William Arba Ellis.

Norwich University, 1819-1911; her history, her graduates, her roll of honor (Volume 1) online

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of a large portion of its students are in the immediate vicinity.
Those members of the chapter who remain in the city occupy a
house which is used as the headquarters of the chapter.

Roy Melville Blanchard, Alpha, "N.U." 1907, was instrumental
in placing on May 21, 1907, Gamma Chapter at the University of
Maine. This chapter was formed from a local society called Delta
Mw. The chapter built and now occupied a house on the campus
which is one of the finest of the many fraternity houses at the

To Harvey Bushnell Davenport, Alpha, "N.U.," 1911, and to the
efforts of Martin A. Murray Jr. R. P. I. 1911, was due the placing of
Delta Chapter, on September 25, 1908, at Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute. The chapter leases its fraternity house.

Epsilon Chapter was formed at Worcester Polytechnic In-
stitute, ^larch 20, 1909, from"a local society called Pi Omega Pi,
through the efforts of Robert'^Thomas Pollack, Beta, M. I. T., 1908,
and Sherman Lougee, Beta, M. I. T., 1909.


A general association of Alumni of the Fraternity was estab-
lished February 22, 1907, at Boston, Mass. This gave way Febru-
ary 20, 1909, to the Boston Alumni Chapter, the first alumni chap-
ter formed.

Questions of government were referred to the parent chapter
previous to the first national convention, December 22, 1906, and
after that date to the convention till the organization of the Grand
Chapter, February 22, 1908. The Grand Chapter is composed of
graduates and was incorporated under the laws of Massachusetts,
June 16, 1908. The legislative power is now vested in the con-
vention; the administrative, executive and judicial in the Grand
Chapter. The constitution was revised in 1893 and again in 1909.

Conventions of the fraternity were held at Boston, ]\Iass.,
December 22, 1908, and February 20, 1909. Summer meetings
are held in or about Boston at which all active and graduate
members, within reach of the city, are present.

Two rosters of the fraternity have been published, both l)y
Alpha Chapter; one in 1894 and the other in 1906, on the occasion of
the fifteenth anniversary of the organization of the fraternity.
The official badge is a coiled serpent with its tail crossed to form
a." 6" and two crossed swords to form a " X.' ' A secondary badge
has the serpent and crossed swords mounted on enamel with a" 6"
above and a" X" below the emblem. The edges are jewelled.

Among the prominent alumni are: Charles Foster Sayles, '57,
engineer on construction of Hoosac Tunnel; Edward Bancroft
Williston, '56, brigadier general U. S. A., retired, Portland, Oregon;
George Albert Converse, '63, rear-admiral U. S. N.; Henry Elijah
Alvord, '63, major, Massachusetts cavalry, college president and
prominent agriculturist; Julius Jacob Estey, '64, brigadier general,
Vermont Guard, president of the Estey Organ Co.; William
Rutherford Mead, '64, distinguished architect; Henry Moses
Phillips, '64, brevet captain, Massachusetts volunteers, state
senator, state treasurer of Massachusetts and director in many
corporations; Joseph Hiram Goulding, '65, lieutenant U. S. C. L,
military secretary of Vermont and bank treasurer; Benjamin
Kearney Roberts, '65, brigadier general, U. S. A., retired;
Holland Newton Stevenson, chief engineer. United States
Navy; George Brainard Blodgett, '67, genealogist, historian
and lawyer; William Richard Cutter, '68, librarian, author,
historian and genealogist; William Henry Wentworth, '68,
civil engineer, builder of many railroads; Walter Dole, '70, clergy-
man; Burleigh Franklin Spalding, '77, lawyer, member of Congress,



judge; Charles Horace Spooner, '78, educator, president ot Norwich
University; Prof. John Benjamin Johnson, '79, A. M., C. E., edu-
cator and for many years professor at N. U.; Henry Blanchard
Hersey, '85, meteorologist, "Rough Rider" and aerial navigator;
Robert liston Irish, '89, physician; Edward Aiken Shuttleworth,
'91, captain U. S. A.; DeWitt CHnton Webb, '92, civil engineer,
U. S. Navy; Robert Henry Ford, '92, C. E., railroad engineer, mem-
ber American Society of Civil Engineers; Ernest Willard Gibson,
'97, lawyer and state senator; Winifred Ballard Carr, '97, captain
U. S. artillery corps.



