William Arch McKeever.

Outlines of child study; a text book for parent-teacher associations, mothers' clubs, and all kindred organizations online

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OUTLINES OF
CHILD STUDY

WILLIAM A.
MSKEEVER



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COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT.



OUTLINES OF CHILD STUDY



UonkH bg HtUtam A. Mt^nvtv

I. TRAINING THE BOY

368 pp., 40 Illustrations. $1.50 net

II. TRAINING THE GIRL

342 pp.. 37 Illustrations. $1.50 net

III. FARM BOYS AND GIRLS

350 pp., 40 Illustrations. $1.50 net

IV. THE INDUSTRIAL TRAIN-

ING OF THE BOY

72 pp. Illustrated. .50 ne<

F. THE INDUSTRIAL TRAIN-
ING OF THE GIRL

286 pp. Illustrated. .50 net



OUTLINES OF CHILD
STUDY



A TEXT BOOK FOR PARENT-TEACHER AS-
SOCIATIONS, MOTHERS' CLUBS, AND
ALL KINDRED ORGANIZATIONS



WILLIAM a; McKEEVER

PROFESSOR OF CHILD WELFARE IN THE UNIVERSITY OF

KANSAS. AUTHOR OF " TRAINING THE BOY,"

" TRAINING THE GIRL " " FARM

BOYS AND GIRLS," ETC.



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
1915

All rights reterved



L"Bi\\s



COPTKIGHT, 1915

Bt the macmillan company

Set up and electrotyped. Published February, 1915.



FEB 25 1915



TO THE MILLIONS OF AMERICAN WOMEN

WHO ARE DEVOTING SO MUCH TIME AND EARNEST

SERVICE TO THE BRINGING UP OF THE NEXT

GENERATION OF CITIZENS, THIS BOOK IS

REVERENTLY DEDICATED



PREFACE

During the course of my many lecture trips throughout
the country I have had occasion to appear before various
organizations which were conducted for the purpose of
child study. The interest and enthusiasm in behalf of this
praiseworthy work has been manifest on all occasions, but
there has appeared everywhere a serious difficulty in
obtaining suitable programs for the meetings. The
specific purpose of the Outlines of Child Study is to
meet this difficulty and to offer a complete series of
programs with topics and reference, covering every
important phase of child life. In the preparation of the
text I have aimed especially to serve the interests of the
parent-teacher associations, mothers' clubs, and kindred
organizations of this general class.

Part I. of the book offers a general discussion of the
plan of organization and management of the various
child-study clubs. It is hoped that the reader will give
particular attention to the methods and devices of-
fered. Part II. contains the programs referred to above.
The figures at the close of each topic designate respec-
tively the number and the page of the reference volume.
Part III. contains the bibliographies. It will be noticed
that the references first given are confined chiefly to the
volumes and pamphlets numbered 1 to 18, inclusive.
Then, a second set of books is used in like manner. The
third and general reference list begins with number 32.

The necessity that each and every child-study organiza-
tion obtain at least a few well-selected reference books



viii Preface

cannot well be over emphasized. The ordinary mothers*
club may suitably begin its studies with Program 1 of this
text, but the parent-teacher association will perhaps do
better by taking up the work at the beginning of Chap-
ter VII. or Chapter VIII. It will be far better to follow
the programs in their regular order than to hurry through
the text by picking out a few of the most attractive ones.
Enough work is offered by the 450 topics to constitute a
solid three-year course for the ordinary child-study society.

For a statement of the general purpose of this volume
the reader is referred to Chapter I.

My wife, Edith S. McKeever, has rendered me most
valuable assistance in the selection of the references and
in determining the general policy of the book.

Finally, I take this occasion to thank the press of the
country for the most generous criticism of my other books
on child life; and also to express my gratitude to the
scores of friends, far and near, who have rendered minor
assistance in the preparation of the programs. I cannot
express a better wish than that they all experience the
great and permanent pleasure which naturally comes to
the one who learns to love the children and to minister
unto their needs,

William A. McKeever.



