The Drill Regulation of the various arms of the service;
Wagner 's ^" Security and Information" and "Organization and
Tactics"; Pettit's "Elements of Military Science"; Batchelor's
"Fire Discipline"; [Burnham's "Duties of Guards and Outposts";
Beach's "Manual of Field Engineering"; Winthrop's "Military
The degree of Bachelor of Science (B. S.) has been conferred
upon the graduates of the Civil Engineering Course to date, except-
ing in the years 1888-96, when the degree of C. E. was given. In
1894, the trustees voted to make the degree of C. E., a master's
degree, and only confer it upon graduates of at least three years'
standing, who had followed the profession during that time, and
had presented to the faculty a satisfactory thesis; or upon grad-
uates who had completed a post-graduate course. N''^;^r - *N
The degree of B. S. has been conferred upon the graduates of
the Chemical Course, since 1880, excepting during the academic
year of 1885-86, when the degree of Analytical chemist (A. C.)
The degree of Bachelor of Literature (B. L.) was conferred
upon the graduates of the Science and Literature Course until 1891.
Since that date the degree of B. S. has been given.
The degree of Bachelor of Architecture was conferred upon
the graduates of the course in Architecture during 1886-88,' and
B. S. from the last date until the course was discontinued in 1891.
The degree of Bachelor of Arts (A. B.) has been conferred to
The advanced degrees conferred by the University since 1901,
have been given under the following conditions :
"The degree of Master of Arts, Master of Science, or Civil Engineer,
may be conferred on graduates of two years' standing of this or any other
reputable college, who have spent at least one year in post-graduate studies
under the direction of the Faculty, and on graduates of three years' standing,
who have during that time been engaged in professional, literary, or scienti-
fic pursuits, or have pursued a course of liberal study, subject to approval
of the Faculty. A candidate for a degree is required to present a thesis
upon some branch of liberal study pursued since graduation, and to pass
an examination before the Faculty. The thesis must be presented at least
three weeks before cominencement, and a copy thereof, be furnished to be
placed in the library of the University.' '
norwich university library. 251
During tlie first part of this period, 1884-92, very little use was
made of the library. It was stored in the large room on the first
floor of Jackman Hall, as explained in Chapter VI. In 1892, it was
moved to the lai"ge room on the west side of the third floor of
Dodge Hall and Prof. Edson L. Whitney, Ph. D., was appointed
librarian." He carefully classified the books' and did much to
promote the usefulness of the library. In 1893, Prof. H. R.
Roberts succeeded Professor Whitney as librarian and continued
his work. During 1892-1902, a number of volumes were added.
The historian of the University presented many regimental
and war histories, greatly strengthening this department of the
library. In 1897, he interested Mrs. Evelyn B. Ramsay and Miss
Lizzie B. Miller, daughters of the Rev. 0. D. Miller, '45, the dis-
tinguished archaeologist, in the needs of the library, and secured
the promise of the gift of their father's very complete and valuable
library on historical and archaeological subjects. From December
190i to INIay, 1902, he secured about two thousand dollars, which
was turned over to President Brown for the fitting up of the
library room in Dewey Hall with modern steel stacks and
furniture. In the spring of 1902, the Miller Library, numbering
fully three thousand volumes, was shipped to the University. In
July, 1902, Mr. W. A. Ellis, of the class of 1897, was secured as li-
brarian and during the summer of the same year the library was
moved to Dewey Hall, and classified according to the Dewey
system. The old library numbered about six thousand volumes,
exclusive of duplicates. The alumni and friends of the Univer-
sity were appealed to for aid, they generously responded, and
during the term of the service of this librarian the library was
increased to over twelve thousand volumes and many thousand
pamplilets. In 1906, six hundred volumes on history and litera-
ture were willed the library by INIajor H. E. Alvord, '63. Pro=
lessor Scott, '71, presented his valuable library on the Germanic
Languages, numbering over one thousand volumes. Mrs. Ben-
jamin F. Snow presented three hundred volumes from the library
of her father, Prof. James' D. Butler (q. v.). Large donations
were received from Gen. G. M. Dodge, '51, Dr. George Nichols,
J. K. Egerton, Mrs. W. M. Rumbaugh, Dr. H. H. Walling, (li=
brary of Rev. W. A. Benedict), Mrs. W. F. Cushman, (books
from the library of Zadoc Thompson), and Prof. J. B. Johnson, '79.
The periodical department was especially developed. Up to
1903 very few periodicals had been collected. During 1902-08.
252 NORWICH UNIVERSITY.
many complete sets of the American periodicals were added,
special attention being paid to the technical journals. Mr.
