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riguez, professor of^the'^French"'and Spanish languages; E. Sturt-
evant, '28, instructor in Music; several cadets also served as
instructors in Mathematics.

The membership of the faculty for the years 1829-34 is not
fully known. Captain Partridge continued as president and
Truman B. Ransom was professor of Mathematics in 1831-32.

The faculty of the " Academy' ' was an especially able one.
Prof. Rufus Bailey (q. v.) graduated from Dartmouth College
in 1813 and was a successful Congregational preacher; Prof.




Captain Partridge, from an Engraving printed in the United States Military Magazine in 1840.



12 NORWICH UNIVERSITY.

Dana graduated A. B. and A. M. from Harvard College; Professor
Marsh was a graduate of Dartmouth, class of 1820, afterwards
becoming one of the most distinguished philologists of the world,
and was also distinguished as a diplomat; Professor Williston had
completed his junior year at Dartmouth, and later received
the degree of A. B. from the University of Vermont. Profes-
sor Woodward was a graduate of Williams College, class of 1798,
and a successful clergyman. Joseph M. Partridge had been a
cadet at the United States Military Academy during 1813-1817,
and was one of the ablest swordsmen of his time.

The cadet tutors were distinguished for their mathematical
ability, and in after years became very successful in their chosen
fields of work.

Professor Ferry was a graduate of a French University, and
an able scholar and author; Prof. W. W. Bailey was an accom-
plished musician; Prof. Joseph Barratt was an authority in
Botany, Geology and Mineralogy; John H. Lathrop (q. v.) was a
graduate of Yale College and became one of the best known
educators of this country; Elisha Dunbar, '25, founded a mili-
tary school in Orange, N. J., in 1828; Professor Pizzaro (q. v. )
was a graduate of a Spanish University and had been Director
of Education in Spain; Hiram P. Woodworth, '25, later became
vice-president of the University, and a well known civil engineer
in Illinois; Edwin F. Johnson, '25, became one of the best known
civil engineers of this country; V. B. Horton, '25, became a
congressman from Ohio and a millionaire business man; John
Holbrook gained distinction as president of Jefferson College
Miss.; Truman B. Ransom, '25, became second president of
Norwich University and lost his life while leading the "Old
Ninth New England" Regiment up the heights of Chapultepec
in Mexico in 1847; E. B. Williston, '23, became an author of
prominence; Rev. Walter Colton later served as chaplain. United
States Navy, and became an author of prominence; Benjamin
M. Tyler, '23, was a successful teacher and author and later founded
the first Normal School in this country.

The course of study in the Languages and Literatures com-
pares favorably with the courses given in the colleges of the
time.

In addition to a full engineering course, with practical work
in the field, a course in Agriculture was also given. So far as
known this was the first institution to provide for instruction



COURSES OF STUDY. 13

in this last branch. We give the course from the first cata-
logue: —

" The course of education at this seminary will embrace the
following branches of literature, science and practical instruction,
viz : the Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French and the English Languages :
Composition, Rhetoric, Logic, Elocution: Histoiy, Geography,
including the use of maps and globes. Ethics, Metaphysics: the
elements of Natural and Political Law, the Law of Nations,
the Constitution of the United States and of the States severally.
Military law: the elements of Chemistiy, Electricity and Optics:
Arithmetic, the construction and use of Logarithms, Bookkeeping,
Algebra, Geometry, Plane and Spherical Trigonometry, Plano-
metry, Sterometry, Mensuration of heights and distances by
Trigonometry and also Geometrically, practical Geometry gener-
ally, including particularly. Surveying and Levelling, Conic
Sections, the use of the Barometer, wdth its application to measur-
ing the altitudes of mountains and other eminences: Mechanics,
Hydrostatics, Hydraulics, Astronomy, Navigation, Civil Engi-
neering, including the construction of roads, canals, locks and
bridges: Architecture, Agriculture, Music."

The instruction in music, the French and Hebrew languages
and Fencing was not a part of the regular work, but con-
sidered extras.

Especial attention was from the first given to the study of
music, both vocal and instrumental, and a large number of the
cadets received instruction in this branch.