TABLE OF CONTENTS



PART ONE

THE CHILD-STUDY ORGANIZATION

CHAPTER PAGB

I. The Purpose and the Promise 3

"No Wealth but Life" . . . . . . 3

The Most Difficult Task 4

How to Define the Purpose . . . , . 5

The Promise of the Future 6

II. The Plan and its Fulfillment 8

How to Form a Parent-Teacher Association . . 8

A Democratic Spirit 9

State and National Organizations .... 10
How to Organize a Mothers' Club . . . .11

Do Something Worth While 11

Let the Good Deeds be Known 12

A Club in the Church 13

An Adjunct of the Social Club 14

A Child- Welfare Association 15

Magnanimity Must Prevail 16

III. The Officers and Members 18

United Community Effort 18

Select Officers Carefully 19

Many Blunders Must Occur 19

President and Vice-President . . . ^ . 20

Other Important Officers ...... 21

Personnel of the Members 23

A Committee on Membership 24

IV. The Methods and Management 26

Some Duties of the President 26

Keep the Speakers in Line 28

ix



Table of Contents



The General Discussion
Two Classes of Speakers
Keeping All Factions Interested .
"They Love Who Humbly Serve"

The Laboratory Idsa in Child Study
Learn to Observe the Children .
Watch the Little Ones at Home .
Study the Neighborhood Children
Visit the Playground .
Visit the Picnic Grounds
Attend the Kindergarten School .
The Baby Health Station .
Bring the Children in .



PAGE

29
30
32
33



PART TWO



THE CHILD-STUDY PROGRAMS

Preface to Part Two

VI. The Mother and the Infant ....

Program 1. The Sacred Calling of Motherhood
Program 2. The Physical Status of Motherhood
Program 3. The Mental Status of Motherhood
Program 4. Eugenics and Sound Motherhood
Program 5. Making Club Life Helpful to Motherhood
Program 6. The Political Status of Motherhood .
Program 7. The Pension System and Motherhood
Program 8. The Childless Woman and Motherhood
Program 9. The Prenatal Care of the Mother
Program 10. The Birth of the Child .
Program 11. The Nourishment of the Baby
Program 12. Nourishment for the Bottle-fed Child
Program 13. Weaning the Baby ....
Program 14. The Special Organs of the Infant
Program 15. Infantile Health and Sanitation
Program 16. The Beginnings of Baby Habits
Program 17. Clothing the Baby ....
Program 18. The Baby as a Learner .



Table of Contents xi



CHAPTER



PAGE
65

65
66
67
68
69
70



VII. The Pee-school Development of the Child .
Program 19. The Home Play Problem
Program 20. The Neighborhood Play Center
Program 21. At the Public Playgromid
Program 22. The Kindergarten .
Program 23. The Montessori Method
Program 24. Teaching the Child to Obey .
Program 25. The First Lessons in Childhood Industry 71
Program 26. Training Children in Good Manners and

Politeness '^'^

Program 27. Children's Fights and Quarrels . . 73
Program 28. Children's Lies and Thievery ... 74
Program 29. Telling Stories to Children ... 75
Program 30. Childhood's Fears and Fancies . . 76



VIII. The Pre-adolescent Boy and Girl

Program 31. Keeping the Children in School
Program 32. Home and School Co-operation in Morals
Program 33. School and Home Visitation .
Program 34. Good Will Between the Home and the

School

Program 35. Problem of the Efficient School Board
Program 36. The Home Industry of the Pupil .
Program 37. School Credit for Home Work
Program 38. Home Study for Pre-adolescent Children
Program 39. Home and School Health
Program 40. Sanitation in the Home and the School
Program 41. The School Savings Account .
Program 42. Teaching Children to Spend Money
Program 43. Sweetmeats and Soft Drinks for the

Children

Program 44. The Deadly Evil of the Cigarette .
Program 45. Use and Abuse of the Motion Picture
Program 46. Dress and Democracy among the School

Children

Program 47. The School Luncheon

Program 48. Home Entertainment for the Pre-adoles

cent Pupils .

Program 49. The School Picnic ....
Program 50. Civic Training for the Young .



77
77
78
79

80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88

89
90
91

92
93

94
95
96



xii Table of Contents

CHAPTEB PAGE

Program 51. Fine Arts Training in the Home and

School 97

Program 52. Pre-adolescent Children and the Mys-
teries of Life . 98

IX. The Vacation Activities op the Young ... 99
Program 53. Value of Vacation Employment for Chil-
dren 99

Program 54. The School Vacation and the Community 100
Program 55. Financing the Summer Supervision of the

Children 101

Program 56. The Municipal Playground . .102

Program 57. Equipment of the Playground . 103

Program 58. The Playground Management . . 104

Program 59. The Play Supervisors .... 105

Program 60. Summer Work for Boys .... 106

Program 61. Summer Work for Older Boys . . 107
Program 62. Vacation Industry for Girls . . .108



X. The Adolescent Training Problems

Program 63. The Beginning of Adolescence

Program 64. The Care of the Health During Early

Youth

Program 65. Social Psychology and the Clothes

Problem .......

