They are expected to provide their
own books and clothing, and for the tuitions,
buildings, furniture, and the implements used on
the farms and in the shops, the school is de-
pendent on the charity of the country. In 1878,
15 Indians, who had been prisoners of war at
Saint Augustine, Fla., and in charge of Capt.
R. H. Pratt, were admitted as students. Since
then the Indian department has increased stead-
ily, the pupils being chiefly from the Sioux
tribe, of whom two thirds make a fair or good
record. The youny men of the school are or-
ganized into six military companies, all forming
one battalion. This places the young men
under military discipline. The ( Southern
Workmen, } a monthly school periodical, is
edited, printed, and managed by the pupils with
only a general supervision by one of the teach-
ers. The vacation is from June to October for
all except the pupils in the industrial depart-
ments, which continue work all the year. During
the regular long vacation a large number of the
colored teachers of the South assemble here for
a summer school. For the past ten years the
average attendance at these summer schools
has been nearly 500. .The graduates number
about 1,545, more than halY of whom are teach-
ing in the colored schools of the South. In
1905-6 the number of pupils in the Hampton
Institute was 1,383, about 00 per cent of whom
were in the industrial and preparatory depart-
ments, the remainder in the college department.

The faculty, instructors and officers numbered
165. The library contains about 18,195 vol-
umes. Many of the graduates are engaged in
farming or working at trades; some are teach-
ing. Booker T. Washington (q.v.), of the class
of 1875, is the most noted graduate. Hampton's
endowments amount to about $1,100,000. The
annual income is about $170000, and comes
from the Government Indian Funds, the Slater
and Peabody Funds, the State land-grant and
agricultural funds, and from private dona-

Hampton Roads, Va., a broad deep chan-
nel which connects the estuary of the James
River with Chesapeake Bay; really a part of
the estuary which is at the mouths of the James,
Elizabeth, and Nansemond rivers. Some of
the good harbors along the shore are Norfolk
and Portsmouth on the south ; Hampton, on the
Hampton Creek, an arm of the Hampton Roads,
on the north. At the entrance are Forts Mon-
roe and Wool. On the north side of the en-
trance is Thimble Shoal light, at lat 37 42' N.
and Ion. 76 14' 5" W. A large number of
railroads have terminals on Hampton Roads,
especially at Norfolk. This estuary, or channel,
is considered of great military importance. Dur-
ing the Civil War its advantages as a military
station were demonstrated. On Hampton Roads
occurred the battle of Hampton Roads (q.v.),
the first engagement between ironclads.

Hampton Roads, Battle of. Hampton
Roads was the rendezvous of several important
naval and military expeditions during the war,
and the scene of two memorable encounters.
On 8 March 1862 the Confederate ram Mem-
mac (or Virginia) left her anchorage at Nor-
folk, 12 miles from Fort Monroe, steamed down
Elizabeth River and, with her consorts, five in
number, attacked the Union fleet of five vessels
in the roads, destroying the Congress and Cum-
berland, which lost over 250 men, and then re-
tired to the mouth of Elizabeth River. Next
morning the Merrimac returned to the roads to
complete the destruction of the Union fleet, but
was met by the Monitor, which had arrived the
night before from New York, and a novel naval
battle ensued, resulting in the return of the
Merrimac to Norfolk and the saving of the re-
mainder of the Union fleet See Monitor and

E. A. Carman.

Hampton Roads Conference, an informal
conference held 3 Feb. 1865, between President
Lincoln and Secretary of State Seward, repre-
senting the United States government, and
Vice-President Alexander H. Stephens, Senator
Robert M. T. Hunter, and Assistant Secretary
of War John A. Campbell, representing the
Confederate States. The meeting took place
on board the River Queen, near Fort Monroe,
and its object was the arrangement of a peace
between the North and South. The originator
of this conference was Francis P. Blair (q.v.)
who thought a combination of North and South
against Maximilian in Mexico, in enforcement
of the Monroe doctrine, would bring in peace
by a diversion. President Lincoln refused to
join the conference excepting with a view to the
restoration of union, and on the understanding
that the Emancipation Proclamation was to

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stand without qualification. He disapproved of
a joint action against the French in Mexico.
The conference lasted for four hours, but broke
up without reaching any definite conclusion.

Hamstring. See Anatomy; Muscles.

Han-yang, han-yang'. See Hankow.

Han'aford, Phebe Ann Coffin, American
Universalist minister: b. Nantucket, Mass., 6
May 1829. In 1849 she was married to J. H.
Hanaford, a teacher. She was the first woman
ordained to the ministry in New England and
since her ordination in 1868 has held pastorates
in Hingham and .Waltham, Mass., New Haven,
Conn., and Jersey City. She has been indus-
trious as a writer, among her many published
works being <Life of Abraham Lincoln > ; <Life
of George Peabody > ; <Lucretia the Quakeress > ;
< Leonette, or Truth Sought and Found > ; <The
Best of Books and its History > ; < Frank Nelson,
the Runaway Boy> ; < The Soldier's Daughter* ;
< Field, Gunboat, and Hospital* ; l Women of
the Century* ; <From Shore to Shore, and Other
Poems * ; etc.