Edward D. Adams, '64, presented a complete set of the Trans-
actions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. General
Dodge assisted in completing the sets of the Engineering News,
and Engineering Record. Mr. J. M. Holland, '83, and P. M.
Fletcher, '87, assisted in completing the files of several of the tech-
nical journals, and many of the alumni became regular contri-
butors to the reading room. Through the generous aid of Maj.
H. E. Alvord, '63, W. P. Clement, '72, J. M. Hol^and, '83, Mrs.
W. H. Greenwood, and I. C. Ellis, '01, typewriters, card catalogue
cases, and necessary furniture was added. Capt. J.E. Ainsworth
'53, gave a liberal donation for binding periodicals and pamphlets.
In March, 1905, through the effort of Gen. G. M. Dodge, '51, Mr.
Andrew Carnegie gave the money for a library and Electrical
Engineering Building. Through various delays the building was
not completed for the use of the library until the summer of 1908.
That summer the books were moved to the building.
In 1907, Mr. E. D. Adams, '64, Gen. G. M. Dodge, '51, and
W. P. Clement, '72, gave the money to pay for the services of an
assistant librarian during 1907-09. In 1907, Miss Bessie B. Silver-
thorn, B. S. was appointed assistant librarian, and in 1908, on the
resignation of Mr. Ellis, was appointed librarian. In May, 1910,
Miss Silverthorn resigned, and in September, Miss Helen Crampton,
a graduate of the University of Vermont, was appointed as her
successor. Miss Beryl Hildreth served as assistant librarian in
1906-07. Since 1902, several cadets have been given employment
in the library.
In 1883 and 1887-88, the matter of conducting a reading room
was agitated but nothing definite was accomplished until Novem-
ber, 1888, when the corps formed a Reading Room Association.
The fee was placed at fifty cents each term and was collected by the
treasurer. The officers for the Fall term were: president. Prof.
C. C. Brill; secretary, H. J. Dane, '90; treasurer, D. W. Lewis, '90;
directors, E. R. Juckett, '89, S. B. Adams, '90, H. C. Sweeney, '91
and I. A. Lawrence, '92. The officers for the Spring term were:
president, A. F. Booth, '91; secretary. E. H. Ryan, '92; treasurer,
W. E. Terrill, '92; directors, E. W. Gilman, '89, J. H. Judkins, '90,
W. H. Sprague, '91, H. R. Chadwick, '92, C. E. Collins, '90, and
A. R. Shaw, '89,
READING ROOM AND MUSEUM. 253
During 1889-90, the officers were elected by each class for
each term. From the fall of 1890 until 1902 the officers were
elected by the corps. In 1890-91, F. M. Goodhue, '91, acted as
custodian. During this year many improvements were made oi\
the room and several magazines and newspapers added. The
officers for 1891-92, were: presidents, R. H. Ford, '92, and J. S.
Craigue, '92; secretaries, C. W. Pierce, '92, and C. H. Booth, '94;
treasurers, E. A. Shuttleworth, '91, and E. W. Gibson,' '94; direc-
tors, H. G. Woodruff, '91, G. L. Andrews, '93, and L. C. Hulburd,
'94. In 1892-93, the officers were : presidents, G. E. Storrs, '94, and
C. A. Plumley, '96; secretary, C. D. Whiteside, '94; treasurer, H.
C. Mosley, '95. The officers for 1893-94 were, presidents, A. H.
Cushman, '96, and C. S. Carleton, '96; secretaries, W. P. Beau-
clerk, '96 and II. C. Holden, '94; treasurers, A. G. Andrews, '96,
and P. R. Hoefler, '95. In 1894-95 the officers were: president,
C. E. Walker, '97, and C. J. Scribner, '96; secretary and treasurer,
R. S. Dowe, '95, and P. S. Howes, '96. The officers for 1895-96
were: president, E. M. McCarty, '96; secretary and treasurer, P. A.
Dinsmoor, '98; advisory committee. Prof. J. B. Johnson, '79.
In 1896, the corps voted to place the management of the read-
ing room in charge of a committee consisting of two members of the
faculty and one cadet; and to have the reading room dues of fifty
cents a term placed on the regular term bill. One cadet was se-
lected each year to act as custodian. C. E. Walker, '97, acted Jn
this capacity in 1896-97. This arrangement for conducting the
reading room continued until 1902, when a regular librarian was
employed. In the fall of 1902, a modern reading room was opened
in Dewey Hall, and the number of periodicals and newspapers was
gradually increased from 50 to 150. In 1908, on the occupation
of the Carnegie Library, the reading room was moved to the new
building. During Professor Roberts' term of service as librarian
he spent much time in developing the reading room, and since
1902, as a member of the library committee, he has given valuable
assistance in making the reading room a model of its kind.