The AIIJ fraternity was founded in the earl}' part of the
year, 1857, by Byron H. Kilbourn, '60, Edgar Parker, '59, Robert
E. Hitchcock, '59, George W. Field, '60, Henry A. Robbins, '60,
William J. DePoincy, '61, and Julius R. Richardson, '61. Byron
H. Kilbourn was the prime mover in its organization. He liad
l)een for some time a student at Yale University and a member of a
leading fraternity in that institution. He was a popular student
and a leader in the corps of cadets, and was able to secure the co-
operation of several of the most prominent men in the University.

The first ritual was written by Kilbourn and used by the
Fraternity until 1858, when Charles A. Curtis, '61, became a mem-
ber. The work of remodeling the ritual was given to him, and
through his energetic work the fraternity was placed on a sound
footing, and it soon became the largest and most prosperous at the

In 1869, Captain Curtis again thoroughly revised the ritual,
making several important changes in the work. For a time the
fraternity held its meeting in the North Barracks and hiter a house
was secured.

Through the good work of the fraternity many of the ablest
cadets joined its ranks. Forty-six, or sixty-five percent of the
members, from 1861 to 1868, served in the Civil War. The rank
held by the men was as follows : colonel and brevet brigadier, 1 ;
colonel, 1; lieutenant colonels, 2; major, 1; lieutenant commander,
U. S. N., 1; paymaster U. S. N., 1; captains, 14; 1st lieutenants,
8; second lieutenants, 4; sergeant major, 1; first sergeant, 1; cor-
poral, 1 ; privates, 10; drill masters, 4.

Robert E. Hitchcock, '59, 2d lieutenant, U. S. Marine corps,
was killed at the first battle of Bull Run, while leading his com-
pany in a charge. He was the first Vermonter and the second
cadet to die in the support of the Union. Thomas O. Seaver, '59,
and Charles B. Stoughton, '61, as colonels of the 3d and 4th Ver-
mont Regiments, respectivel}', became distinguished in the war.
Colonel Seaver received a Congressional a\ledal of Honor in recog-
nition of his distinguished services. Julius R. Richardson, '61,
saw much exciting service as paymaster on the U. S. S. Harriet
Lane. Theodore H. Kellogg, '62, Charles F. Tillinghast, '64, Charles
E. Bush, '63, and William S. Dewey, '63, were prominent in the
organization of the "College Cavaliers." (q. v.) Curtis S. Barrett,
'63, performed distinguished service in the quartermaster's de-



partment U. S. Volunteers. Gustavus M. Bascom, '60, and Charles
A. Curtis, '61, gained distinction in the regular service. Arthur W.
White, '67, Avas a 1st lieutenant in President Lincoln's body guard.
Thomas W. Eayre, '61, gained distinction as captain and assistant
adjutant general, U. S. Volunteers. He was shot through the heart
while carrying important despatches at the battle of Spottsylvania
Court House. Henry A. Robbins, '60, served as surgeon in the
Wisconsin volunteers; also as major in the National (luard of
Fi'ance, (hu'ing the seige of Paris in 1.S70.

Upon the removal of the
University to Northfleld in
1866, the fraternity secured
rooms in the Depot buikling,
which were used imtil Mai-ch
'24, 1S77, Avhen a large room
was obtained on the third
floor of Jackman Hall, now
number 35. On April 7. 1S77,
the first meeting at the Bar-
racks was held in A. B.
(iuimby's room. Later in
the same year the small room
adjoining the fraternity was
secured, thus giving more
ample cjuarters for the work
of the fraternit}'.

By an act of the State
legislature, approved Novem-
ber 23, 1872, the fraternity
Alpha Sigma Pi House, Norwich. ^^..^g incorporated and author-

ized to "own p)'operty and maintain a library and cabinet."
The incorporators were: ^V. (i. Owen, '71, James P. Caldwell, '69,
and Francis Kim])all, 72. .7.277 was the first fi-atei'nity incor-
|)orated at the University.

In 1908, the charter was amended, and its scope enlarged.
The first trustees authorized by the charter were: M. D. Smith, '81,
N. L. Sheldon, '84, H. C. Cady, '91, F. S. Clark, '09 and Everett
Collins, '10.

