William Arch McKeever.

Outlines of child study; a text book for parent-teacher associations, mothers' clubs, and all kindred organizations online

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an order for a free photograph of her baby, the picture to
serve as a memento of the occasion.

Now, let the members of the association visit one of
these baby health stations and they will learn many little
things. For example, the plumpest and best looking babies
are not always the soundest and most promising. Hidden
weaknesses may be found in them by the skilled expert.
As a result of right practice one should also learn to detect
genuineness of child health and character as against mere
superficial beauty and high grade personal adornment.
If the entire association cannot visit the baby station in a
body, then some member may attend and may be called
upon at the meeting to make a full report of her observa-
tions.

Bring the Children in

On certain occasions it may be found practicable to
have a member bring a child or two to the meeting for
some kind of demonstration. Suppose the topic to be,



The Laboratory Idea in Child Study 41

"Little Lessons in Child Training." Then a little one may
be shown for the first time, how to climb on and off a box,
to place clothes pins in certain formations, to turn a latch,
to tie a knot, to place the Montessori blocks in their correct
position, and the like. Strange to say, many of those who
are actually mothers of small children have failed to detect
the possibilities of training mere babies to do things in
better and more definite ways than these little ones in-
cidentally learn to do them.

Finally, perhaps the best that can be urged in behalf
of the observation method of studying children is that it
will tend to make all more noticeable of what the young
members of the community are doing in the course of
their daily activities, and more interested in what may be
planned and arranged for the boys and girls in thought of
their becoming at length transformed into ideal men and
women.



PART TWO
THE CHILD-STUDY PROGRAMS



PREFACE TO PART TWO

In the preceding chapters we have made out in con-
siderable detail a plan and a method whereby to make the
meetings interesting and successful. But since so much
depends upon the management of the program it seems
advisable to reiterate here and to enumerate some of the
leading rules of guidance, as follows : —

1. Urge each speaker to confine his or her remarks
strictly to the assigned topic. Scattering discussions do
much towards weakening the program of the day and
spoiling the future ones.

2. By all means avoid calling the unprepared speaker
to discuss one of the regular topics. Each topic represents
an integral part of a larger and more general subject.

3. Cultivate the thought among the members that each
speaker should strive to make at least one vital contribu-
tion to the program discussions. Such is the minimum of a
creditable performance.

4. Provide carefully that each person who is to appear
on the program receive early notification of his assigned
duty. Two weeks' time is little enough for successful
preparation.

5. Seek to assign to each regular topic one of two classes
of experts; namely, the expert who is such because of
definite experience, and the expert who is such because of
definite preparation.

6. Break the monotony of the meetings by having an
occasional whole community rally, at which time there
may be called an outside speaker of note. This person

45



46 Preface to Part Two

with the help of some light entertainment may occupy the
full time usually given to the regular program.

7. Strive earnestly to secure for the use of the society
at least the first one dozen of volumes named in the pre-
liminary book list (Chapter XV.) and the pamphlets
which go with them.

8. Appoint a competent librarian to take charge of the
books and assist those who have assigned topics in their
preparation for the program appearances. The com-
munity librarian may be able to handle this matter.

9. A press agent is a prime essential for the success of
the child-study society herein contemplated. This person
must be some one who can write a clear and condensed
report of the meeting and an attractive announcement of
the future programs, all ready for the local editor to set
into type.

10. Unselfishness, sympathy for the children of all ages
and conditions, and a desire to learn and to serve — these
ideals will dominate the conduct of all the members and
make their time of coming together an occasion of joy and
inspiration for all.

In the use of the references the members will note that
the first numeral indicates the number of the volume
(Chapters XV, XVI, XVII), and the second numeral
represents the page of the book or the number of the
pamphlet to which reference is made. Where practicable
the first set of references has been confined to the pre-
liminary book list of Chapter XV. Then follow references
in the larger book list; and finally, references to the larger
field of literature.



CHAPTER VI
TEE MOTHER AND THE INFANT

PROGRAM 1

THE SACRED CALLING OF MOTHERHOOD

1. How Can Young Women be Made to Appreciate It?
8-3; 4-275.

2. How Can Young Men be Made to Respect It?
5-321; 11-181.

3. How Can Society be Made to Recognize It? 1-319;
17, Bulletin on Mothers' Pensions.

4. How Have Some Scriptural Writers Shown Their
Regard for It? See Bible Concordance. 110-213; 135-1.

Suggestions

a. Keep strictly to the topic of the hour, with a speaker
for each subdivision.

6. Ask for a free-for-all discussion of topic No. 2.

c. Note the many references at the close of the Bulletin
on Mothers' Pensions.

d. The one who has topic No. 4 might call on several
others to assist in giving brief Bible reference readings.

e. There are many other good references to be found in
the larger book list.

/. The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets, by Jane
Addams (Macmillan), is a helpful reference for these
chapters on Motherhood.

