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until July, 1880. Charles Dole, of the class of 1869, served during
1868-69 as tutor in English and Mathematics. In 1869, he was
appointed professor of English Philology, Rhetoric and History
and held this position during this period; he was also professor
of English Literature during 1878 and 1879; during Captain
Curtis' absence in California from August, 1875, until September,
1876, he had full charge of the Military work.

In 1870, Bvt. Capt. Ephraim Williams, U. S. A., (q. v.) a
graduate of Williams College, class of 1863, and a former officer
in the 5th U. S. Infantry, who had been retired for wounds re-
ceived in an Indian engagement, was appointed assistant professor
of the Ancient Languages, and upon the death of Professor
Bourns succeeded him as professor of these subjects. He held the
position until 1874. During 1870-72, cadets Charles P. Campbell
and James W. Swett served as tutors in the Ancient Languages.

During 1871-72, President Douglass served as professor of
Intellectual Philosophy and Christian Ethics. In 1871, Lt. James
E. Batchelder, U. S. A., " N. U." '67 and a graduate of West Point,
class of 1868, was elected professor of French, Descriptive Geo-
metry and Drawing, and instructor in Tactics. Lieutenant
Batchelder had served for some time as a 1st lieutenant in the 4th
U. S. Cavalry, and had been honorably discharged from the
service on December 4, 1871. In 1873 he resigned his professor-
ship at the University.



152 NORWICH UNIVERSITY.

In 1873, Wilbur Buzzell, a graduate of the University of
Michigan, became instructor of the Ancient Languages, holding
the position three years. Adrian Scott, a former cadet of the class
of 1871, and a graduate of Brown Universit}^ was elected pro-
fessor of the Latin, Greek and Modern Languages. He was a
very competent instructor, but owing to the insufficient salary he
resigned after one year. Walter Dole, B. S., of the class of 1870,
served as tutor in Mathematics and English during 1874-75.
Cadet William M. Rumbaugh served as tutor in Mathematics
during 1874-76, and in the latter year was appointed instructor
of Mathematics and Drawing. In 1878, he was made professor of
Drawing and served in this capacity through this period. He
also served as assistant instructor of Military Science and Tactics
and commandant 1876-80.

In 1876 Charles E. Gestrin, Ph. D., a graduate of the Univer-
sity of Upsala, Sweden, was appointed professor of the Latin,
French and German Languages. He was a profound scholar and
a logical and entertaining instructor. He resigned his position
in June, 1880. Rev. Franklin W. Bartlett, A. M., rector of St.
Mary's Episcopal Church of Northfield, served as professor
of Moral and Intellectual Philosoph}' during 1878-79, and of the
Latin and Greek Languages 1879-82. Cadet John B. Johnson,
during his junior and senior years, was often called upon by
General Jackman to instruct his classes in Mathematics in his
absence. Upon General Jackman's death, Cadet Johnson was
appointed instructor of Mathematics and had charge of a portion
of the Mathematical subjects until the commencement of 1879.
He then served as instructor of ]\Iathematics until 1880, when
he was elected professor.

The attendance for 1866-67 was: senior class, 4; junior
class, 7; sophomore class, none; freshman class, 8; a total of
nineteen. The attendance by 3'ears for the period was as follows:
1867, graduates 5; 1868, graduates 6; 1869, graduates 3, non-
graduates 6; 1870, graduates 5, non-graduates 2; 1871, graduates
1, non-graduates 3; 1872, graduates 7, non-graduates 2; 1873,
graduates 12, non-graduates 19; 1874, graduates 3, non-graduates
8; 1875, no graduating class, non-graduates 5; 1876, graduates
7, non-graduates 10; 1877, graduates 3, non-graduates 14; 1878,
graduates 1, non-graduates 18; 1879, graduates 3, non-graduates
7; 1880, graduates 3, non-graduates 6; making a total for this
period, graduates 59 and non-graduates 102.



COURSES OF STUDY. 153

During 1866-73 candidates for admission to the freshman
class of the Classical course were required to be at least fourteen
years of age and to pass satisfactory examinations in Latin and
Greek grammar; Virgil, six books; Caesar or Sallust; Homer's
Iliad, two books; Xenephon's Anabasis; Algebra to Quadratics;
Arnold's Latin Prose Composition; Arithmetic.

