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any government, the system of education must be based upon, and in con-
formity to, its poHtical institutions.

3d. Resolved: That the Universities and Colleges in the United Slates
were generally modeled after those of Europe, which were designed for a state
of political society different from that in which we live, being calculated to
confine the advantages of education to the higher orders of society.

4th. Resolved: That in a Republic, a primary object of education should
be to form patriotic citizens, by inculcating a love of liberty and a hatred
of oppression under whatever form it may appear.

5th. Resolved: That those who have the immediate direction of the
education of our youth, should notr only be possessed of profound and
extensive attainments in science and literature, but also be men of plain man-
ners, of republican principles, of practical experience, who by their example
as well as precept shall form citizens fitted to uphold our free institutions and
elevate our national character to that proud eminence it seems destined to

Gth. Resolved: That sectarian views on religious subjects should not
be inculcated; but the Bible.itself be placed in the hands of the students without
reference to conflicting expositions which various sects have attached to it.

7th. Resolved: That as the perpetuity of our Republican institutions
depends upon the general intelligence of the people, our higher seminaries
of learning should be organized so as to afford the means of instruction to the
greatest possible number.

1st. By reducing the expenses to the smallest amount consistent
with a support sufficiently liberal to secure the services of competent in-

2nd. By allowing persons desirous of pursuing any particular branch of
science or literature, to do so without being obliged to attend to any other.

3d. By permitting each individual to proceed in his studies as rapidly
as possible, not subject to delay by being classed with others of less acquire-
ments, talent or industry.

4th. By affording the most ample means of instruction in the applica-
tion of science to the practical purposes of life.

8th. Resolved: That youth while acquiring an education should be
subjected to some system of regular, manly and useful exercise, by which
the physical energies shall acquire the greatest practicable degree of strength
and stability. Therefore:

Resolved: That with a view to promote these great and important
objects, we agree to form ourselves into an Association, to be styled

and that we will be governed by the following Constitution:

Article 1. The Officers of this Association shall consist of a President,
Vice-President, Secretary and seven Counsellors; to be elected at each annual
meeting of the Association by a majority of voters present; the President,
Vice-President and Secretary to be ex-officio members of the board of coun-


Aet. 2. The President shall preside at and govern all meetings of
the Association.

Aht. 3. The Vice-President shall discharge the duties of President in
case of his absence.

Art. 4. It shall be the duty of the Secretary to record all the trans-,
actions of the Association, carry on the necessary correspondence and act
as treasurer.

Art. 5. It shall be the duty of the Counsellors to elect members, attend
to all subjects of general interest to the welfare of the Association and adopt
ways and means for promoting the great objects of the same.

Art. 6. A meeting of the Association shall be holden at Norwich, Vt.,
on the first Tuesday of September, annually.

Art. 7. This Constitution may be amended by a majority of the mem-
bers present at any annual meeting.

The above report was unanimously adopted, when, agreeably to the
provisions of the Constitution, the following Officers were elected, viz:

President, Capt. Alden Partridge, Superintendent of the A. L. S. & M.
Academy, Norwich, Vermont.

Vice-President, E. B. Williston, President of Jefferson College, Miss.

Secretarj% T. B. Ransom, Professor of Mathematics at the A. L. S. & M.
Academy, Norwich, Vt.

/V. B. Horton, Esq., Pittsburg, Pa.
I E. F. Johnson, Esq., Middletown, Conn,
plaj. J. Holbrook, Superintendent of Jefferson College, Miss.
Counsellors. /Doctor E. Phelps, Windsor, Vt.

jDoctor J. Barratt, Middletown, Conn.

H. P. Woodworth, Professor of Mathematics, Richland Schools.
\B. M.Tyler, Principal of the Instructor's School, Franklin, N.H."

V. B. Horton, Esq., was then appointed orator for the next
annual meeting and J. H. Tracy, Esq., to deliver a poem on the
same occasion. On motion of Mr. Williston, it was resolved that
the President and Secretary be authorized to elect members to
the association until the next afinual meeting.

It was then voted, for the purpose of defraying the expense
of printing and postage, that members on signifying their assent
to subscribe to this Constitution, pay to the Secretary at least one

On motion of ^Nlr. Seymour, the meeting adjoiu-ned until the
fii'st Thursday in September, 1832, next, it being the anniversary
of the " A. L. S. & M. Academy."


NoKWiCH University, 1834-43.