In 1889, the fraternity secured two rooms on the second floor
of Central Block, over the rooms now occupied by C. S. Richmond
and F. S. Dyke. Here the fraternity remained until the summer
of 1895, when it rented commodious rooms on the west end of the


second floor of the old Governor Paine block. The rooms were
finel}^ fitted up. The well selected library of several hundred
volumes was catalogued and a reading room was begun.

On May 14, 1899, the Governor Paine block was burned, and
in the same year, through the assistance of the alumni members,
the fraternity purchased the property it now owns on the corner
of Main and Parade Streets. The land, about one and one-half
acres, extending west to the University property and south to
the U. S. Weather Bureau grounds, is one of the most valuable
ites in town.

In 1S99, the interior of the house was remodeled, and since
this date several changes have been made; but a larger house is
now needed and steps are being taken t(» secure a building that
Willi be a credit to All! and '" X. U." In 1907, the fraternity
published, under the editorship of F. S. Clark, '09, W. P. Fraser,
'08, and R. A. Eaton, '08, a history and roster of the members,
a work of 87 pages.

The total niemljership to date is 455. The active member-
ship, 32. Many of the members have become prominent in the
various walks of life. Edward D. Adams, '64, is one of the most
prominent "Captains of Industry" in this country. C. E. Rich,
'63, W. y. Dewey, '63, J. J. Dewey, '65, Channing Swett, '66, H.
J. Howe, '69, W. R. Dorr, '72, Franklin J. Saxe, '73, H. B. Thayer,
'77, W. P. Clement, '73, H. C. Cady, '91, R. B. Denny, '91, and
H. A. Woodi'uff, '91, have met ^\•ith marked success in business and
banking. The following members have gained prominence in
the profession of law: A. B. Johnson, '67; C. ^I. Johnston, '73;
L. S. Cull, '80; N. L. Sheldon, '84: E. R. Juckett, '89; H. N.
Cross, '89, and C. A. Plumley, '96. Charles A. Curtis, '61, was a
well known Avriter. Charles Marseilles, '69, George D. Thomas,
'76, CJeorge R. Miner, '83, and L. B. Johnson, '88, have met with
marked success as editors. William M. Rumbaugh, '76, was
for many years a faithful professor at "N. U." M. A. Howe,
'82, C. K. Mellen, '84, E. A. Shaw, '91, A. E. Winslow, '98, and
K. R. B. Flint, '03, are successful teachers.

A large number of the members are meeting with success as
civil engineers. C. W. ilead, '81, gained prominence as an engi-
neer in the Philippine Islands and China. Among the other suc-
cessful engineers are C. G. Griffith, '73, C. J. Luck, '76, F. W.
Conn, '81, H. I. Bettis, '85, C. H. Cheney, '86, C. H.Nichols, '86,
W. E. Hassam, '87, W. S. Prior, '89, F. H. Clark, '89, C. F. Parker,
'90, Charles Collins, '90, H. F. Holden '94, F. C. Davis, '95,


John L. Collins, '96, J. L. Averill, '96, F. W. Denison, '98, F. T.
Bass, '01, L. B. Stebbins, '01, and H. C. E. Rainey, '04.

The following members are officers in the U. S. Army: cap-
tain, F. T. Austin, '88; 2d lieutenants, G. F. Waugh, '01; W. F.
Rol)inson, '03; M. D. Wheeler, '03; K. F. Baldwin, '08; F. S.Clark,
'09; Everett Collins, '10. The following members are now
officers in tlie U. S. Marine Corps: captains, H. I. Bearss, '98,
and Seth Williams, '03; 1st lieutenants, H. 0. Smith, '04; 2d
lieutenant, D. F. Smith, '08. George P. Colvocresses, '66, is a
rear-admiral U. S. N. (retired) and W. Pierce Brf)wn, '07, is a
passed midshipman in the Navy.

