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University of California.

FROM 1'HK I.IDKAK'i

!)R. FRANCIS L I E B I^R ,
: Hi-tory and Law in Columbia College, Now York.



GIFT OF

MICHAEL REESE,

73.



noil latin.



AOOLD'S CLASSICAL SERIES,

I.

A FIRST AND SECOND LATIN BOOK

1ND PRACTICAL GRAMMAR. By THOMAS K. ARNOLD, A. M. Revised and caiefully

Corrected, by J. A. Spencer, A. M. One vol. 12mo., 75 eta.

n.
LATIN PROSE COMPOSITION:

A Practical Introduction to Latin Prose Composition. By THOMAS K. AHNOLD, A. M*
Revised and Corrected by J. A. Spencer, A. M. 12mo., $1.

III.

FIRST GREEK BOOK;

jVltb Easy Exercised and Vocabulary. By THOMAS K. ARNOLD, A. M. Revised and Oof
reeled by J A. Spencer, A. M. 12mo., 75 cts.

IV.

GREEK PROSE COMPOSITION:

A Practical Introduction to Greek Prose Composition. By THOMAS K. ARKOLD, A. BL
Revised ami Corrected by J. A. Spencer, A. M. One vol. 12rao., 75 cts.

V.

GREEK READING BOOK,

For the L'se of Schools ; containing the substance of the Practical Introduction to Greek Cott

etruing, and a 1 realise on the Greek Particles, by the Rev. THOMAS K. ARNOLD,

A. M., and also a Copious Selection from Greek Authors, with English

Notes, Critical and Explanatory, and a Lexicon, by

J. A. Spencer, A. M. 12mo., $1 25

VL

CORNELIUS NEPOS;

With Practical Questions and Answers, and an Imitative Exercise on each Chapter. By

THOMAS K. ARNOLD, A. M. Revised, with Additional Notes, by Prof. Johnson,

Professor of the Latin Language in the University of the City of

New-York. 12mo. A new, enlarged edition, with

Lexicon, Index, &c., $1.

"ARNOLD'S GREEK AND LATIN SERIES. The publication of this valuable collection of
classical school books may be regarded as the presage of better things in respect to the mode of
teaching and acquiring languages. Heretofore boys have been condemned to the drudgery of
going over Latin and Greek Grammar without the remotest conception of the value of what
they were learning, and every day becoming more arid more disgusted with the dr^ and un-
meaning task ; but now, by Mr. Arnold's admirable method substantially the same with that 01
lllendorff the moment they take up the study of Latin or Greek, they begin to learn sentences.
lo acquire ideas, to see how the Romaas and Greeks expressed themselves, how their mode of
expression differed from ours, and by degrees they lay up a stock of knowledge which is utterly
a^ioni^hing to those who have dragged on moath after month in the old-fashioned, dry, ana
tedious way of learning languages.

" Mr. Arnold, in fact, has had the good sense to adopt the system of nature. A child learn
his own language by imitating what he hears, and constantly repeating it till it is fastened ~
the memory ; in the same way Mr. A. puts the pupil immediately to work at Exercises in Lat__
and Greek, involving the elementary principles of the language words are supplied the mode



the memory ; in the same way Mr. A. puts the pupil immediately to work at Exercises in Latin
and Greek, involving the elementary principles of the language words are supplied the mode
of nutting them together is told the pupil lie is shown how the ancients expressed their ideas,
and the r i, by repeating these things again and again iterum iterumque the docile pupil haa



them indelibly impressed upon his memory and rooted in his understanding.

" The American Editor is a thorough classical scholar, and has been a practical teacher for
years in this city. He has devoted the utmost care to a complete revision of Mr. Arnold's works,
has corrected several errors of inadvertence or otherwise, has rearranged and improved various
matters in the early volumes of the series, and has attended most diligently to the accurate prim-
ing and mechanical execution of the whole. We anticipate most confidently the speedy adoption
of these works in our schools and colleges."

V Arnold's Scries of Classical Works has attained a circulation almost unparalleled, being
Introduced into nearly all the Colleges and leading Educational Institutions in the United State*.

30



fnglisjj.

MANUAL

OP

MODERN GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY.

BY WILHELM PUTZ,

AntkJT of Manuals of " Ancient Geography and History," u Medictval Geography and
History," $c.

TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN. REVISED AND CORRECTED.

One volume, 12mo. SI.