The University Chartered — Faculty — Entrance Requirements —
Departments op Instruction — Courses of Study — Library — Text
Books Used — Military Regulations — Marches — Expenses — Athletics —
Commons — Theatricals — Literary Societies — "N. U." and Dart-
mouth Feuds — Commencements — Military Conventions — Ladies' Semi-
nary Founded — President Partridge Resigns — Truman B. Ransom
Elected President.

In the early thirties the Universalist Church was desirous of
founding a college in New England. A convention for this pur-
pose was first held in Claremont, N. H. in 1833. The convention
adjourned to meet in Woodstock early in 1834. General T. B.
Ransom, acting for Captain Partridge, invited the convention to
adjourn to Norwich and inspect the "Academy" buildings with
the idea of taking the property for their college. The convention
met in Norwich in May, 1834. This convention was composed of
two parties; one was desirous of having a perfectly liberal institu-
tion and the other of making the new college a denominational
one. The liberal party prevailed and it was voted to take the

On November 6, 1834, the legislature of Vermont chartered
the " Academy' ' as the Norwich University. The following
gentlemen were the incorporators : Josiah Dana, Jedediah H. Harris,
Silas H. Jennison, Caleb Keith, William Noble, David P. Noyes,
Samuel C. Allen, John Wright, Joshua Stowe, Isaac N. Cushman
and Jonathan P. Miller. The complete draft of the charter is
given in Chapter XII.

Thus the University was founded under the patronage of the
Universalist denomination. This patronage continued until the
resignation of Captain Partridge in 1843.

The first meeting of the board of trustees was held in the
North College building, December 3, 1834, and Captain Partridge
was elected president, and Truman B. Ransom, vice-president.
On February 21, 1834, a committee consisting of Henry Hale,
D. A. A. Buck and Ira Davis was appointed to appraise, the old
"Academy" property; on August 28, 1835, their appraisal was


accepted. At a meeting of the trustees January 14, 1835, Captain
Partridge and T. B. Ransom were appointed to compile the course
of study and the by-laws of the University.

On March 9, 1835, Captain Partridge was appointed general
agent to collect funds and in August, 1835, Rev. B. F. Fuller and
Rev. Russell Streeter were appointed agents to collect money in
Vermont and Rev. John G. Adams as agent for New Hampshire.
In September, 1840, Captain Partridge was authorized by the trus-
tees of the University to conduct the Institution on his own re-
sponsibility. This arrangement continued until 1843.

The faculty, 1834-36, consisted of Alden Partridge, A. M.,
president and professor of Moral and Intellectual Philosophy, His-
tory, Science of Government, Political Economy, Military Science
and lecturer on Military and Political Subjects; Truman B. Ran-
som, vice-president and professor of Natural and Experimental
Philosophy, Mathematics, Theoretical and Practical, and Civil
Engineering; M. Noras, instructor in Ancient and Modern Lan-
guages; Cadet Benjamin F. Marsh and Cadet Josiah W. Horr,
instructors in the English and Scientific Departments.

Prof. M. Noras resigned in August, 1836, and Prof. Zera
Colburn, A. M., the distinguished mathematician and a former
cadet at the "Academy,' ' was elected professor of English Litera-
ture, Latin, Greek, French and the Spanish languages.

Professor Ransom resigned in the spring of 1836 and H. P.
Woodworth, '25, was elected vice president and professor of
Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, Civil Engineering, Topographi-
cal Drawing and Military Instructor. Alonzo Jackman, '36, was
appointed instructor of Mathematics in the fall of 1836, and Cadet
Josiah Swett, Jr., assistant instructor in English Literature.

In 1837, Hiram P. Woodworth resigned as vice-president and
this office was vacant until 1842; Instructor Jackman became
professor of Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, Civil Engineering,
Topographical Drawing and Military instructor; Cadets Johnson,
Shedd, and Jehiel Lellie were instructors in Mathematics and
English Literature. In 1838, Instructors Shedd and Lellie be-
came assistant professors in Mathematics and English Literature.

In December, 1840, Cadet Richardson was appointed in-
structor of Mathematics and in August, 1841, was advanced to a
full professorship, which position he held until June 29, 1844. In
December, 1840, H. Villiers Morris, '36, was appointed professor of
Civil Engineering, Topographical Drawing, and ^lilitary Instruc-
tor, which position he held until 1843. Cadet Alvin E. Bovay


was instructor in Ancient and Modern Languages; Cadets Stephen
N. Warren and James V. A. Shields were appointed assistant
instructors in Mathematics and E. B. Perkins professor of Music.
In 1841, James V. A. Shields and Alvin E. Bovay resigned and
Stephen N. Warren was appointed instructor in Mathematics.
In 1842, Stephen N. Warren resigned and Aaron Loveland was
elected vice-president.