Program 66. Love's First Young Dreams .
Program 67. Social Games and Pastimes for the 'Teen

Age

Program 68. The First Tendency Toward Mating
Program 69. The Adolescent and the Dance Problem
Program 70. The Adolescent and Social Purity .
Program 71. The Boy Scouts of America .
Program 72. The Camp Fire Girls
Program 73. Youth and the Problem of Athletics
Program 74. Athletic Training of the Girl .



109
109

110

111
112

113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120



XI. The Problems of Fatherhood 121

Program 75. Characteristics of the Exemplary Father 122
Program 76. The Father's Part in the Discipline of the

Children 122



Table of Contents xiii

CHAPTEB PAGE

Program 77. The Father as the Guardian of the Home 123
Program 78. The Father and the Alcohol Problem . 124.
Program 79. The Father and the Tobacco Problem . 125
Program 80. The Father as a Handy Man . . .126
Program 81. The Father as Home Provider . . 127
Program 82. The Father as a Home Entertainer . . 128
Program 83. The Father as a Provider for the Future 129

130

131

131
132
133
134
135
136



Program 84. The Father as the Head of the Family

XII. The Vocation and the Home Life ....

Program 85. Industrial Training for the Adolescent

Pupil

Program 86. The School and Industrial Training
Program 87. Vocational Guidance for Youth
Program 88. The Business Outlook for Youth
Program 89. Vocational Training for the Girl
Program 90. Preparation of the Girl for Marriage



Program 91. Preparing the Young Man for Marriage 137
Program 92. Youth and the Saloon Question
Program 93. Youth and the Cheap Loafing Place
Program 94. Evils that Lure the Yoimg Girl



XIII. The Religious Training of the Young .
Program 95. Religion in the Home
Program 96. The Young and Religious Good Fellow-
ship



138
139
140

141

141

142

Program 97. Religion and the Instinctive Awakening 143
Program 98. The EflBcient Sunday School . . .144
Program 99. The Sunday School and the Young People 145
Program 100. The Young People's Religious Society . 146
Program 101. The Young Men's Christian Association 147
Program 102. The Young Women's Christian Associa-
tion 148

Program 103. Teaching Peace to the Young . . 149



XIV. The Country Boy and the Country Girl
Program 104. The Rural Mother



Program 105. Farm Life and Character Development 151
Program 106. The Efficient Rural School . . .152
Program 107. Other Tasks for the Rural School . . 153



150
150



xiv Table of Contents

CHAPTER PAGE

Program 108. The Reconstruction of the Country

School . 154

Program 109. The Rural School as a Center of Life . 155
Program 110. The Country School and Rural Minded-

ness 156

Program 111. The Training in Rural Industry . .157

Program 112. The Development of Rural Business . 158



PART THREE

THE CHILD-STUDY LITERATURE

XV. The Preliminary Book List 161

How to Use the References 161

The Nucleus of a Library 162

XVI. The Larger Book Shelf 168

XVII. The General Field of Litebatube .... 173



PART ONE
THE CHILD-STUDY ORGANIZATION



OUTLINES OF CHILD STUDY

CHAPTER I

THE PURPOSE AND THE PROMISE

Introductory

We have tried to reduce the world to order with the
sword, and have failed. We have tried to establish the
peace and happiness of humanity through the instrumen-
talities of business and commerce, and have failed. We
have tried to build up a worthy and substantial society
through the transformation of adult sinners, and have
failed. That is, we have not achieved the high aim set for
these movements. And now, in this great twentieth cen-
tury, we are all turning to the little child; first to sit at his
feet and learn directly of the potential goodness and worth
inherent in his nature, and second to avail ourselves of
those instrumentalities which will serve us best in trans-
forming the potential worth of the common child into
actual worth and wealth of character.