Preface. The present volume completes the series of Professor PLitz's Handbooks ol
Ancient, Medieval, and Modem Geography and History. Its adaptation to the wants ol itis
student will be found to bo no less complete than was to be expected from the .trmer 1 arts,
which have Ix-en highly approved by the public, and have been translated into several Ian-
ruaces besides the Knelish The difficulty of compressing within the limits of a single volumt
the vast amount of historical material furnished by the progress of modern states and nations
in power, wealth, science, and literature, will be evident to all on reflection ; and they wiK
find occasion to admire the skill and perspicacity of the Author of this Handbook, not only in
the arrangement, but also in the facts and statements which he has adopted.

a ln the American edition several improvements have been made ; the sections relating to
America and the United States havs been almost entirely re- written, and materially enlargt-d
and improved, as seemed on every account necessary and proper in a work intended for general
use in this country ; on several occasions it has been thought advisable to make certain verbal
corrections and emendations: the facts and dates have been verified, and a number of explan
atory notes have been introduced. It is hoped that the improvements alluded to will be lound
to add to the value of the present Manual."



FIRST LESSONS IN COMPOSITION.

IK WHICH THE PRINCIPLES OP THE ART ARE DEVELOPED IN CONNECTION WITH
THE PRINCIPLES OF GRAMMAR;

Embracing full Directions on the subject of Punctuation : with copious
Exercises.

BY. G. P. QUACKENBOS, A.M.
Rector of the Henry Street Grammar School, N. Y.

One volume, 12mo. 45 cts.

EXTRACT FROM PREFACE.

** A county superintendent of common school*, speaking of the important branch of com-
position, uses the following language : 'Fora long time 1 nave noticed with regret the almost
entire neglect of th art of original composition in our common schools, and the want of a
proper text l xk upon this essential branch of education. Hundreds graduate from ourcomimwi
schools with no well-defined ideas of the construction of our language ' The writei mi<rm
have gone further, and said that multitudes graduate, not only from common schools, but
from mme of our best pnvate institutions, utterly destitute of all practical acquaintance with
the subject : that to many such the composition of a single letter is an irksome, to some an
almost impossible task. Yet the reflecting mind must admit that it is only this practical appli-
cation of grammar that renders that an useful that parsing is secondary to composing, and
the analysis of our language almost unimportant when compared with its synthesis.

'On great reason of th* nrtrlrct noticed above, has, no doubt, been the want of a suitable

text-bonL on he su'tjef t. Dunn!! the years of the Author's experience as a teacher, he ha

examined, and practically tested the various works on composition with which he has mrl .

the result has been a conviction that, while there are several publications well calculated to

> pupils at the age of fifteen or MV.-.-II. there it not one suited to the comprehension

T (hone between nine nnd twelve: at which lime it is hi derided opinion that this branch

fcou'A or taken up. ! her has been obliged either to make the scholar labor

through a work entirely loo difficult for him. to give him exercise* not founded on any regulai

i the branch altogether and the disadvantages of eithftr of these courses

are at on<

' It i this c.invinion, founded on the experience not only of the Author, but of many

iher teachers with whom he has c.it.'ulted, that has led to the production of ihe work now

flersd to the public, It claims to be a first-book in compos, in. ..nd is intended to initiate

beginner, by easy and pleasant step*, into thai ail Important, but hitherto generally ncg-

6



MANUAL



OF



ANCIENT
GEOGRAPHY AID HISTORY.



BY



WILHELM PtiTZ,

PRINCIPAL TUTOR AT THE GYMNASIUM OF DUKE*.



TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN.



EDITED BY THE REV.

THOMAS KERCHEVER ARNOLD, M. A,

RECTOR OF LYNDON, AND LATE FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE,
CAMBRIDGE.



SECOND AMERICAN,
REVISED AND CORRECTED FROM THE LONDON EDITION.



NEW-YOEK :

D. APPLETON & COMPANY, 200 BROADWAY.
1851.



ffc



ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1849, by
D. APPLKTON & COMPANY,

in Uw Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District
of New- York.



PREFACE

TO THE SECOND EDITION.



THE first edition of this work was a reprint of the English
edition, with a feAV verbal alterations and occasional corrections.
But the favor with which it has been received has induced the
publishers to have it carefully revised, and it now appears with
material improvements. The most important is in the references
for a fuller course of study, English authorities having been
substituted for the German, except where there was a translation
of the German work. This, it is believed, will give the list a
practical value which it could not have, so long as it was filled
with works that few of those, into whose hands such a book will
fall, would be able either to obtain or to understand. And it is
with pleasure and pride that we have inserted among these re-
ferences the " History of Roman Liberty," by Mr. Eliot a work
of singular beauty and of great learning, and which, by the puri-
ty and elevation of its views, is one of the safest and most useful
guides to a correct estimate of the results and processes of an-
cient history.