During 1874-80, the age requirement was fifteen years.
The following additional subjects were added: Cicero's Orations;
Pennell's Ancient Greece; Geometry, four books; English Gram-
mar; Physical and Political Geography; History of the United
States.

During 1866-75, the age requirements for the Scientific
course were the same as in the Classical course. The candidates
were examined in English Grammar; Geography; Arithmetic;
Algebra to Quadratics; four books of Geometr3\ The age re-
quirement for the Academic or Business course was fourteen years,
and a satisfactory examination in the common school studies.

Classical Course, 1866-67.

First Year. Fall term, Horace's Odes and Epodes, Xeno-
phon's Memorabilia, Geometr}', Roman History, Infantry Tactics;
Winter term, Horace's Odes and Epodes, Livy begun. Homer,
Geometry, Descriptive Geometry begun, Grecian History, English
History begun, Infantr}^ Tactics; Spring term, Livy, Herodotus,
Descriptive Geometry, Infantry Tactics. Latin and Greek Prose
Composition through the year.

Second Year. Fall term, Livy, Juvenal and Perseus, Hero-
dotus, Euripides' Alcestis and Medoea, Algebra, Chemistry;
Winter term, Tacitus and Plautus' Captivi, Aeschylus or Sophocles,
Algebra, Trignometry begun. Mineralogy; Spring term, Tactitus',
Aeschylus or Sophocles and Demosthenes' De Corona or Aeschines,
Trigonometry, Geology. Roman and Grecian Antiquities through
the year.

Third Year. Fall term, Terence, Demosthenes' De Corona
or Aeschines, Surveying, Shades and Shadows, Anal3^tical Geo-
metry begun. Democracy in America, History of Civilization begun,
Kautz's Company Clerk, Guard and Outpost Duty, Drawing;
Winter term, Cicero's Tusculan Questions, Thucydides, Analyti-
cal Geometry, Differential Calculus begun. Political Economy,
Guard and Outpost Duty, Field Fortifications, Drawing; Spring



154 NORWICH UNIVERSITY.

term, Cicero's Tusculan Questions, Calculus Completed, Constitu-
tion of the United States, Artillery Tactics, Drawing.

Fourth Year. Fall term. Mechanics, Law of Nations, Psy-
chology, Logic, Manual for Engineer Troops; Winter term, Acous-
tics and Optics, Astronomy begun, Civil Engineering begun, In-
tellectual Philosophy, Rhetoric, Art of War, Drawing; Spring
term. Astronomy completed, Civil Engineering completed, Moral
Philosophy, Intellectual Philosophy, Army Regulations.

Recitations every Monday morning in Paley's Natural Theo-
logy, Butler's Analogy, or other books of a religious or moral char-
acter. Themes and Declamations weekly through all the courses.
French and Spanish Languages elective.

Scientific Course, 1866-67.

First Year. Fall term, Algebra, Geometry, Roman History,
English Philology, Infantry Tactics, Drawing; Winter term, Alge-
bra, Geometry, Trigonometrj' and Descriptive Geometry begun,
Grecian History, English History begun. Infantry Tactics, Drawing;
Spring term, Trigonometry, Descriptive Geometry, English His-
tory, Infantry Tactics, French, Drawing.

Second Year. Fall term, Surveying, Shades and Shadows,
Chemistry, Democracy, in America, History of Civilization begun,
Kautz's Company Clerk, Guard and Outpost Duty, French, Draw-
ing; Winter term. Analytical Geometry, Differential Calculus begun.
Mineralogy, Political Economy, Guard and Outpost Duty, Field
Fortification, French, Drawing; Spring term. Differential and
Integral Calculus, Geology, Constitution of the LTnited States,
Artillery Tactics, French, Drawing.

Third Year. Fall term, same as studies of the senior class in
Classical department, with the addition of French the first two
terms.

Fourth Year. Fall term. Higher Algebra, Descriptive Geo-
metry, Chemistry, Di-awing; Winter term. Calculus, Natural
Philosophy, Civil Engineering, Drawing; Spring term. Civil En-
gineering, Astronom}^, Field Practice.