The catalogue published in the fall of 1836 gives the attendance
as 107, distributed as follows : Primary department, 53; Collegiate
department, 36; Civil Engineering department, 18. The attend-
ance by classes for the years 1834-43 was as follows: 1835, 2; 1836,
4; 1837, 13 graduates, 7 non-graduates; 1838, 7 graduates, 70
non-graduates; 1839, 14 graduates, 27 non-graduates; 1840, 9
graduates, 22 non-graduates; 1841, 17 graduates, 24 non-graduates;
1842, 13 graduates, 20 non-graduates; 1843, 10 graduates, 12 non-

The requirements for entrance in 1835, we give from the
prospectus :

"Each candidate for admission into the University must not be less
than fourteen years of age; must be of good moral character, and also possess
a correct grammatical knowledge of the English Language, be well versed in
Arithmetic, and also in the Elements of Geography and History. Candidates
who have advanced farther in any department of knowledge than what is re-
quired in the foregoing, will be allowed to take their stations in the Univer-
sity according to their qualifications, without being charged any back tuition.
None can be admitted for a less term than one quarter, of twelve weeks. The
most appropriate times for joining the University would be at the commence-
ment in August and also at the close of the winter vacation. Students,
however, will be admitted at any time."

During 1836 and 1837 students were not admitted to the
Primary department under ten years of age. The requirements
for the Collegiate department were a thorough knowledge of
Arithmetic, English Grammar, Elements of Geography and
History. The requirements for the Civil Engineering department
were the same as in the Collegiate department. During 1838-43,
the requirements were the same as in 1837 excepting that no
student was admitted under twelve years of age.

During the years 1835-38 the instruction at the University
was divided into four departments: Collegiate, Civil Engineering,
Teachers' and Primary. This last department was dropped in 1838.
During the year 1835-38 the attendance was 97. The
Teachers' department was designed to prepare the students for the


profession of teaching, and embraced thorough instruction in the
following subjects: Arithmetic, Grammar, Rhetoric, Composition,
Geography, including the use of maps and globes. History, Ele-
ments of Natural Philosophy and Bookkeeping; lectures were
given by Captain Partridge on school management. The course
was discontinued in 1837.

During 1835-42, instruction in the Collegiate department was
as follows : Algebra, Geometry, construction and use of Logarithms,
Plane and Spherical Trigonometry, Mensuration of Heights and
Distances, Planometry, Stereometry, Practical Geometry generally,
use of instruments, particularly the chain, circumferator, level,
theodolite, quadrant, sextant, use of the barometer with its appli-
cation to measuring mountains and other eminences. Navigation,
Conic Sections, Differential and Integral Calculus, Mechanics,
Pneumatics, Hydrostatics, Magnetism and Electricity, Optics,
Astronomy, Chemistry, Geography, History, the English Language
and English Literature, Composition, Rhetoric, Logic, Declamation,
Ethics, the Elements of Natural and Political Law, the Laws of
Nations, Military Law, the Constitution of the United States,
Metaphysics, Civil Engineering, Topographical Drawing, Military
Drawing, Architecture, Military Science, Theoretical and Practical.

Ancient and Modern Languages were taught to all who might
wish to pursue them ; and those who attended to one or all of them,
were in addition to their diploma, to be entitled to a certificate
signed by the president and vice-president, stating the progress
made in such languages; weekly exercises were required in Dec-
lamation and Composition.

The ancient languages, although not required for the attain-
ment of the honors of the University, were a part of the Collegiate
course; and the Latin authors of this department could be substi-
tuted, by those who did not intend to become practical engineers,
for that part of the ]\Iathematical course which followed Conic
Sections. No one was permitted to commence the study of Latin
or Greek who did not purpose to continue it for at least one year.

The instruction in the department of Engineering embraced
the following subjects: Algebra, Geometry, construction and use of
Logarithms, Plane and Spherical Trigonometry, Mensuration of
Heights and Distances, Planometry, Stereometry, Practical
Geometry generally, including particularly Surveying and Level-
ling, Descriptive Geometry, Conic Sections, Mechanics, Statics,
Hydrostatics, Chemistry, Geology, Architecture, Construction of
Common Roads and Railroads, Canals, Locks, Bridges, Aque-


ducts, Viaducts; also the English and French languages, Geo-
graphy and History. Much practical field work was given. The
students in this department were carefully trained in Declamation,
weekly exercises in composition being required.