Upon the completion of Dewey Hall in 1902, the large room
on the east side of the first floor was fitted up for the museum.
The first valuable gift was the Dr. P. D. Bradford Geolog-
ical Collection, presented to the University on June 30, 1892.
In the spring of 1904, this collection was moved to the
In the summer of 1897, the historian of the college secured
from Mrs. W. E. Lewis of Norwich, the gift of the sabre and pistols
worn by President Truman B. Ransom, '25, in the battle of Chap-
In the spring of 1900, the University received from the War
Department the state trophy, one of the large guns used on the
Viscaya and captured by the fleet under command of Rear-Ad-
miral Sampson, July 3, 1888. It is marked with the following
inscription: Trophy of Viscaya, Santiago, July 3, 1898, C. M.,
I. R., Artillcrous del Neroun, Bilboa, 1894. Capt. W. B. Carr,
State Trophy frorn Santiago
U. S. A., '97, contributed the funds for mounting the gun; and it is
now placed on the north-west brow of the Hill overlooking the
peaceful Dog River Valley, a grim reminder of triumphs of the
U. S. Navy.
In 1902, Gen. Charles A. Coolidge, '63, presented the Uni-
versity a valuable collection of Chinese armor taken from the
Palace of the 7th Prince of the Royal blood in Peking; also a
valuable collection of bolos and war implements from the Philippine
Islands. Capt. C. W. Mead, '81, contributed bolos and war im-
plements from the Phillippines; also a United States flag made by
the natives, -and a Filipino flag captured by him in battle. Rear-
Admiral Colvocoresses presented armor piercing shell from the
historic Olympia. In 1902, Gen. Edmund Rice, U. S. A., '60, pre-
Museum and summer schools. 255
sented a small brass caiinoii of aucient make, which was captured
by his regiment in the Philippine Islands.
In 1903, a "friend" contributed the money to fit up the
museum with modern cases. Mrs. Jesse A. Gove, of Concord,
N. H., presented a collection of Indian relics, collected by her
husband. Hon. Frank Plumley contributed some ancient guns
used in the Venezuelian Army. Col. W. A. Treadwell, '57, ])rc-
sented a valuable collection of minerals and George C. Randall, '04,
a collection of bird 's eggs.
In 1904, through the influence of li. H. Ford, '92, the Central
Vermont H. R. presented the shovel that was used in turning the
first sod in the construction of the road in 1846. Mr. George E.
Edson, '76, presented a large collection of minerals. Prof. C. C.
Brill, H. E. C. Rainey, '04, and F. H. C. Graves, '07, and others
made valuable donations. In 1907, Lieut. A. R. Williams, U. S. A.,
'03, presented a Polajan battle flag, captured by him in battle and
Lieut. L. A. I. Chapman, U. S. A., gave several w^ar implements
from the Philippine Islands. In 1908, Mrs. Allan D. Brown pre-
sented the original letter from Admiral Dewey, U. S. N., '55, en-
dorsing the Dewey Hall project. In May, 1904, the librarian
through Admiral George A. Converse, U. S. N., '63, secured the
following guns: one Hotchkiss Revolving Cannon, No. 22, 47
millimeters; two Maxim-Nordenfelt, Nos. 1437 and 1239, 11 milli-
metres; one Lowell Battery gun; one brass Gatling on tripod;
one Hotchkiss revolving cannon, No. 68, 37 millimetres; one
Hotchkiss revolving cannon, No. 10, mounted on carriage, 37
millimetres; two, three-inch rifle guns; three, 12-pound Armstrongs,
carriages and limbers; one Maxim-Nordenfelt, No. 4213, 42 milli-
metres; one Maxim-Nordenfelt, No. 4221, 42 millimetres; one
Mauser, No. 1471, 7 millimetres, mounted on carriage. The
Maxim-Nordenfelt guns were trophies captured at Manila, P. I.
Beginning with 1895, many portraits of the alumni have been
secured by the historian of the University for the chapel. One of
the most valuable gifts, was the painting of Gen. T. E. G. Ransom,
'51, presented by Hon. P. T. Sherman of New York City. This
painting w-as owned by Gen. W. T. Sherman, U. S. A., and kept
by him in his librar}^ for many years.
Summer Schools, 1901-1910.