C. W. G.
Brown University, May 21, 1850.



PREFACE

TO THE AMERICAN EDITION.



ONE of the most encouraging features in our system of educa-
tion, is the attention which is given to the study of history. Other
branches address themselves more directly to our personal interests,
and are mixed up with the daily concerns of life. Every man must
read and write, if it be only to read the newspapers or write an
advertisement. Arithmetic and geography will be studied as long
as there are accounts to make up, or products to send to market.
And railroads, and steamboats, and the thousand arts of polished
society will always insure the cultivation of the exact, as well as
of the experimental sciences. These are the conditions of every
well-organized state which man can no more refuse to fulfil, than
he can refuse to obey any other law of his nature.

But history, as a serious study, stands upon different grounds,
and addresses itself to a principle, which is neither developed so
early, nor so universally acknowledged. Not but what most men
acknowledge its importance as a record of the past, and feel some-
thing of the same kind of interest in it, that they do in any other
exciting tale ; but its connection with the present, the light which it
throws upon what we ourselves are doing every day of our lives, its
checkered narrative of human hopes and disappointments, and its
manifold lessons of encouragement and of warning, are less gene-
rally accepted, and often not even understood. They are classed
among doubtful things, which, study as much as we may, we can
never make perfectly sure. Characters are said to be distorted by
party prejudice, because no two men agree exactly in their judg-
ments of them : and facts to be wholly unsusceptible of proof, be-
cause every witness tells his story in his own way. And yet, there
is scarcely an important event of our lives, in which we do not look
back to our own experience, or to that of others, for some example



iv PREFACE.

to go by ; and the gravest questions of life are decided every day, by
the same ales of testimony, that every judicious historian applies to
history. If one man calls Napoleon a selfish usurper, and another,
the greatest of the moderns, it is not history that is at fault. The
landscape is none the less beautiful because you have no eye to see
it with : nor is truth any the less sure, because your line will not
reach to the bottom of the well. Raleigh is said to have burnt the
unpublished half of his history, because of two or three persons who
undertook to describe an occurrence in the Tower court, which he
had also watched from his prison window, each gave a different
version of it,, and his own differed from them all. But what jury
would dare to bring a verdict, if this were to be their standard 1 or
what judge could pronounce sentence or instruct a jury, without
dreading that he might be sending an innocent man to punishment,
or letting a villain loose upon the world 1 Let us judge past events
as we do those that are passing under our own eyes ; let us try to
give life to our conceptions by comparing them with our experience ;
and above all, let us remember that the master art of doubting, can
never be learned by any but those, who are carefully trained in the
science of belief.

It is only when we take partial views of history, that these
objections seem unanswerable. Look broadly over it, not as a
record of incidents, but as a connected series of developments,
through which the human race has passed, in its progress from the
incomplete civilization of the ancients, to that diffusion of know-
ledge, those higher conceptions, that earnestness of endeavor and
that hopeful trust in the future, which characterize our own age, and
you will readily find an answer to every one of them. For you will
see, that although here and there, a detail may escape us, the general
tenor of the narrative corresponds with the result : that what seems
obscure while standing by itself, becomes clear and definite the
moment that you put it in its proper place ; that men and events
look very differently when taken in that natural connection which
gives you the motives of the one and the causes of the other: and.
that if one or two chapters only serve to sadden us, the whole
volume will inspire us with trust and hope. Nothing makes worse
citizens than despondency, and there is nothing which political de-
spondency grows on, like those half-way views of life, which we are
inevitably led to form, by only looking around us or only looking
behind, without feeling how the past and the present work together
in moulding the future. If you would make good citizens, firm,



PREFACE. V

hopeful, and earnest, teach them their duties to the future by teach-
ing them their obligations to the past. Life itself will tell them
what they owe to the present ; and what may not a country hope
from men grateful to their fathers, true to themselves, and who know
what a joy there is in making the future too our own.

Hence, we look upon the place which history has at last won in .
our elementary studies, as a peculiarly hopeful feature of them. We
feel more confidence in the principles and the judgment c f the rising
generation, from knowing that they are to be formed by the lessons
of this great teacher; and acknowledging, as we unhesitatingly do,
the claims of every other branch of knowledge, we feel that our
firmest hopes must be drawn from this, which is, at once, the judge
and the recorder of them all.