A thorough course in Military Science was given to all the
students of the University. Instruction was given in the ele-
mentary school of the soldier, company and battalion; regular
formation of military parades; the turning off, mounting and
relieving guards and sentinels; the duties of officers of the guard,
officers of the day and adjutants; the making out correctly the
different descriptions of military reports; permanent and field
fortifications; the construction of Marine Batteries; ArtUlery Duty;
the principles of Gunnery; the attack and defense of Fortified
places; Castrametation ; Ancient Fortification; the ancient mode
of attacking and defending Fortified places; the Ancient Tactics,
particularly those of the Greeks and Romans — with a description
of the organization and discipline of the Phalanx and Legion. The
military exercises were given at those hours of the day which were
generally passed by students in idleness or devoted to useless
amusements, for which they were made a pleasing and healthful

The Modern Languages, Music and Fencing were given as
extras to those students who desired the work, and an annual
course of lectures was given by Captain Partridge on the following
subjects: "The Constitution of the United States, and the
Science of Government generally"; "Political Economy including
Agriculture, Commerce and Manufactures"; " Geography, History,
Natural Philosophy, including Astronomy"; "Education"; "Na-
tional Defense"; "Internal Improvement" and "Military

The first notice of the library appears in the University
records under date of May 3, 1836. Hiram P. Woodworth, vice-
president of the University, and Dr. Ira Davis were appointed a
committee to report on the condition of the library. Prof. Wood-
worth was appointed the first librarian of the University, May 3,
1836, which position he held until he went to Illinois in 1837. It
is not stated definitely who succeeded him as librarian, but it is
thought Dr. Ira Davis served as librarian 1837-40. Alvin E.
Bovay held this office in 1840-41 and John M. Barnard in 1841-42.

A board of Medical examiners was appointed with the power
to examine and recommend to the trustees the persons for the


degree of M. D, The only person to receive the degree was Joseph
G. Tilden in 1837. This department did not prove practicable and
was soon given up. In 1839 a Law department was organized and
work given until 1841, when the department was given up. A
Mechanics' department was organized in 1836 in connection
with the Civil Engineering work, but in a few years was dis-

Each student was allowed to advance as rapidly as possible
in his studies and was graduated when the course was completed.



Smith's andBuillion's Grammar; Walker's Rhetorical Gram-
mar; Blair's Rhetoric.


Liber Primus; Caesar's Commentaries; Virgil; Cicero's
Select Orations; Cicero's de Oratore, de Amicitia et de Senec-
tute; Livy, first five books; Tacitus, five books; Horace; Adam's,
Gould's, and Buillion's Grammar.


Buttman's Greek Grammar; Neilson's Greek Exercises;
Jacob's Greek Reader; Xenophon's Anabasis; Homer's Iliad,
six books; Homer's Odyssey; Herodotus; Delectus; Collectanea;
Grseca Majora.


Bolmar's, Levisac's, and Fowle's Grammar; Perrin's Vo-
cabulary; Telemaque; Voltaire's Charles the 12th; Meadows,
Nugent and Boyer's Dictionary.


Joss' and Sales' Grammar; Telemaco; Robinson Crusoe;
Newman's Dictionary.


Bache's Grammar.


Woodbridge's and Willard's Geography; Mitchell's Ancient
and Modern Geography; Whelpley's Compend; Hale's, Good-
rich's and Willard's History of the United States; Adam's Roman
Antiquities; Rollin's Ancient Historj-; Ferguson's Roman Re-


public; Gibbon's Rome; Rolliri's Ancient and Modern History;
Russel's Modern Europe.


Hutton's Mathematics; Button's Algebra; Button's Geo-
metry; Hutton's Logarithms; Crozet's and Davies Descriptive
Geometry; Cambridge and Hutton's Plane and Spherical Trig-
onometry; Gummere's, Gibson's Surveying; Cambridge Topog-
raphy; Hutton's Conic Sections and Isoperimetry; "Hutton's
Geodetics and Fluxions; Bowditch's Navigator; Sganzin's and
Mahan's Civil Engineering; Engold on Railroads; Military and
Topographical Drawing.