Classical Course, 1870-7L

First Year. First semester, Horace's Odes and Epodes,
Xenophon's Memorabilia, Geometry, Roman History, Infantry
Drill; Second semester, Horace'-: Odes and Epodes, Livy, Homer,



COURSES OF STUDY. 155

Herodotus, Geometry, Descriptive Geometry, Grecian History,
English History, Infantry Drill. Themes and Declamations every
Saturday evening; Arnold's Latin and Greek Prose Compositions
through the year.

Second Year. First semester, Livy, Juvenal and Perseus,
Herodotus, Euripides, Alcestis and Medoea, Algebra, Chemistry,
Infantry Drill, Lectures on Military Subjects; Second semester,
Plautus' Captivi, Tacitus, Aeschylus or Sophocles, Demosthenes,
De Corona or Aeschines, Algebra, Trigonometry, Mineralogy,
Geology, Infantry Drill, Lectures. Themes and Declamations,
every Saturday evening; Roman and Grecian Antiquities through
the year.

Third Year. First semester, Terence, Demosthenes, De Cor-
ona or Aeschines, Surveying, Shades and Shadows, Analytical Geo-
metry begun. Democracy in America History of Civilization begun.
Guard and Outpost Duty, Castrametation, Lectures; Second
semester, Cicero's Tusculan Questions, Thucydides, Analytical
Geometry, Differential and Integral Calculus, History of Civiliza-
tion, Political Economy, Constitution of the United States. Field
Fortifications, Artillery Drill, Themes and Declamations every
Saturday evening.

Fourth Year. First semester, Mechanics, International Law,
Psychology, Logic, Artillery Drill, Signals, French or German;
Second semester. Acoustics and Optics, Astronomy, Civil Engi-
neering, Intellectual Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Rhetoric,
French or German, Duane's Manual for Engineer Troops, Art of
War. Recitations every Monday morning in Paley's Natural
Theology, Butler's analogy, or other books of a religious or moral
character. Spanish Language elective.

Scientific Course, 1870-7L

First Year. First semester. Higher Arithmetic begun, Analy-
sis of the English Language, Physical Geography, Infantry Drill;
Second semester. Arithmetic finished. Algebra, Geometry begun.
Rhetoric, Latin Grammar and Reader, United States History,
Infantry Drill.

Second Year. First semester. Algebra, Geometry, Sallust or
Caesar, Grecian History, Infantry Drill, Lectures on ]Military
Subjects; Second semester, Algel^ra, Geometry, Trigonometry and
Descriptive Geometry, English and Roman History, ^'irgil, In-
fantry Drill, Lectures, Linear and Perspective Drawing.



156 NORWICH UNIVERSITY.

Third Year. First semester, Surveying, Shades and Shad-
ows, Chemistry, Democracy of America, History of Civilization,
Cicero, Guard and Outpost Duty, Castrametation, Lectures, Archi-
tectural Drawing; Second semester, Analytical Geometry, Differ-
ential and Integral Calculus, Mineralogy, Geology, Political
Economy, Constitution of the United States, French or German,
Field Fortification, Artillery Drill, Topographical Drawing.

Fourth Year. Same as studies of the senior class in Classical
department, with the addition of French or German.

Themes and Declamations every Saturday evening through the
course.

Classical Course, 1874-76.

First Year. Fall term, Geometr}^, Livy, Greek Historians;
Winter term. Geometry, Livy, Greek Historians; Spring term.
Algebra, Cicero's, De Senectute, Homer's Odyssey. Free Hand
Drawing through the year. Military Instruction — Infantry
Drill; Sword and Bayonet exercises.

Second Yeah. Fall term. Algebra, Horace's Satires, Aeschi-
nes; Winter term. Descriptive Geometry, Horace's Odes, Demos-
thenes; Spring term. Trigonometry and Surveying, Tacitus,
Germania, Plato's Apolog}^ Drawing, Geometrical construction of
two dimensions; Projections, Shades and Shadows, Construction of
Three Dimensions; Military Instruction — Infantry Drill; Sword
and Bayonet Exercises; Lectures on the customs of the Service.