But to do this, history must be studied as a science. She must
not be considered merely as a record of phenomena, but as an ex-
ponent of laws. As a narrative of facts, no man would have the
time to study even the history of a single nation thoroughly : but as
the science of humanity, any man may read the world's history, and
read it well. There have been a thousand insignificant things and
insignificant men in every age : and with these, history has seldom
any thing to do. They may serve to fill up a gap in chronology, or
form a kind of stepping-stone from one point to another. But your
passage over the stream would be very slow, if you were to stop
and examine every stone that gave you a footing ; and your history
would be very dull, if you were to give every man and every thing
a place in it.

Now to see what really deserves a place, you must see what
relation the parts bear to one another : and to see what kind of a
place you can give it, you must get upon some eminence, from
which you can look down upon them all and see how much room
the whole fills up. And as in geography you begin by marking out
the great divisions of land and water, before you attempt to trace
the course of mountains or rivers, or to fix the sites of towns and the
boundaries of nations, so your true starting point in history, is by
mapping out those great successions of empires and of races, which
show the part which each has performed in the progressive develop-
ment of society. Then every fact falls into its proper place, and
events class themselves in your mind, according to their due propor-
tions. You know what to look for, and where to go ; and feeling
yourself at home in the great world of history, can choose out for
yourself the parts that you wish to study with greater accuracy, and



VI PREFACg.

study them by themselves without losing sight of their bearing upon
the whole.

It is with a view to facilitate this method of historical study, that
the series of which the present volume forms a part, is offered to the
public. The first steps are strictly elementary. This little volume
contains a clear and definite outline of the history of the principal
nations of antiquity. To render it still more clear, a concise geogra-
phy of each country has been added, in which, without entering into
minute details, all the important features of its physical aspect have
been carefully marked. The enumeration of the sources from which
we derive our knowledge of them, will familiarize the student's mind
with this interesting part of literary history, and show him, from the
beginning, how many irreparable losses we have suffered, and how
much labor it has required to form that which has been preserved to
us, into a definite and instructive picture of the past.

It was neither consistent with the plan of the work, nor tbs stage
of progress for which it was designed, to enter into a fuller narrative
of events. The history of each nation is given with as much brevity
as is consistent with clearness, and with as much detail as its relative
importance required. Where the whole is treated upon so limited a
scale, much is intentionally left for the instructor to supply ; and
something too for the student. For the former can never gain a firm
hold upon his pupils by confining himself exclusively to his text-
book ; and the latter will lose all the discipline of historical study,
unless they are early accustomed to carry out an inquiry and use
books of reference for themselves. The admirable treatises of
Bojesen on Greek and Roman Antiquities, should be taken in con-
nection with those parts of the volume which relate to Greece and
Rome ; and a fuller historical narrative for consultation, or for a
more advanced stage of study, will soon be laid before the public in
the series which has already been announced.

GEO. W. GREENE.

Brown Univernty, April 11, 1849.



CONTENTS.



INTRODUCTION.

PAQ&

HISTORY its sources .... 1
Handmaids of History :

I. Geography . . . . 2

II. Chronology ..... 2

The most remarkable Forms of the Year . 2

The most important historical jEras . 4

III. Genealogy . .... 5

Divisions of History Methods of History . . 5



FIRST DIVISION. ASIA.

Preliminary Remarks . ... 5

A. GEOGRAPHICAL VIEW OF ASIA.

1. Boundaries ...... 6

2. The principal Mountains ... 6

3. Seas, Gulfs, and Straits Lakes Rivers . .7

4. Ancient division of Asia . . . 7

B. PARTICULAR STATES.

I. THE ISRAELITES.

Sources of Information . . . . 8

5. Geography of Palestine :

Names ...... 8

Boundaries Mountains Waters Climate . 9

Its divisions at different times . . .10

Cities in Judaea .... 10

in Samaria . . . .10

in Galilee ; .11



Vlii CONTENTS.