The military course included complete instructions on Per-
manent and Field Fortification, Field Engineering generally,
the construction of Marine Batteries, Artillery Duty, the Principles
of Gunnerj^ a complete course of Military Tactics, the attack
and defense of fortified places, Castrametation, Fortification,
the ancient modes of attacking and defending fortified places,
the Ancient Tactics, particularly those of the Greeks and Romans
with a description of the organization and discipline of the pha-
lanx and legion; Fencing, Militaiy Drawing, Topography. In
addition to the foregoing, the students were regularly and correct-
ly instructed in the elementary school of the soldier; of the com-
pany and battalion; they were taught the regular formation of
military parades, the turning off, mounting and relieving guards
and sentinels; the duties of the ofRcers of the guard, officers of
the day, and adjutants; the making out correctly the different



14 NORWICH UNIVERSITY.

descriptions of military reports and all the duties incident to
the field or garrison. The military exercises and duties were so
arranged as not to occupy any of the time that would otherwise
be devoted to study; they were attended to at those hours of the
day which were generally passed by students in idleness, or devoted
to useless, amusements, for which they were made a pleasing
and healthful substitute. Practical scientific operations were
frequently attended to, which would conduce equally to health
and improvement.

Fencing early became one of the favorite athletic sports of
the cadets and practically every cadet took the instruction.
Expert instructors were provided.

We quote from the catalogue as follows under the head of

" MILITARY LECTURES. "

" For the accoinmodation of gentlemen, (particularly of those
holding commissions in the volunteer corps and militia) who may
not wish to go through with a regular course of military studies
and instruction and also for the purpose of diffusing military
science more generally. Captain Partridge will deliver annually
at the before-mentioned seminary, three courses of public lectures;
the first course to commence on the second Monday in May, the
second course on the second Monday in July, and the third
course on the first Monday in October annually. These lectures
will embrace the following branches of military science and in-
struction, viz:"

" 1st. Permanent and field fortification, the construction
of field works generally, and also marine batteries.

" 2d. The attack and defence of fortified places.

"3d. The use of artillery, with a general exposition of the
principles of gunnery.

" 4th. Military Tactics.

" 5th. Garrison and field service of troops, embracing par-
ticularly their police and rules for turning off, mounting and
relieving guards and sentinels, and also for guard duty, like-
wise castrametation.

"6th. General rules for the attack and defence of a province
or country embracing an exposition of the principles of base lines
of operation.

" 7th. Rules for the inspection and review of troops.



COURSES OF STUDY. 15

" Sth. A summary of ancient fortification, and also of the
ancient modes of attacking and defending fortified places.

"9th. A summary of the ancient tactics, particularly those
of the Greeks and Romans.

" 10th. A description of some of the most celebrated battles
and sieges, both of ancient and modern times, for the purpose
of practically illustrating the principles explained in the lectures.
In order to render the lectures on fortification perfectly intelli-
gible, plans will be prepared, on which the several parts of a work
will be clearly and distinctly exhibited.

" Particular attention will be given to a full explanation of all
the technical terms used in fortification, as well as in the other
departments of militaiy science. A full course will comprise
about twenty lectures; five to be delivered in each week until
the course be finished. The terms for attending a course will be
ten dollars. Gentlemen subscribing for two courses will be
allowed ever after to attend gratis. All those attending the
lectures will be entitled, during the time of such attendance,
to practical military instruction and also to the privilege of the
reading room, without any additional charge."

The study of the Spanish language was begun in 1825. We
quote from the catalogue: "As to the knowledge of Spanish, it is
daily becoming of the first consequence to the citizens of the
United States. Six independent republics have recently been
established in South America. From their geographical position
and form of government, our commercial and political relations
cannot fail of being an intimate, interesting and momentous
character — all tending to render their language ultimately next
in importance to om- own. " The text books used were Joss'
Grammar; Telemanco; Robinson Crusoe; Newman's Dictionary.

Much practical field work in engineering was given the cadets.
In 1823-24 a trigonometrical survey of Norwich and surrounding
towns, comprising a territory of 150 square miles, was made. The
drafting of the survey was signed b3'-/^Cadet William Parker. The
work was very accurately carried out and received much com-
mendation by competent engineers. We give elsewhere a cut of
the map. In 1825 and 1826 a similar survey was made of Middle-
town and surrounding country, comprising 400 square miles. A
very complete course in Botany and Mineralogy was given by Dr.
Barratt. Special attention was given to instruction in Navigation



16 NORWICH UNIVERSITY.

and Seamanship, and the course was so strong as to attract many-
Naval officers to the institution.

A very complete course was given in Bookkeeping and Ac-
counting and was designed to fit the cadet for practical business
life.

No specified time was required for completing the course.
Each student was allowed to progress as rapidly as possible in his
studies and when the course was completed a certificate of gradua-
tion was presented the student.