A iunn])erof the most prominent graduates and past cadets
have joined the fraternity as honorary members. The follow-
ing cadets, now deceased, were for many years active in the
interest of the fraternity; George W. I^alloch, '47; Gen. Newell
Gleason, '49; Dr. George P. Greeley, '53; Capt. W. H. H. Hall, '47;
Col. H. O. Kent, '54; George W. Hobbs, '59; Prof. Asa Howe, '43;
Col. Charles H. Long, '55; Col. Chailes H. Lewis, '55, and Gen.
Edmund Rice, '60. Of the honorary members now living,
mention should be made of the services of Gen. G. M. Dodge,
'51, Rev. H. F. Hill, '67, O. S. Tenney, '45, and Samuel T. Wellman,
'66. The members of the fraternity have been distinguished
for their loyalty to their Alma Mater, neglecting the needs of the
fraternity, when the interests of the University demanded aid.
Gen. G. j\I. Dodge, '51, and Edward D. Adams, '64, were the
heaviest subscribers toward building Alumni Hall. They have
also given liberally to the University for other needs. W. R.
Dorr, '73, was a liberal supporter of the University. W. S. Dewey,
'63, John J. Dewey, '65, W. P. Clement, '72, E. McC. Peters, '80,
and N. L. Sheldon, '84, have also given the University much
financial assistance. Capt. Curtis S. Barrett, '63, through his
magnificent gift of $100,000 to the University, proved a bene-
factor to the Institution.



On May 9, 1905, twelve students of Norwich formed a local
fraternity known as the Delta Kappa Psi, which had'for its charter
members Percival Sinclair, and the following cadets of the class
of 1908: Irving B. Edwards, Irving R. Bickford, Philip V. Sher-
man, Thomas W. Brown, Ernest C. White, Hollis L. Miiller, Wil-
liam L. Norton, Fay H. C. Groves, Harry A. Nims, and Leonard
J. Clarkson.

After existing about two years as a local society the members
decided to petition a national fraternity for a charter. This
they secured on March 18, 1908. The local chapter then became
Xi Alpha Sigma Phi Epsilon. At the conclave held in Chicago
the same 3'ear, the enumeration of chapters by states was adopted
and the local name became Vermont Alpha Chapter.

The fraternity publishes a quarterly known as the "Sigma
Phi Epsilon Journal' ' and conclaves have been held as follows:
1904, Richmond, Va.; 1905, Pittsburg and Washington, Pa.;
1906, Philadelpla, Pa.; 1907, Richmond, Va.; 190S, Chicago, 111.;
1910, Washington, D. C.

Sigma Phi Epsilon was founded at Richmond College, Richmond
Va., in 1901, by W. L. Phillips, Carter A. Jenkins, Benjamin D.
Gaw, W. Hugh Carter, Thomas T. Wright, William A. Wallace.

The fraternity was incorporated under the laws of Virginia
in 1902, and at present consists of 27 active chapters with a mem-
bership of over 300.

The chapter roll is as follows :

Va. Alpha — Richmond College.

W. Va. Beta— W. Va., University.

Pa. Beta — Jefferson Med. College.

Pa. Gamma — Uni ^ersity of Pittsburg.

111. Alpha— College of P. and S. Univ. of 111.

Colorado Alpha — University of Colorado.

Pa. Delta-Univ. of Pennsylvania.

Va. Delta — College of William and Mary.

N. C. Beta— N. C. Col. of Agr. and Mech. Arts.

Ohio Alpha — Ohio Northern Univ.

Ind. Alpha — Purdue Univ.

N. Y. Alpha — Syracuse Univ.



Va. Epsilon — Washington and Lee Univ.
Va. Zeta — Randolph-Macon College
Ga. Alpha — Ga. School of Technology.
Del. Alpha — Delaware College.
Va. Eta — Univ. of Virginia.
Ark. Alpha — Univ. of Arkansas.
Pa. Epislon — Lehigh University.
Va. Theta — Va. Military Listitutc.
Ohio Gamma — Ohio State University.
Vt. Alpha — Norwich University.
Ala. Alpha — Ala. Polytec. Listitute.
N. C. Gamma — Trinity College.
N. H. Alpha — Dartmouth College.
D. C. Alpha-Geo. Washington Univ.
Kansas Alpha — Baker University.



Until 1902, the dX and the AIIT fraternities had been able
to furnish society life for all the cadets; but with the increased
attendance and the consecjuent restriction of the membei'shij)
of the fraternities, a number of the men were left without societ}'
affiliations. In 1903, the non-fraternity men perfected a partial
organization and in that year lield a banquet. After that date
several l)anquets were held, usually at"Uoc" Janyrin's farm. In
the winter of 1906, the Commons Club was organized at a din-
ner at the Northfield Ibmse, and at that time forty men signetl
the constitution, but several dropped out when the JK'J\ now llie
2'0E, fraternity was formed.