The first sunnner school, since the days of Captain Partridge,
was held immediately preceding the opening of the college year,
1901. The work consisted of a short railroad survey in the vicinity
SUMMER SCHOOLS. 257
of the University for the seniors; and the topographical surveying
of a tract of land for the juniors. This first school was for a period
of three weeks. This school and the next three which followed
were under the charge of Professors A. E. Winslow and C. S. Carle-
ton, assisted in some cases by cadet assistants. The field equipment
was not sufficient to equip the students and transits were rented.
From 1901 to 1905, each year, a short railroad line was run;
preliminary and location surveys made, plans, profiles, and cross
sections drawn. The juniors each year have made a topographical
survey and drawn maps of some area, locating all natural features,
such as rivers, roads, houses, contours, etc.
In 1904, the length of the term was changed from three to four
weeks. In 1905, Professor Winslow had charge of the school,
being assisted in the field by Mr. F. W. Denison, '98, and Mr. M. M.
Stocker, '03. Under Mr. Denison's direction a survey was made to
connect the quarries on the southeasterly slope of the valley, in the
vicinity of Northfield, with the Central Vermont Railroad. This
project was known as the Vermont Black Slate Railroad, and
afforded real, practical work for the classes making the study, as
complete plans, profiles, and estimates were made. This project
took up the time of the next two schools of 1906 and 1907, being
under the direction of Professor Winslow, assisted by Mr. F. W.
Denison in 1906, and Mr. F. N. Tinker, '06, in 1907, respectively.
When completed, the Civil Engineering department had plans,
profiles and estimates for a railroad from the Edgerton quarry,
(the most northerly) through the Vermont Black Slate Co. quarries
and South Xorthfield to the Central Vermont Railroad in the
vicinity of Elbow Bridge.
The topographical work was continued much as in preceding
years under the direction of Professor Carleton in 1906, and Mr.
Stocker in 1907. Permanent stations were established and the
inside surveys were tied on to these stations.
In 1908, Professor Winslow had charge of the school, with
Mr. H. M. Hobson, '02, and Mr. Stocker assisting in the field. This
year the "Stony Brook Railroad" project was started. This
survey leaves the Central Vermont Railroad in the vicinity of
Harlow Bridge and follows Stony Brook north and west. About
two miles of line was surveyed, complete plans, profiles, and esti-
mates made. This year a permanent base line was measured on
the Dog River Fair Association grounds and was used to establish
a permanent system of triangulation for the topogi-aphical surveys,
with an idea of mapping the valley of the Dog River.
Professor Winslow had charge of the school in 1909, being
assisted by Professor Carleton in the office, and Mr. J. S. Smith,
'09, in the field. This year the senior school was held immediately
following commencement and the junior school immediately pre-
ceding the opening of the college year. This was the first school
held entirely in the field. A camp known as "Camp Williams,"
was established at the Red School house in the Dole District, and
the students were required to live under tentage in a way very
similar to that existing in railroad camps of the present. The
period of four weeks was spent on the survey of the Stony Brook
Summer School, 1905.
Railroad. An office was set up and all drawings, computations,
etc., were made in the field;' about two miles of railroad were sur-
veyed, plotted, and estimates of cost prepared.
Professor Carleton had charge of the junior and sophomore
schools, being assisted by Professor Winslow in the office, Mr.
C. N. Barber, '08, and K. F. Stebbins, '10, in the field. The general
survey of the valley was continued and tied on to'^the outside,
triangulation system. The previous surveys were all assembled
into a general map to the scale of two hundred feet equals one
inch, the whole topographical survey being put on to a systematic
In 1910, the school, immediately following the commencement,
was in charge of Professor Winslow, Professor Carleton assisting
in the office and Professor L. E. Dix in the field. ''Camp J. B.
Johnson' ' was established on the line of the Stony Brook Railroad
and the four weeks were spent in making reconnoissance, pre-
liminary and location survej^s on that line. Plans, profiles, and
estimates were carefully prepared for about two and one-fourth
miles of the line. It was found necessary to introduce a tunnel of
about fifteen hundred feet in length which gave excellent practice.
Professor Carleton had charge of the junior and sophomore
schools this year, being assisted by Professor Winslow in the office
and Professor Dix and Mr. Stocker in the field. The same general
work as in 1909 was followed with a plan to connect the topographi-
cal work along Union Brook with the Stony Brook Railroad survey.