There were no formal graduating exercises as in the other
colleges. Examinations were held at stated periods. No student
was received for a less period than one year. The prospective
student was required to be at least nine years of age and of good
moral character, and be able to read and spell correctly and write
a fairly legible hand. No student from another college or uni-
versity was admitted unless honorably discharged from such
institution. The regular time for admission was at the close of
the vacation in January and during the public examinations in May
and August.

A library was started soon after the opening of the " Academy"
in 1820. John Holbrook served as librarian until 1828. In
1827 he published a catalogue of the books in a pamphlet of 28
pages.

The title page was as follows :

CATALOGUE OF BOOKS

IN THE

CADETS' LIBRARY

AT THE

American Literary, Scientific and Military Academy.



FOOD FOR THE MIND.

Middletown, (Conn.)
Printed by E. and H. Clark.
1827.



cadets' library — TEXT BOOKS. 17

The pamphlet contains a brief history of the great libraries of
the world and tables giving the number of books in a few of the
largest libraries in Europe, pubHc libraries and college libraries
in America, also a very good article on " Reading, " and the " Ad-
vantages of History. "

The cadets' library numbered 1,100 volumes. According to
the tables given. Harvard had the largest college library, 28,000
volumes; Yale next with 9,000 volumes; Middlebury College 2,000
volumes; Dartmouth 6,000 volumes and the University of Vermont
900. The size of the library compared very well with the libraries
of the other institutions especially when the age of the institution
is considered. The books were classified under the following heads :
History; Travels, Voyages and Geography; Biography and
Memoirs; Mathematics and Philosophy (Natural); Military Works;
Chemistry; Botany; Mineralogy and Natural History; Political
Works; Letters and Essays; Poetry and Dramas; Novels; French
Works; Miscellaneous. A reading room containing the various
publications of this country and of several of the European coun-
tries was maintained. The periodicals were bound for preser-
vation in the library. This library became the property of Wes-
leyan University.

Catalogue of Books Studied at the Academy.

english language.

Murray's Grammar; Scott's Lessons for parsing; Murray's
Reader for parsing; Blair's Rhetoric, abridged; Walker's Rhe-
torical Grammar; Porter on Elocution.

FRENCH LANGUAGE.

Wanostrocht's French Grammar; Lectuer Francais; Tele-
maque; Ferry's First Elements; Perren's Vocabulary; Beyer's
Dictionary, large edition, two volumes; Bolmar's Perrin's Fables;
L'Abb^ Bossut, vocabulary; L'Abeille Francoise; Voltaire's Charles
the 12th.

LATIN LANGUAGE.

Adam's Latin Grammar; Liber Primus; Virgil; Cicero's
Select Orations; Cicero de Oratore; de Amicitia et de Senectute;
SaUust; Caesar's Commentaries; Horace: Livy, first five books;
Tacitus; five books.



18 NORWICH UNIVERSITY.

GREEK LANGUAGE.

Hackenberg's Greek Grammar; Collectanea Graeca Minora;
Collectanea Gi'seca Majora; Xenophon's Anabasis; Homer's Iliad,
six books; Buttman's Greek Grammar; Neilson's Greek Exercises;
Delectus; Jacob's Greek Reader; Greek Testament.

HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY.

Morse's Universal Geography, large abridgement with atlas,
latest edition; Worcester's Geography, edition of 1820; Tytler's
Elements of History; Adams' Roman Antiquities.

MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.

Hutton's Mathematics; Gibson's Surveying; Crozet's De-
scriptive Geometry; Walsh's Arithmetic, edition of 3820; Enfield's
Natural Philosophy; Davis's Descriptive Geometry; Cambridge
course of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy; Tyler's Arith-
metic; Hasler's Analytic Trigonometry; Sganzin's Civil Engineer;
Tredgold on Railways.

SCIENCES.

Eaton's Manual of Botany; Torrey's Compendium of the
Northern Flora; Brande's Manual of Chemistry; Cleveland's
Mineralogy.

LOGIC, MORAL PHILOSOPHY AND METAPHYSICS.

Hedge's Logic; Paley's Evidences of Christianity; Paley's
Natural Theology; Paley's Moral Philosophy; Butler's Analogy;
Locke's Essays on the Understanding; Stewart on the ]\Iind.

LAW AND POLITICS.