Third Year. Fall term. Logic, English Literature, Chemis-
tiy, Elective (Analytical Geometry); Winter term. Rhetoric
Political Econoni)'-, Physics, Calculus; Spring term, Botan}^, and
Zoology, Moral Philosophy, Evidences, Phj'sics (Mechanics).
Drawing — Linear Perspective, Mechanical, Topographical. Military
Instruction — Infantry and Artillery Drill, Guard and Outpost
Duty, Lectures on Military subjects.

Fourth Year. Fall term, Butler's Analogy, Mediaeval
History, German, Elective (Acoustics and Optics) ; Winter term.
Mental Philosophy, Modern History, German, Astronomy; Spring
term. Constitutional and International Law, Geology and Minera-
logy, German. Drawing — Architectural. Military Instruction —
Artillery, Drill, Signals, Fencing, Art of War, Manual for Engineer
Troops.

Scientific Course, 1874-76.

First Year. Fall term, Geometry, German, Anglo-Saxon or
Latin; Winter term. Geometry, German, Semi-Saxon or Latin;



COURSES OF STUDY. 157

Spring term, Algebra, German, Early English or Latin, Free
hand drawing through the year. Military Instruction — Infantry
Drill, Sword and Bayonet Exercises.

Second Year. Fall term. Algebra, English Literature, Ger-
man or Latin; Winter term. Descriptive Geometry, Physics,
German or Latin; Spring term, Trigonometry, and Surve3ang,
Physics, German or Latin. Drawing — Geometrical, Construction
of two and three dimensions. Projections, Shades and Shadows.
Military Instruction — Infantry Drill, Sword and Bayonet Exer-
cises, Lectures on the Customs of the Service.

Third Year. Fall term. Analytical Geometry, Chemistry,
Logic; Winter term. Calculus, Political Economy, Rhetoric, Me-
chanical Drawing; Spring term. Mechanics, ^-oology and Botany
Ethics and Evidences of Christianity, Drawing, Topographical
Drawing — Linear Perspective. Military Instruction — Infantry and
Ai'tillery Drill, Guard and Outpost Duty, Lectures on Military
Subjects.

Fourth Year. Fall term, Acoustics and Optics, Butler's
Analogy, Mediaeval History; Winter term. Astronomy, ]\Iental
Philosophy, Modern History; Spring term. Geology and Mineralogy
Constitutional and International Law. Architectural Drawing
through the year. Military Instruction — Artillery Drill, Signals,
Fencing, Art of War, Manual for Engineer Troops.

Course in Philosophy, 1874-76.

First Year. Fall term, Geometry, Algebra, Greek or Latin;
Winter term, Geometry, Descriptive Geometry, Greek or Latin;
Spring term, Zoology and Botany, Trigonometry and Surveying,
Greek or Latin.

Second Year. Fall term, Chemistry, Logic, Greek or Latin;
Winter term. Physics, Rhetoric, Greek or Latin; Spring term.
Physics, Moral Philosophy, Greek or Latin.

Third Year. Fall term, English Literature, Mediaeval
History, German; Winter term, Political Economy, Modern
History, German; Spring term, Constitutional and International
Law, Geology and Mineralogy, German.

Military Instruction the same as in the Scientific Course.
Students in the foregoing courses were required to present com-
positions and essays, and to publicly deliver declamations and
original orations throughout the Course.



158 norwich university.

Academy and Business Course.

First Year. Latin Grammar and Reader, (Elective), Eng-
lish Grammar and Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Histor}' of the United
States, Composition and Elocution.

Second Year. Latin, Caesar, Cicero (Elective), Algebra,
Geometry, English Analysis, Physical Geography, Exercises
in Composition and Elocution.

Third Year. Latin, Virgil, Prose Composition or French
(Elective), Natural Philosophy, Elementary Chemistry, History
Review of Mathematics, Drawing — Free hand and Geometrical,
Exercises in Composition and Elocution.

Scientific Course 1878-80.

First Year. Algebra, Algebraic Problems, Geometry, Trig-
onometry, Plane, Analytical and Spherical, French Grammar,
Latin Prose Composition, Livy, Horace, History, Compositionn
and Elocution, Free Hand and Geometrical Drawing, Exercises
in Crayon Drawing, Military Instruction — Infantry Drill, Sword
and Bayonet Exercise.