For some time the club held its meetings in the cha|)eL
Later, the Professor Dole house at the Center wt;s rented and
fitted up as a club house. In 1908, the new hous > adjoining
Professor Shaw's residence at the Center was rented. In Feljru-
ary 1910, the active members of the club, cherishing longings
that only fraternity affiliations could satisfy, organized the (PKJ
fraternity, and the existence of the Commons Club was suddenly
terminated. The alumni of the clul) strenoush' opposed the
movement, but without success.

In the fall of 1910, the Ciuestion of I'e-organizing thecluljwas
discussed by the under graduates and the alumni of the old club.
Through the energetic work of M. J. Buck, '12, and D. E. Field,
'11, a permanent organization was finally perfected in December.
In December, 1910, the organization was incorporated by the state
legislature as the Commons Club of Norwich L^niversity. Tiie
Professor Dole house at the Center, which had been opened in
September as a cadet boarding hall, was secured as a clul) house.
Through the assistance of the alunmi members of the old club, and
benevolent friends, the house has been comfortably furnished.

The basic principle of the club is the idea that college life,
especially in small colleges, should be more in common, and that
fraternities as operating at Norwich are destructive to a true
democratic spirit and injurious to military discipline. Consequently
the organization aims to give a chance to the non-fraternity
men to become better acquainted with each other.

The Conmions Club is not a local institution, but is a federa-
tion of clubs of non-fraternity men from several colleges. W'esle}'-
an is the oldest member and it was from her that the Norwich
branch took its name and organization. It was by the efforts


of the Norwich club that the national club was formed at a meet-
ing in the Dartmouth Commons house in the winter of 1906-07.
At the next convention there were delegates from Wesleyan,
Amherst, Brown, Union, Middlebury and Norwich. The third
meeting was held early in 1909, in Northfield. The strong Tufts
club was added to the membership. At present there are five
clubs: Middlebury, Tufts, Union, Wesleyan and Norwich in
the federation and other clubs are to be admitted during the
year. This organization seems to solve the problem of the non-
fraternity men, but its work will not be completed until the non-
fraternity men in every college are taken care of and are joined
in one great body.

W. S. Clark, '06, served as the first president of the club and
T. J. Holland, '07, as the first vice-president. T. J. Holland, '07,
was the second president and continued in office till the middle
of the year 1906-07, wdien he left the club to join a fraternity;
R. C. North,y08, was then elected to succeed him and followed
in his steps somewhat later.

The presidents of the club have been as follows : W. S. Clarke,
'06, 1906; T. J. Holland, '07, June-1906, Jan-1907; R. C. North, '08,
January-June, 1907; F. V. Bourdon, '08, and R. V. Root,
'08, 1907-08; H. T. Clark, '09, 1908-09. The officers for
1910-11 are as follows : president, Uorr E. Field, '11; vice-president,
Milton Jacobs, '12; secretary, Archie R. Cram, '12; treasurer,
Arthur E. Taplin, '12; steward, Myron J. Buck, '12.


1906. Cole, Ray A.
Carbonell, J. J\l. Dunlop, Robert
Clark, W. S. Ripley, Edward

1907. ^eiple, R. H.

T^ . 1 -^ T-> Whitman, C. E.

Frink, C. U. '

Hoyt, D. LeRoy ^qjq

Leonard, O. Y.

Lindsey, G. P. *Barrows, Martin

Parker, E. F. DilUngham, G. W.

Sharp, W. H. Noyes, Albert

Bourdon, F.V.

Chase, S. I. Cosman, A. M.

McCarthy, F.J. Donahue, Edward J.

Root, R. V. Durfee, Edson W.

iSjovall, A. H. Field, Dorr E.

1909. King. D. E.

Adams, Conrad LinteUe, G. W.

Auge,L.E. Tong,G.H.

Cassidy, C. P. , Uman, G. L.