Constitution of the United States, and of the several States,
edition of 1820, by Gales & Seaton; Vattel's Law of Nations;
Federalist, Burlamaquion National and Political Law.

The Testament is superceded in the course of Greek studies
by Xenophon's Anabasis, with the belief that the style of the latter
is more pure and classical. However, it can be read by those
preparing for college.



SERVICE CALLS. 19

The corps of cadets was organized as a battalion. One of the
military instructors served as adjutant. The cadets discharged
in rotation the duties of the commissioned and non-commissioned
officers of the various companies, and as officer of the day. This
method of selecting officers was continued until 1869. The cadets,
for the purpose of perfecting their military duties, occasionally
acted as military instructors. An elaborate set of rules and
regulations was published for the guidance of the cadets. The
first morning roll call came fifteen minutes after the beating of
the reveille. Immediately after this roll call, the rooms were
swept, beds made up, and the furniture arranged in perfect order.
In twenty minutes after the roll call the rooms were inspected by
the officer of the day and a written report was submitted to the
superintendent. From March 20 until September 20, breakfast
was served at 7 a. m., and from September 20 until March 20, at
7.45. Dinner was served throughout the year at 1 p. m. and
supper at sunset. From March 20 until September 20, study
and recitations began at 8 o'clock a. m. and continued until 1 p. m.
and from 2 p. m. until 4 p. m. The hour from four to five was
allowed for recreation and study, and from 5 o'clock until sunset
was devoted to study. From September 20 to March 20, the
study hour commenced at 9 a. m. and continued until 1 p. m.,
and from 2 p. m. until sunset. The cadets were required to study
in their own rooms. From March 20 until September 20
cadets were required to be in their quarters at 8 o'clock p. m., and
from September 20 to March 20, at 7 p. m. At 10 p. m. the
lights were extinguished and all cadets were required to be in
bed.

The cadets were required to attend divine service on Sundays,
and during the remaining time they were required to remain in
their rooms. The reading and study of the Holy Scriptures was
earnestly enjoined upon all the cadets during their leisure hours,
especially on the Sabbath. Prayers were attended each morning
after troop beating and an able chaplain was provided to
conduct the services. A professor had rooms on each floor and
was responsible to the superintendent for the conduct of the cadets.
Strict military inspections were held at least once a month.

For the purpose of giving the students a military appearance
when engaged in military duty and also for the sake of economy,
all cadets were required to wear a uniform dress. Severe disci-
pline was given a cadet if he appeared in civilian dress without
permission. In prescribing this dress it was endeavored to com-



20 NORWICH UNIVERSITY.

bine, as far as possible, cheapness and a neat military appearaiice.
A Hussar jacket of dark blue cloth, with three rows of white bullet
buttons in front, the two outside rows terminating a little past
the top of the shoulders, the intervals between the buttons of each
row to be one-fourth of an inch, standing collar to rise as high as
the tip of the ears, with a button in each angle, and slit longitudi-
nally on the under side, with four buttons of a smaller size set close
on each; the jacket terminating in a peak in front and rear, with two
buttons behind at the bottom of the waist, which must extend as
low as the waist of the person; counter straps on each shoulder
for the purpose of confining the cartridge box and bayonet belts;
small side pockets with four buttons under each flap. Vest, white
for summer, and blue cloth for winter, single breasted, with eight
to ten white bullet buttons of small size. Pantaloons, white for
summer, made either of Russia sheeting or cotton or linen cloth
of domestic manufacture, and of dark blue cloth for winter; the
pantaloons to reach to the shoes, without understraps; and as well
as the other clothing made sufficiently large to allow of the free and
unrestrained use of the limbs, avoiding at the same time unneces-
sary encumbrance. Jefferson shoes, to rise as high as the ankles.
White linen half gaiters for summer, with small bullet buttons,
worn under the pantaloons, black silk or velvet stocldngs, caps
with appropriate trimmings. Plaid great coats, lined with green
baize, with caps and folding collars; the ground work green, with
dark stripes. Every cadet was required to have a proper fatigue
dress, which was worn on all kinds of fatigue duty; the regular
uniform was never allowed to be worn on such duty. To show
Captain Partridge's desire to aid in the building up of an American
industry, we quote from the prospectus: " Captain Partridge would
be highly gratified to see all his pupils clothed in domestic manu-
facture." A tailor was employed at the " Academy" where most
of the uniforms were made.