Han'cock, John, American statesman: b.
Braintree, Mass., 23 Jan. 1737 ; cL Quiney, Mass.,
8 Oct. 1793. He was graduated at Harvard
College in 1754, but shortly after entered the
counting house of an uncle, on whose death
in 1764 he received a fortune of i8o,ooo. After
1766 he was several times elected to the Massa-
chusetts General Court. It was the seizure of
his sloop, the Liberty, that occasioned the riot
in 1768, when the royal commissioners of cus-
toms narrowly escaped with their lives. After
the so-called * Boston massacre,* in 1770, he
was a member of the committee to demand of
. the royal governor the removal of the troops
from the city, and at the funeral of the slain
delivered an address which greatly offended the
governor, who now endeavored to seize the per-
sons of Hancock and Samuel Adams. Both
were members of the Provincial Congress at
Concord and later of that at Cambridge, and
Hancock was president of each. This arrest is
said to have been one of the objects of the
expedition to Concord which led to the first
battle of the revolution after which Gage offered
pardon to all the rebels except these two, ^whose
offences,* he added a are of too flagitious a
nature to admit of any other consideration but
that of condign punishment.* In 1775 Hancock
was chosen president of the Continental Con-

?ress, and in 1776 signed the Declaration of
t ndependence. He resigned from the presidency
in 1777, but was a member of the Congress until
1780, and again in 1785-6. With rank of major-
general, he commanded the Massachusetts forces
in the Rhode Island expedition, in 1780 was a
member of the Massachusetts constitutional con-
vention, and under that constitution was in 1780
chosen first governor. To this office, with an
interval of two years (1785-7) he was annually
re-elected till his death. Hancock Was a man
of strong common sense and great decision of
character, of polished manners, easy address,
affable, liberal, and charitable. His personal
vanity, and his jealousy were at times con-
spicuous, but he was a sincere patriot, and of
much ability. John Adams said of him: *He
was by no means a contemptible scholar or
orator. Compared with Washington, General

Lincoln, or Knox, he was learned.* See A. E.
Brown, c John Hancock: his Book > (1898).

Hancock, Winfield Scott, American sol-
dier: b. Montgomery Square, Pa., 14 Feb. 1824;
d. Governor's Island, New York harbor, 9 Feb.
1886. He was graduated from the United State*
military academy in 1844, and after frontier ser-
vice in the Sixth infantry fought with credit in
the Mexican war, was successively regimental
adjutant and quartermaster in 1848-55, and
briefly assistant adjutant-general to the Depart-
ment of the West. Appointed assistant-quarter-
master with rank of captain in 1855, he was
stationed at Fort Myers, Fla., during the Semi-
nole disturbances, and in 1857-8 was in Kansas,
whence, after service, in the border troubles,
he was ordered successively to Utah and Cali-
fornia. In 1859-61 he was chief quartermaster
of the southern district of California, with head-
quarters at Los Angeles. At the beginning oi
the Civil War, he was commissioned brigadier-
general of volunteers, and assigned to the com^
mand of a brigade in Smith's division, Fourth
corps, Army of the Potomac. He distinguished
himself at Williamsburg and during the second
day's fight at Antietam (17 -Sept 1862) was
placed in command of the 1st division, Second
army corps. Promoted major-general, U. S. V.
(November 1862), he commanded his division
at Fredericksburg in the attack on Marye's
Heights, on which occasion he lost 2,013 from a
total of 5*006 troops. He largely saved the day
at Chancellorsville (2-^4 May 1863), and shortly

Hancock, Mich., village in Houghton
County; on Lake Portage, and on the Duluth,
'S. S. & A. railroad; opposite Houghton (q.v.).
Although the northern part of Michigan and
this region had been explored by missionaries
in the 17th century, the first permanent settle-
ment was made in Hancock in 1859, and the
village was incorporated in 1863. It is situated
in a section rich in minerals, the Lake Superior
copper belt The Calumet and the Hecla copper
mines are nearby, and the village has foundries,
machine-shops, smelters, stamp-mills, lumber and
brick yards. A ship-canal to Lake Superior
brings a large portion of the lake traffic to and

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from Duluth and Superior through the *short
cut,* by way of Hancock. It is the seat of a
Finnish college. The government is vested in
a president, whose term of office is one year,
and a village council who are elected by the
people. The village owns and operates the
waterworks. Pop. (1910) 8,081.

Hancock, N. Y., village in Delaware
County; at the junction of the two branches
of the Delaware River, on the' Erie and the N.
Y., O. & W. R.R/s. Nearby are bluestone

Suarries, which add to the industrial wealth of
le village. Hancock has flour-mills, tanneries,
a wood alcohol factory, and large lumber-yards.
It is a trade centre for an extensive agricultural
region. Pop. (1910) 1,329.