Second Year. Surveying, Theory and Practice with Chain
and Compass, Descriptive Geometry, Shades and Shadows,
Linear Perspective, Isometric Perspective, Anal^^tical Geometry,
Conic Sections, Composition and Elocution, French Grammar
and Composition, Physics, Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry,
History, Line Shading, Orthographic Projections, Projection
of Shadows and Perspective, Military Instruction — Infantry
Drill, Sword and Bayonet Exercise, Lectures on Customs of the
Service.

Third Year. Differential and Integral Calculus, Natural
Philosophy, Mechanics, Acoustics and Optics, Logic, Rhetoric,
Political Economy, History, *Zoology, *Botany, German Grammar,
Translation from English into German, William Tell, Composi-
tion and Elocution, Shading and Tinting, Machine Drawing,
including Bridge Drawings, Topography, Field Practice and Draw-
ing. Military Instruction — Infantry and Artillery Drill, Guard
and Outpost Duty, Lectures on Military Subjects.

Fourth Year. Astronomy, Physical and Spherical and its
Nautical Application in establishing latitude and longitude;
Civil Engineering, Theory of Roads, Bridges, Tunnels, Canals,
Strength of Material, Leveling and Railroad Curves, Practical

* (Elective).



TEXT BOOKS. 159

Operations, Use of Level and Theodolite, Leveling for Section
and Working Drawings; Geology, Mineralogy, Mental Philosophy;
Studies in English Language and Literature; Constitutional and
International Law; German Grammar, Goethe's Herman and
Dorothea, Schiller's Marie Stuart, Conversational Exercises;
Architectural Drawing; Military Instruction — Artillery Drills,
Signals, Military Telegraph, Cyphers, Fencing, Art of War,
Manual for Engineer Troops.

Text Books Used, 1866-1880.

English.

Standard English Grammar; Haven's, Quackenbos'es and
Whatley's Rhetoric.

Latin.

Arnold's Latin Prose Composition; Allen and Greenough's,
and Harkness' Latin Grammar; Allen and Greenough's and Hark-
ness' editions of the Latin Authors.

Greek.

Arnold's Greek Prose Composition; Leighton's Greek Les-
sons; Pennell's Ancient Greece; Goodwin's Greek Grammar;
Harkness' editions of the Greek Authors; Owen's Thucydides.

French, German and Spanish.
Standard text books of these languages were used.

History.

Liddell's History of Rome; Smith's History of Greece; Hume's
History of England; standard texts of the history of the United
States; Guizot's History of Civilization.

Mathematics.

Davie's Algebra; Geometry; Trigonometry; Surveying;
Descriptive Geometry and Analytical Geometry; Church's
Descriptive Geometry; Bemis' Orthographic Projections; Rob-
inson's Algebraic Problems. Church's Integral and Differen-



160 NORWICH UNIVERSITY.

tial Calculus; Buckingham's Calculus; Davie's Conic Sections;
Peck's and Church's Mechanics; Robinson's and Bartlett's As-
tronomy; Simm's and Mahan's Civil Engineering,

Natural Philosophy and Sciences.

Guyot's Physical Geography; Bartlett's Natural Philosophy;
Silliman's and Youman's Chemistry; Dana's, Lyell's and Hitch-
cock's Geology; Dana's Mineralogy.

Logic, Moral Philosophy and Metaphysics.

Whately's Logic; Cousin's Psychology; Wayland's Mental
Philosophy; Hickok's Moral Philosophy; Karnes' Elements;
Mahan's Intellectual Philosophy; Paley's Natural Theology;
Butler's Analogy.

Political Economy.

Perry's, Say's, and Mills' Political Economy; De Tocque-
ville's Democracy in America; Vattel's and Wheaton's Law of
Nations; Townsend's Constitutional Law; Woolsey's Interna-
tional Law.

Military Science.

Jomini's Art of War; Mahan's Field Fortifications; Mahan's
and Duane's Manual for Engineer Troops; Kautz's Company
Clerk; The Regulations of the U. S. Army, and the standard
texts of the various branches of the service.