Much triangulation was necessary so that now the department has
Sophomore Class, Summer School, 1910.
a complete system of triangulation surrounding the village of
Northfield. In addition to the above, municipal surveys of the
streets on the west side of the river were made, plans, profiles, etc.,
In all the sophomore schools, the first principles of surve3dng
have been taught, intending to make the student proficient in the
use of all kinds of instruments and conversant with the methods
of surveying, including the determination of areas. Also, much
bench levelling has been practiced until now the department has a
system of permanent benches extending for miles into the sur-
rounding country. Road surveys have been made far into the
260 NORWICH UNIVERSITY.
country; drainage problems studied and much general surveying
practiced. The equipment for field practice has constantly in-
creased 'during the period covered by the summer schools until
the department now has eight transits, five levels, one plane table,
one theodolite, seven compasses, camp equipment such as tents,
cooking untensils, etc., and many small instruments.
Beginning with 1887, the classes in Geology have done much
work in the field, making excursions to the slate, granite, soap-
stone, and marl deposits in Northfield; the verde-antique marble
quarry in Roxbury; the talc mines in Granville, and Moretown;
the copper mines in Vershire and Strafford, Vt. ; and the granite
quarries in Barre and" Bethel, Vt.
The work of the University is recognized by the State Board
of Education and the graduates are entitled to a teacher's certificate
The organization of the corps of cadets continued in this
period as in chapter VI, until 1890, when two companies were
formed. The service calls have remained during this period,
practically the same as given in the previous chapters. During
1885-95, the cadet commissioned officers were taken from the
senior class, and the non-commissioned officers from the junior
and sophomore classes, the promotion depending upon a general
average of scholarship. In 1900, the promotions were made
dependent upon five "counts," the academic standing and
deportment being two counts and the military standing three
counts, this arrangement making it possible for a lower class
man to have under his command cadets of a higher class than
his own. In 1903, owing to the largely increased attendance,
the corps was organized as a three company battalion, and a
cadet major was appointed, George C. Randall, '04, having^the
honor of being the first to hold the office. In 1907, the corps
was made a four company organization. The rules and regula-
tions have remained practically unchanged, excepting that Major
H. W. Hovey introduced a merit system, which gave the men
The commandants for this period are: Capt. W. M. Rum-
baugh, Capt. John C. Wait, Lieut. E. H. Catlin, U. S. A., Lieut.
Jesse McI. Carter, U. S. A., Lieut. H. C. Keene, U. S. A., Maj.
Henry W. Hovey, U.S.A., Cadet Captain Arthur E. Winslow (act-
ing), Capt. John P. Moseley, V. N. G., Lieut. Charles H. Cabajmis,
MILITARY ORGANIZATION. 261
U. S. A., Capt. C. S. Carleton, V. N. G., Capt. L. A. I. Chapman,
U. S. A., and Maj. L. P. Bayley, V. N. G.
In 1888, the commissioned officers of the corps first attended
the school of the officers of the state militia. On December 8,
1902, the state legislature passed an act (q. v.) allowing the com-
missioning of the graduates as additional 2d lieutenants in the
National Guard. Since 1896, there have been many changes in the
work of the Military department, from the idea advocated by Cap-
tain Partridge. The tendency has been to make Norwich a military
post. In 1905, a board of discipline was formed consisting of
four cadet officers, who served for a period of one week, and tried
all breaches of the rules and regulations, thus relieving the Com-
mandant and faculty of this work. In 1906, this mode of dis-
ciplining was changed to the court martial System, as carried out
in the U. S. Army. Three courts were formed: the Summary,
the Garrison and the General. The first court holds sessions each
day, and the other courts as the cases require.
Soon after the detail of the U. S. Army officer as commandant
and professor of Military Science and Tactics, the corps has been
inspected each year by an U. S. Army officer. In 1893, Col.
R. P. Hughes in his report placed the University at the head
of all the institutions in his inspection territory. In 1904, the
U. S. War Department began grading the various military schools
and Norwich has held the distinction of ranking among the "six
most distinguished.' '
In 1905, for the first time, a detachment of cadets, under
command of Lieutenant B. P. Hovey, '06, attended the annual
state muster at Burlington. This detachment took with them
the three Hotchkiss cannons and fired all the various salutes.
From 1906, much attention has been paid to out-post duty
and field problems. On November 22, 1906, the state legisla-
ture passed an act (q. v.) allowing the enlistment at the University
of a battery of field artillery, a company of signal corps, and a
company of engineers, to be properly officered and equipped in
accordance with the requirements and provisions of the acts of
Congress relating to such^^organizations. The corps was soon
reorganized to conform to this provision, greatly increasing the
revenues of the institution. In September, 1906, the Signal
Corps was designated'as the '(."Platoon of Signal Corps." On
October 21, 1907, it' was made a company organization and