Enfield's and Field's Natural Philosophy; Comstock's Nat-
ural Chemistry.


Hedge's Logic; Paley's Moral Philosophy; and Reid on the


Constitution of the United States; Vattel's Law of Nations,
Burlamaqui on Natural and Political Law.

The cadets served in rotation as officers in command of com-
panies, as officers of the day, and as non-commissioned officers.

The uniforms were the same as used in the " Academy' '
and described in Chapter 1.

In November, 1835, the quartermaster-general of Vermont
was instructed by the legislature of Vermont to loan Captain
Partridge one hundred and fifty muskets and bayonets.

Reveille was at sunrise throughout the year; the first roll
call came fifteen minutes after reveille; the rooms were then
placed in perfect order and an inspection was made by the officer
of the day; breakfast came at 6 o'clock a. m., from March 20 to
September 20 each year and during the remainder of the year at
7 o'clock; dinner was served at 12 o'clock throughout the year
and supper at 5 p. m.; from March 20 until September 20, the
study hours and recitations commenced at S o'clock a. m., and
continued until noon; then at 1 o'clock until 5 p. m., and 8 p. m.
until 10 p. m.; from S2ptember 20 until March 20, the study


hours commenced at 9 a. m. and continued as given above, ex-
cepting that the cadets were required to be in their rooms at 7 p. m.

The police rules were very strict and similar to the regulations
now in force at the University.

The first march by the corps of cadets after the incorporation
of the University was made in 1836 to the top of Mt. Ascutney and
back to Norwich the same day. There are no records of marches
taken until the trip to Burlington, Vermont, in July, 1840.

The corps left the University quarters on Tuesday, the 7th
of July, at 9 o'clock a. m., and, passing through Woodstock,
Bridgewater, Rutland, Castleton and Fairhaven, arrived at White-
hall on Thursday, the 9th of July, having performed a march of
seventy miles. The corps remained in Whitehall until 1 o'clock
p. M. the next day, when it took passage in the steamboat White-
hall for Ticonderoga, distant twenty-five miles, where it disem-
liarked at half past three. Immediately after being landed,
the corps was formed into an open column and marched to the
ground of the old fort. Soon after entering the fort the. line was
formed, close in front of the old Barracks, in which was quartered
the British Commander at the time when Ethan Allen demanded
the surrender of the fort by the " high authority of the Great
Jehovah and the Continental Congress." ' The line formed, a
Feu de Joie was fired, which was followed by several battalion,
wing and company fires. The effect was imposing and solemn.
Having piled arms, the corps was dismissed for the purpose of
examining the remains of the old fortifications, as well as many
other things of interesting character at this celebrated military
position, over which seemed to hang the destinies of America,
at a most critical period of our Revolutionary contest.

At al)()ut half i)ast six, the column was reformed, and the
return line of march taken up. The corps reached Norwich at
half past three p. m. July 14, and after announcing their arrival
from the muzzles of the muskets, the mem1)ers were dismissed
to their quarters.

The whole distance was performed in six days and a half,
and the one hundred and forty miles was marched over in five,
days and a half. The weather was extremely warm the whole
time, and during the first two days, the march was performed in
a cloud of dust rendered worse by the severe drouth. Each
carried a knapsack well loaded. The ground, or a floor with a
blanket for a covering, constituted the only bed at night. All
returned in good health, and their sunburned countenances


indicated the kind of service they had performed. The youngest
member of the corps was thirteen years of age.

During 1842-44, extended marches were not taken.

The cadets, under command of Gen. T. B. Ransom, took a
part in the celebration in White River Junction (Hartford),
Vermont, July 4, 1843. The corps gave several exhibition drills;
the Declaration of Independence was read by Cadet Henry
Hancock; speeches were delivered by Gen. T. B. Ransom, '25,
Col. W. E. Lewis, '32, and cadets James Cunningham, H. H.
Gary, Charles K. Dean, Lemuel W. Blanchard, George F. Emer-
son, John D. Hale, Robert H. Milroy, Jabez C. Crooker, Asa
Howe; Cadet E. M. Brown read an original poem. A com-
mittee consisting of James Cunningham, George F. Emerson
and E. M. Brown, was appointed by the corps to extend their
thanks to the citizens of Hartford for the kind hospitality given them.

Online LibraryWilliam Arba EllisNorwich University, 1819-1911; her history, her graduates, her roll of honor (Volume 1) → online text (page 9 of 61)