"No Wealth But Life"

And so, with full devotion of purpose, with deep humil-
ity of spirit, and yet with exuberance of joy in anticipation
of the pleasures which are to reward our efforts, we set
out on our quest to know the child and to find a way
whereby to minister unto his natural requirements.
Wherefore, let us choose as our watchword the significant

3



4 Outlines of Child Study

maxim of Ruskin, "There is no wealth but life." Let us
approach the object of our study as being more than a
living, breathing automaton. Let us think of the ordinary
normal child at all times as being a storehouse of wonderful
possibilities of good and achievement. Let us regard him
as being all a-quiver with life, and spontaneity; as being
marked by ever-changing tendencies toward helpful action;
and as being occasionally possessed of deep yearnings for
new and self -defining experiences.

It may be asserted with confidence that a careful, pains-
taking study of child life will in the end richly reward the
student. To the one who goes earnestly into the matter,
there is perhaps no more fascinating and inspiring subject
of inquiry than is the little child. Even literature, music,
and the other so-called fine arts, not infrequently bring
to their devotees periods of gloom and despondency, and
sometimes a tendency to pessimism. But a young human
life, with its slow unfoldment of an ever-changing per-
sonality, with its continuous series of thrills and surprises
for the interested on-looker — there is something about
this situation which tends to renew one's waning spirit
and to make him exceedingly glad he is privileged to live
in a land of such abundant childhood and promise.

The Most Difficult Task

The first great step toward a full mastery of child study
is an attitude of open-mindedness on the part of the stu-
dent, a willingness to yield for the time being all opinions,
prejudices, and preconceived notions relative to the sub-
ject. This attitude of surrender, of humbleness in antici-
pation of what is to be revealed, is a guarantee of the apt
and ready learner. In general, the only procedure which
may be expected to bring satisfactory results is (1) to
deal personally with the largest possible variety of children



The Purpose and the Promise 5

under the largest possible variety of conditions, and (2) to
learn from the reading of many books and the hearing of
many discussions, how to verify and correct one's personal
experiences with children. Before feeling ready to offer a
final discussion of any and all phases of the subject one
had better ask himself how fully he has covered the fore-
going general field of inquiry.

Finally, it may be said that the most important step
toward a deep insight into child life is to appreciate the
significance of experience. What a person knows, what
he does, the way he regards the people, the world, and the
things in it, the tasks and duties of the day — all these
elements of anyone's personal character are traceable to
his own past experience. This developmental meaning
of personal experience is slow to impress itself upon the
mind of the student of child psychology; but when once
its point of view becomes fully recognized the way to
success is wide open. If one could only study the full and
complete biography of hundreds of children and trace out
the many tiny steps by means of which each character
has been formed, he would thus make use of a fundamental
secret of successful child study.

How TO Define the Purpose

Before perfecting the organization of a child-study club
it is very important to consider well the object to be
attained. First, there may be a purpose of studying
child life as a scientific course. In such a case the college
class-room method is doubtless the most desirable one,
with its lectures, its regular texts, and its library and
laboratory researches. Second, the object may be that of
seeking to know how to improve the quality of parent-
hood. Eugenics would then become the dominant topic of
the course. Third, the improvement of the conditions



6 Outlines of Child Study

affecting local child life might be the worthy ideal of the
study club. Fourth, a combination of all the foregoing
purposes, constituting a general survey of the entire scope
of childhood and youth — such might be considered as a
most praiseworthy aim of a club or society. Naturally a
program of the last-named sort, if well carried out, will
bring many pleasures to the individual members and
many future blessings to the community of which they
are a part.

The Promise of the Future

At last we are learning that it is more or less the business
of all the worthy adult persons in the community to assist
in the rearing of the next generation. One does not have
to be a parent in order to be able to love children and to
assist in ministering unto their needs. Indeed, some of the
very best and wisest child trainers are not parents in the
ordinary sense of the word and never expect to become
such; but they are true and genuine foster parents, and
that in relation to all the children with whom they are
privileged to be associated. Some one has said that the
avocation of every good citizen of the future will be that of
assistant parent, no matter what his vocation may be.
Each and every one will then become more conscious of
the responsibility of making his daily conduct contributory
to the common welfare of the young. But we shall all be
prepared to do our part in this greatest of all the " learned "
professions only after a long period of earnest and con-
scientious effort. And when we do arrive at a full and
general understanding of the inherent worth of ordinary
human infancy, then will the glory of childhood be re-
vealed unto us all, and that through our united and
successful efforts to evolve out of ordinary child nature
the strength and beauty which rightfully belongs to com-



The Purpose and the Promise 7

mon manhood and womanhood. Such is the great promise
which the future holds out for us.