Hancock, Mount, a peak of the Big Game
Range, in the southern part of the Yellowstone
National Park, on the boundary between the
Park and Wyoming. It is on the western border
of Two Ocean Plateau, a portion of the con-
tinental divide. The Snake River (q.v.) has
its rise on the east side of Mount Hancock,
flows north by west, then south by west around
and almost circling the mountain. Mount Han-
cock is 10,235 feet in height.

Hand, Edward, American revolutionary
soldier: b. Clyduff, King's County, Ireland, 31
Dec. 1744; d. Rockford, Lancaster County, Pa.,
3 Sept 1802. In 1774 he came to America as
surgeon's mate in the 18th Royal Irish regiment,
but he later resigned and entered medical prac-
tice in Pennsylvania. At the outbreak of the
Revolutionary War, he became a lieutenant-
colonel in Gen. WilHam Thompson's brigade,
participated in the siege of Boston, and in 1777
was appointed brigadier-general. In 1778 he
succeeded General Stark in the command at
Albany, and later took part in General Sullivan's
expedition against the Iroquois. He sat in Con-
gress in 1784-5, and signed the Pennsylvania
constitution in 1700.

Hand. The human hand is composed of
27 bones, namely eight bones of the carpus or
wrist arranged in two rows of four each, the
row next the fore-arm containing the scaphoid,
the semilunar, the cuneiform, and the pisiform,
and that next the metacarpus, the trapezium,
the trapezoid, the os magnum, and the unciform.
The metacarpus consists of the five bones which
form the palm, the first being that of the thumb,
the others that of the fingers in succession.
Lastly, the fingers proper contain 14 bones called
phalanges, of which the thumb has but two, all
the other digits having three each. These bones
are jointed so as to admit of a variety of move-
ments, the more characteristic being those by
which the hand is flexed backward, forward,
and sideways, and by which the thumb and fin-
ders are moved in different ways.

**The chief muscles which determine these
movements are the "flexors, 1 * which pass down
the fore-arm, are attached by tendons to the
phalanges of the fingers, and serve to flex or
bend the fingers; and the "extensors** for ex-
tending the fingers. There are two muscles
which flex all the fingers except the thumb. The
thumb has a separate long and short flexor.
There is a common extensor for the fingers
which passes down the back of the fore-arm and
divides at the wrist into four tendons, one for
each finger, each being attached to all three

phalanges. The fore-finger and little finger have,
in addition, each an extensor of its own, and
the thumb has both a short and a long extensor.
The tendons of the muscles of the hand are in-
terlaced and bound together by ban^s and apo-
neurotic fibres, and from this results a more or
less complete unity of action. It is sometimes
difficult to make a movement with a single
finger without the others taking part in it, as
in executing instrumental music, for instance;
but practice gives to these movements perfect in-

Of all the movements of the hand the op-
position of the thumb to the other fingers, alone
or united, especially characterizes the human
hand. This action of the thumb results from its
length, from the first metacarpal bone not being
placed on the same plane as the other four, as
is the case in the monkey, and from the action
of a muscle — the long flexor of the thumb —
peculiar to the human hand. This muscle com-
pletes the action of the other motor of the thumb
and permits man to hold a pen, a graver, or a
needle ; it gives to his hand the dexterity neces-
sary in the execution of the most delicate work.
Properly speaking then, the hand, with its highly
specialized muscles, belongs to man alone. It
cannot be considered, as in- the ape, as a normal
organ of locomotion. It is essentially the or-
gan of touch and prehension. It molds itself
to a body to ascertain its form ; it comes to the
aid of the eye in completing or rectifying its
impressions. The functions of touch devolve
principally on its anterior or palmar face, the
nervous papillae abounding specially at the ends
of the fingers. A layer of adipose tissue very
dose in texture protects, without lessening its
power or its • delicacy, the network of muscles,
vessels, and nerves with which this remarkable
organ is equipped.

Hand'ball, a popular game of ball, the
bare hand only being used. The game is indig-
enous to Ireland, but has been transplanted to
America, where are the most expert players.
Two or four men can play, one or two on a
side. As far as is known the game of handball
came to the United States about 1840, and has
since become one of the sports under the regu-
lations of the Amateur Athletic Union. The
game consists of scoring the ball against a
single back wall, with a lined-out space of 6b
feet in front The ball coming from the wall
must fall between these two lines to be in play.
The' game is simply to strike the ball on the
rebound with the hand.

Han'del, George Frederick, (properly Gkorg
Friedrich Haendbl), English composer: b.
Halle, Saxony, 23 Feb. 1685 : d. London 20 April
1759- His father, intending him for the law, dis-
couraged the strong passion which he evinced
early in life for the science of music But al-
though forbidden the use of musical instruments,
the younff musician contrived to hide a small
clavichord in a garret, where he amused himself
during great part of the night after the rest of
the family had retired, and made such progress
that, when at seven he accompanied his father
to the court of Saxe-Weissenfels, he played on
the church organ with such power and effect
that the duke, who accidentally witnessed his
performance, used his influence successfully
with his father to permit him to follow his in-
clination. He was accordingly placed under

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