The catalogue of 1878-79 gives the following conditions
for the granting of degrees:

"The Degree of Bachelor of Science is conferred upon students who com-
plete the course, and pass satisfactory examinations in the same.

"The Degree of Master of Science will be conferred upon graduates of
three years standing, who shall have engaged during that time in professional,
literary, or scientific pursuits.

"The Degree of Civil Engineer will be conferred upon Graduates of three
years standing, who shall have pursued the profession of an Engineer during
that time.''

The library was located in the large room on the first floor of
Jackman Hall, on the south side of the building and east of the
north and south halls. It numbered about three thousand vol-



PREPARATORY DEPARTMENT — VACATIONS. 161

umes. Mr. Henry Clark was appointed on June 17, 1869, to ob-
tain books for the library, and on the same date General Jackman
and Captain Curtis were appointed as the committee to have
general charge of the library. Professor Shattuck served as libra-
rian from 1866 until 1868. and Dr. Bradford from 1868 until
1874. From this last date until 1880, cadets were appointed
librarians and performed the duty under charge of the President.
The cadet assistant librarians as far as known were: jNlyron R.
Hurlbut. 1866-67; Charles G. Griffith, 1870-71; Stephen H.
Campbell, 1871-72; William R. Dorr, 1871-73.

A Preparatory department was organized in 1872 under
supervision of Professor Dole. The following quotation from the
circular issued in March, 1873, gives the general plan of the
department :

"This department is now prepared to receive scholars. It has been
recently organized to meet the needs of that class of students who are not quite
prepared to enter the higher departments, or whose parents desire for them
an accurate training in the fundamentals of a good education for practical
business. As its scholars belong to the corps of cadets they will be subject
to the general regulations, oversight and administration of the corps. And
as they will pursue a separate department of study, they will be controlled
also by the special regulations of that department. They will be received
at not less than thirteen years of age. They will room in a distinct portion
of the building under charge of an instructor. Their expenses may be con-
trolled by the Principal who will, if desired, receive and account for money
intended for their benefit. The instruction and discipline of this department
can be relied on as thorough, kind and firm.' '

This department was discontinued in 1880.

In 1866 and 1867. the summer vacation lasted four weeks
and from 1868 until 1880, nine weeks.

From 1866 until 1870. and from 1874 until 1880, the aca-
demic 3^ear was divided into three terms, known as the Fall,
Winter and Spring terms. There were vacations of two weeks at
the end of the fall term, and one week at Easter. From 1870
until 1874, the academic year was divided into two terms, known
as the Christmas and the Easter, or the short and the long terms,
averaging sixteen and twenty-three weeks, respectively.

During 1871-78, gold and silver medals were given, respec-
tivel}', to the senior and the junior having the highest general
average in academic and military work.

The organization of the corps of cadets remained in this
period the same as in Norwich, until Captain Curtis became the



162



NORWICH UNIVERSITY,



professor of Military Science, in April, 1869. He made many
changes; revised and published, in 1869, the Rules and Regula-
tions compiled by President Walker in 1867. He appointed
officers and non-commissioned officers for merit, and procured
the passage of the act of the legislature, Nov. 18, 1870, making
the corps a part of the National Guard of the State and organized
as one company of infantry and a battery of artillery. By this
act the professor of JMilitary Science was the ex-officio commander
of the corps with the rank of captain. The other officers were
commissioned by the governor of the state upon the recommen-
dation of the professor of ^lilitary Science, and consisted of one
cadet captain with rank of 1st lieutenant, and a cadet 1st lieu-
tenant with rank of 2d lieutenant to each company or section.



I




Cadet Camp at Berlin Pond.

Under Captain Partridge's system, the cadets served in rota-
tion as officers and non-commissioned officers, thereby doing away
with a fixed rank and keeping the corps democratic. Captain Curtis
changed the work to coi-respond to the United States Army,
He was the first to keep legil^le and accurate records of the corps,
and l:)ecame one of the bondsmen under whom the United States
arms and equipment were procured for the use of the University.

The adjutant was a]3pointed for each term and was in com-



Online LibraryWilliam Arba EllisNorwich University, 1819-1911; her history, her graduates, her roll of honor (Volume 1) → online text (page 17 of 61)