Let us now consider separately some of the practicable
forms of child- welfare organization; for example, the
parent-teacher association, the mothers' club, the child-
welfare association, and the child-study department of the
literary or social club.



CHAPTER II

THE PLAN AND ITS FULFILLMENT

Above we have made a brief list of the most common
child-study clubs. Now, let us consider them somewhat
in detail. If we are concerned about a movement which
will contribute equally and unselfishly both to the com-
mon welfare of the people and the mutual interests of all
of those concerned about the children there is perhaps no
more nearly ideal organization for this purpose than is
the parent-teacher association. It is easily formed and
maintained, is democratic in spirit and method, and may
be made to render a permanent service to the entire
community.

How TO Form a Parent-Teacher Association

Under ideal conditions there will be formed a parent-
teacher association in every school community of any
considerable size, and that as an adjunct of the local
school. But in launching the movement as a new one it is
usually advisable first to form one central model organiza-
tion and later to extend the effort to other local com-
munities. For example, in a town of twenty thousand
people the patrons and teachers of one of the largest
ward schools organized an association to meet at the
school building at 3 o'clock p. m. on the second Friday of
each month of the entire term. By vote of the meeting
every patron and every teacher within the district were
elected to membership. A full set of officers was selected,
each to serve for a year, and a very simple constitution was

8



The Plan and its Fulfillment 9

adopted. It was provided that there should be no dues,
fees, or assessments since the school board was expected
to furnish the free use of the building and the equipment.
The announced purpose of the organization was to study
child life in all its several phases which affected the school,
the home and the community, and to try to render these
and other worthy institutions mutually serviceable in
fostering a better childhood. A full attendance and deep
interest marked the affair from the beginning. The local
press and all concerned helped to spread the report of its
good and commendable work. In less than three months
each of the other three ward school communities of the
town had followed the example.

A Democratic Spirit

All good child-welfare effort is necessarily very unselfish.
Its aim is always and forever to serve and to contribute,
and never to seek some advantage or personal preferment.
So, in forming the new organization, it is advisable to give
all possible place to the exercise of altruism and mutual
sympathy, to avoid every tendency towards its coming
under the dominance of any particular set or group, and to
see that the offices and the duties of the members do not
inadvertently become factionalized. It is very necessary
to distribute the offices carefully among all the representa-
tive groups of the membership. Caste distinction and
clique dominance is one of the sure signs of early decay of
such an organization; but "Whosoever will may come," is
a most significant motto for its growth and progress. The
humblest as well as the haughtiest may be made to con-
sider himself or herself a vital factor in the movement, and
the work may be so promoted that each and all will forget
self in their eagerness to serve.

And then, a little careful forethought will enable the



10 Outlines of Child Study

officers to arrange the program so as to have represented
thereon the widest possible variety of child-welfare talents
and interests. There will be no necessity of rendering any
of the members conspicuous because of their being given
too frequently a place on the program. All will feel
especially free to participate in the general discussions.
The reticent must be urged and personally invited to do
so. None need be slighted.

State and National Organizations

There are now in existence several national and many
state organizations for fostering child life and child study.
Probably all of these are praiseworthy. Some of them at
least are very much so. But their interests must not be
permitted to dominate the local organizations. Many
local clubs have been weakened and split up as the result
of a heated discussion of the matter of affiliating with the
higher outside organization. Perhaps it is best to invite
the members of the local club to act as individuals in the
matter of uniting with the state or national society. If
the higher organization asks for a local delegate to attend
one of its meetings, then the local club should if possible
appoint a delegate who happens to be a member of the
society issuing the invitation.

There is a work for the children big enough to employ
the efforts of ail the valuable child-study organizations;
and so we should see to it most carefully that no one of
them be broken up or weakened by the well-intended
efforts of another. It is only very rarely that some person
with a selfish motive steps into the situation, and in such a
case his or her purpose is easily detected. It is needless
to say that the efforts of such an agent are most hurtful
to the local organization, tending to disrupt it and to
destroy its usefulness. Wherefore, let us have a clear



The Plan and its Fulfillment 11

understanding upon one point; namely, that the parent-
teacher association should be preserved as distinctively a
local organization, closely affiliated with the local school
and dominated by an unselfish interest in the welfare of all
the children of all the people of the community.


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Online LibraryWilliam Arch McKeeverOutlines of child study; a text book for parent-teacher associations, mothers' clubs, and all kindred organizations → online text (page 1 of 10)