A stand of muskets sufficient to equip the corps was loaned
to Captain Partridge by the State of Vermont, and when the
"Academy" was moved to Middletown, the State of Connecticut
also loaned the necessary equipment. In March, 1824, Captain
Partridge presented a memorial to Congress asking for the loan
of cannon and ammunition to equip the " Academy' ' and to
enable him to continue his experiments in ordinance. In this
memorial he gives a full account of the founding of the ' 'Academy' '
and the work accomplished at the institution. In 1825 his
request was granted and the U. S. Government loaned him seven



MARCHES. 21

cannon and the necessary ammunition. Much attention was
given to the artillery drill and the instruction in Ordnance.

The practice marches and pedestrian tours were a distinctive
feature of the work at the " Academy.' ' Captain Partridge was
a firm believer in physical training of the young men of the country.
His ideas on this subject are given in his announcement of the
founding of the " Academy.' ' The first trip so far as known was
taken August 2, 1820, to the Kearsarge Mountain, in New Hamp-
shire. Captain Partridge, accompanied by Cadets Hopson and
Buswell, Messrs. Curtis and Flint, juniors of Dartmouth College,
a son of Hon. Mills Olcott of Hanover, and several gentlemen, left
Norwich, August 2, and reached the top of the mountain that day.
Captain Partridge took the elevation as follows: at the foot of
the mountain, 2279 feet, and at the top 3,461 feet. They returned
to Norwich the next day, August 3d.

The corps of cadets left Norwich on the morning of October 8,
182] , for Woodstock. The day was rainy and the roads were very
rough, yet the corps reached their destination at 4 p. m. They
were billeted out with the inhabitants. On Tuesday they were
given a public dinner. Several exhibition drills were given and in
the evening Captain Partridge gave a lecture on "Military Work."
They returned to Norwich, October 10. A committee consisting
of Edward M. Duane, Edward Woodbridge, Cyrus Yeomans,
Benjamin Swan, Jr., and Theodore W. Ely, was appointed by the
corps to extend their thanks to the citizens of Woodstock for the
kind hospitality shown them.

The Woodstock Observer of October 16, 1821, states:

"From the youngest to the oldest, they exhibited the same
manner of dignity which marks so emphatically the aspect and
demeanor of their inimitable instructor."

The corps left Norwich, Friday a. m., October 11, 1822, for
Montpelier, Vermont. The march led through Strafford to Chelsea
where they staid the first night. They reached Montpelier, Satur-
day the 12th, and were given a cordial reception. The cadets were
bUleted out with the inhabitants. They attended church Sunday,
the 13th. The corps paraded at 11 a. m., Monday, in front of the
State House, and were reviewed by the Governor and members
of the Legislature. They gave exhibition drills at 3 p. m., and in
the evening Captain Partridge lectured on the " Battle of Water-
loo.' ' On Tuesday, the 15th, the corps gave exhibition drills and
paraded through the principal streets of the city. Captain Part-
ridge lectured on "National Defense" in the evening. After



22 NORWICH UNIVERSITY.

the address a ball was given in their honor at the Union Hotel.
The corps, after giving several drills Wednesday morning, was
formed in a hollow square and the Rev. Charles Wright, of
the committee of arrangements, made an eloquent prayer. Sev-
eral speeches were made by prominent citizens of Montpelier, to
which Captain Partridge briefly responded. The corps then left
Montpelier and proceeded up the Dog River Valley through Rox-
bury and Randolph, where they staid that night. They reached
Norwich, Thursday night, October 17.

The second march of the Corps was to Concord, N. H. The
corps, organized as a battalion and numbering 115 cadets, left
Norwich at 8 a. m., June 13, 1822. The first day they marched
to Enfield, via Hanover, Lebanon and the Shaker settlement, a
distance of fourteen miles. They reached the residence of J.
Willis, Esq., at 3.30 p. m., where they were welcomed by A. M.
Chase, the Congregational minister, who delivered them a brief
address. They were entertained most royally by Mr. Willis, who
was one of the leading citizens of that town, and the father of
J. F. Willis, one of the cadets. They gave an exhibition drill after
dinner, which was witnessed by a large crowd of people from En-
field and adjoining towns. The next morning they broke camp at
4.00 A. M. and at 7.15 a. m. they reached Captain Stickney's
Tavern in Springfield, where they had breakfast. At 9 a. m. they
reached Moore's Inn at Wilmot, where through the generosity of



Online LibraryWilliam Arba EllisNorwich University, 1819-1911; her history, her graduates, her roll of honor (Volume 1) → online text (page 3 of 61)