FAG*

6. History of the Israelites :

I. From Adam to Noah . . .11

II. From Noah to Abraham . . . 12

III. From Abraham to the conquest of Palestine . 13
The Mosaic Laws: 1. Religious; 2. Civil 15

IV- From the conquest of Palestine to the esta-
blishment of the monarchy Period of the

Judges . . 17

V. From the establishment of the monarchy to

the separation of the two kingdoms . 18

VI. The kingdoms of Judah and Israel . 21

VII. The Israelites under the rule of the Persians . 22

$ 7. Literature, Arts, and Sciences ... 23

II. THE INDIANS.

Sources of Information . . . .24

4 8. Geography of Ancient India :

Name and Boundaries . . . .24

Face of the Country and Rivers . . 25

The Islands . . . .25

Productions Inhabitants ... 26

9. Fragments of the Ancient History of India . . 26

10. Religion, political Condition, Literature, &c. of the

ancient Indians . . . . .27

III. THE BABYLONIANS.

Sources of Information . . . .31

$11. Geography of Babylon:

Situation Soil Rivers Cities . . .32

Buildings of Babylon .... 33

12. History of the Babylonians . . . .33

13. Religion, Literature, &c. of the Babylonians . 35

IV. THE ASSYRIANS.

Sources of Information .... 37

14. Geography of Assyria:

Name and Situation Soil Cities . . 37

15. "History of the Assyrians ... 38

16. Religion, Literature, &c. of the Assyrians . . 40

V. THE MEDES.

Sources of Information . . 41

$ 17. Geography of Media :

Boundaries Soil . . 41



CONTENTS. IX

PAGE

18. History of the Medes . . 41

Various Accounts of the relation which Cyrus Dore to

Astyages . . . . . -.43

19. Religion, Literature, &c. of the Medes . . 43

VI. THE PERSIANS.

Sources of Information . . . .44

20. Geography of the Persian Empire . , 45
Countries belonging to the Persian Empire :

A. On this side the Euphrates . . .45

B. Between the Euphrates and Tigris . 46

C. Between the Tigris and the Indus . . 46

D. The Alpine Country between Oxus and laxartes 48

21. A. History of the Persians before Cyrus . . 48
B. History of the Persians from Cyrus to the dissolution

of the Empire . . 48

22. Religion, Constitution, &c. of the Persians . 58

VII. THE PHCENICIANS.

Sources of Information . . . .59

23. Geography of Phoenicia .... 60

24. Foreign Settlements of the Phoenicians . . 60
General View of the Phoenician Colonies . 60

25. Fragments of Phoenician History . . .61

26. Religion, Inventions, Commerce, Arts and Manufactures

of the Phoenicians . .63



VIII. THE STATES OF ASIA MINOR.

Sources of Information . . . .65
27. Geography of Asia Minor :

Name Soil Rivers .... 65

Divisions and Cities . . . .66

28 History of the Kingdom of Lydia . . . 67



SECOND DIVISION. AFRICA.

Preliminary Remarks . . . . .68

A. GEOGRAPHICAL VIEW OF AFRICA.

29. Boundaries * . 69

30. The Soil 69

31. Seas, Lakes, and Rivers .... 69

32. Division of Africa . 70



X CONTENTS.

B. THE STATES OF AFRICA.

I. THE ETHIOPIANS.

FAGK

Sources of Information . . . .70
33. Geography of Ethiopia :

Name and extent Soil ... 70

Rivers Inhabitants . . . .71
34. The State of Meroe :

Geography History .... 71

Religion, &c. Trade . . . .72

II. THE EGYPTIANS.

Sources of Information .... 72
35. Geography of Egypt :

Name and Boundaries Soil and Climate . . 73

Seas Lakes Rivers ... 74

Natural Productions Division Cities . . 75
36. History of the Egyptians :

1. Fabulous period to the reign of Sesostris . 77

2. From Sesostris to the autocracy of Psammetichus 78

3. From the reign of Psammetichus to the Persian

conquest . . . . .80

4. Egypt under Persian rule . . . 81
37. Religion of the Egyptians . . . .82

Constitution . . . . . 83

Sciences . . . . . .84

Art . .... 85



III. THE CARTHAGINIANS (CARCHEDONII).

Sources of Information . . . .87

38. Geography of the Kingdom of Carthage . . 88

39. Foreign Possessions and Settlements of the Cartha-

ginians . . . . . .88

40. History of the Carthaginians :

1. From the building of Carthage to the Wars with

the Greeks in Sicily ... 89

2. From the beginning of the Ware with the Greeks

in Sicily to the Ware with the Romans . 90

3. From the beginning of the Ware with the

Romans to the destruction of Carthage 91

41. Religion of the Carthaginians . . . .93
Constitution ..... 94
Literature Trade . . .95



CONTENTS. XI



THIRD DIVISION. EUROPE.

PAGE

Preliminary Remarks . . . .96

A. GEOGRAPHICAL VIEW OF EUROPE.

42. The Boundaries ..... 97



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