Buck, Myron J.
Cram, Archie R.
Hooper, Norman
Jacobs, Milton
Taplin, Arthur E.
Whipple, Charles L

Ayers, Max G.
Butler, HowardL.
Cheney, PaulE.
Marcott, Albert II.
Miller, George F.
Whitney, John


Barnes, CUnton C.
Cheney, Stewart
Collins, Edward j .
Fisher, Harry C.
Lawrence, Homer H.
Patterson, Daniel W.
Reaside, Edmund R.
Sparhawk, ]\Iaurice C.
Towsley, Pliilip C.
Wheeler, Alton G.
Yarrington, Eugene N.


A pleasing incident took place in the camp of the Vermont
regiment at Chickamauga Park, Ga., on Wednesday evening of
June 29, 1898. The members of the dX and AJfl fraternities,
who were serving in the regiments, held a joint fraternity meet-
ing and banquet in the tent of Capt. F. L. Howe, '79, of Co. F.
Aljout twelve members were present. It is stated that an elabo-
rate menu was served.

The toasts Avere responded to as follows: "Old 'N. U.,'"
Lieut. Carl G. Dole, '91; "Recollections of the War of '98, and
the Shooting of the Spanish Spy," Corp. R. G. Rich, '00; "Al)-
sent Members," Private L. A. Skinner, '96; song, "It Is My Last
Cigar," Corp. F. L. Howes, '96; "The Tin Soldiers: May their
Valor Never Diminish," George F. Baley, '93; "The Future of
the Sigma Theta," Sergt. H. R. Dole, '96; Hospital Sergt. Homer
J. Dane gave an interesting dissertation of some of the al)struce
details of his department. Lieut. George Tilden of Co. F re])-
resented the trustees of "N. U."




The peculiar conditions of affairs existing in the Norwich
('omnions Club, and which existed for two years, led those most
interested in her future welfare to do something which would
put the club in its real light and position before the college and
the community at large. Accordingly after deep and mature
consideration the club, on February 12, 1910, voted to change
its name to the Phi Kappa Delta Fraternity. The general
prosperity of the fraternity since then has justified the action
of its members in changing its name.

The early history of the fraternity is Ihal of the Norwich
Commons Club and will not be repeated here.

Its present home is a pleasant three-story building on Soutii
Main street, near the Center village.

The active members are as follows:

Julian W. Alger
Louis W. Balcoia
Woon Luy Chun
Tyler W. Earle
Paul S. Emerson
Walter B. Frost
Everett T. Giles
Harold A. Kendall:
Frank L. Robinson
Joseph H. Whitney


Neal W. Beattii!
Glen M. Eastman
George G. Foster
Julian O. Goodrich
Millard W. Bark
Albert J. Riley
Fenton J. ^^mith
Leslie E. Stevens
Bert J. Young
>'->* 1912.

Walter F. Adams
Carroll F. Blanchanl
Giles A. Hutchinson
Clyde F. Joslyn.
Hei-man C. Ivendall

Frederick C. McCarthy
Earl H. Parkman
Alanson E. Piatt
William E. Scanlon
Herbert M. Sherwin
Edward P. Therrio
Louis R. Witt


Leslie M. Adams
Clayton H. Alvord
Charles B. Burch
Francis T. Burke
Francis X. Lee
Joseph P. Lee
Sidney W. Marble
Edmund P. Shaw
Lyman E. Snow
Harold H. Thompson
Raymond H. Underhill

RoUin A. Burditt,
Stanley G . Kendall
Francis M. Mahard
Lee J. Scott
Arthur C. Shepard
William W. Washburn



The General Alumni Association of the University had its
origin in the Friendship Clubs, founded in 1852

In 1852, the graduating class, together with congenial friends
among the under graduates, organized the Friendship Club, No. 1,
which pledged itself to meet in Nor\\'ich at the commencement
of 1860. Ivich succeeding 3'car, clul)s were formed uiiHl the reunion
in 1860.

The organization of Friendship Clul), No. 2 was as follows:

Norwich, Vt., Juno 22, 185.3.

"We, the undersigned, members jokI former members of Norwich Uni-
versity do by our signatures vohintarily organize ourselves into a society
for the purpose of keeping in remembrance those friendly feelings and that
brotherly regard which now exists among us.

"This society shall be called the Friendship Club, Nunil)cr 2. Its
officers shall be a President, Vice-President and Secretary.

"Providence permitting, we hereby pledge ourselves that we will meet

Online LibraryWilliam Arba EllisNorwich University, 1819-1911; her history, her graduates, her roll of honor (Volume 1) → online text (page 49 of 61)