47



PROGRAM 2

THE PHYSICAL STATUS OF MOTHERHOOD

1. What Physical Qualities are most Essential for
Child Bearing? 1-309; 6-240.

2. Does Child Bearing Usually Improve the Health of
the Mother? 1-304; 21-287.

3. Does the Mother Who is Entirely Relieved of House
Work Rear Better Children than the One Who Does it
All? 8-31; 51-108.

4. The Plight of the Mother who Must Work all Day
Away from Home and Children. 32-Dependent Children
Series No 7; Survey, V. 32, No. 17, p. 22; No. 38, p. 43.

Suggestions

a. Consult Adolescence, by G. Stanley Hall, and the
magazine American Motherhood for help on No. 1.

b. Let the one who has topic No. 2 secure the testimony
of at least five physicians, and ten mothers and summarize
their answers.

c. Let the one who has topic No. 3 try to make a com-
parative study of typical motherhood of the South and the
North.

d. If convenient, in preparation of the paper on topic
No. 4, consult the files of Survey.

e. In the general discussion ask for methods of ideal
physical care of the mother at the time of birth of the
child.

/. For excellent help on No. 4 see The Delinquent
Child and The Home, Breakinridge-Abbott. Survey
Associates, N. Y.

48



PROGRAM 3

THE MENTAL STATUS OF MOTHERHOOD

1. How does Motherhood Change the Quality of a
Woman's Mind and Morals? 4-199; 8-77.

2. How Does Motherhood Change the Ordinary
Woman's Ambition? 4-82; 11-140; 94-84.

3. How Does Motherhood AfiFeet a Woman's Interest in
Community Affairs? 1-290; 12-23.

4. How Does Motherhood Influence a Woman's Inter-
est in Business and Finance? 6-178; 8-97; 27-60.

Suggestions

a. All these programs assume that there will be four
speakers or papers on each.

b. Literature which is precisely to the point on this
lesson is scarce. Let those who manage the program strive
diligently to show that (1) Motherhood changes many
so-called worldly minded young women into persons of
sense and maternal sympathy, (2) that the ideal mother
slowly discovers her responsibility to the community
effort in child welfare, and that this mother also learns to
appreciate the social and moral meaning of business.

c. Mother and Baby, by Anne B. Newton, M. D.
(Lathrop), will be found helpful.



49



PROGRAM 4

EUGENICS AND SOUND MOTHERHOOD

1. May the Known Facts about Race Breeding be
Made Available to the General Public? 10-1; 28-206.

2. The Qualities of Physique, Mind and Morals Neces-
sary for the Mothers of a Sound Race. 6-253; 1-277;
26-156.

3. Unsound Qualities which Morally Forbid a Woman
to Bear Children. 8-intro; 26-176.

4. Measures now Coming into Use to Protect the Race
Against a Defective Motherhood. 26-220.

Suggestions

a. Do not hold up excessive standards of race soundness
and thus discourage the members. Nearly all are in-
herently sound enough for substantial parenthood.
Emphasize the standards of excellence attainable through
wise effort.

6. The "perfect baby" and the perfect adult are both,
very mythical. We are all "long" or "short" in some
respects. A few are defective and unfit to become parents.

c. Inquire of the following for data on Nos. 2, 3, and 4,
(1) American Eugenics Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor,
New York, (2) Training School for Defectives, Vineland,
New Jersey. The Magazine Survey, New York City.



50



PROGRAM 5

MAKING CLUB LIFE HELPFUL TO MOTHERHOOD

1. The Helpfulness Derived from the Mother's Brief,
Frequent Absence from Her Children. 23-47; 21-302.

2. Ideal Club Activities for the Mother of Young
Children. 32- Inquire; 110-216.

3. May the Problems of Motherhood Have an Occa-
sional Place on the Social or Literary Club Program?
31-k; 146-248.

4. What is the Ideal Child Study Club for Women, and
what are Its Best Benefits? 94-190.

Suggestions

a. References in these topics are scarce. Write to the
editor of the Child Welfare magazine, Philadelphia, for
helps on No. 2; also to the editor of American Motherhood,
Cooperstown, N. Y.

b. Write to the American Institute of Child Life,
Philadelphia, and to the head officers of state and local
federation of clubs for help on No. 3.

c. Inquire of the State or the National Congress of
Mothers for help on No. 4.

d. Do not be satisfied with meagre results. Address
letters of inquiry to the extension department of the
Universities of Kansas, Texas, Wisconsin, and Missouri
on any or all these topics and read the replies at the club
meeting.



51



PROGRAM 6

THE POLITICAL STATUS OF MOTHERHOOD

1. What are some Good Reasons Why Mothers Should
Study Pohtical Affairs? 6-312; 21-207.

2. The Political and Civic Problems Which Most
Concern Motherhood. 6-320; 19-15.

3. The Ballot as a Woman's Instrument for the Defense
of Motherhood and Childhood. 146-256.

4. Woman's Best Mode of Attack against two Direct
Foes of Motherhood, namely the Saloon and the Brothel.
5-180; 6-323.

Suggestions

a. Avoid partisan politics but do not dodge the political
issues which concern motherhood.

b. Note that women are less inclined toward party
politics than men.

c. Write the National Equal Suffrage Association, New
York, for literature on No. 3.

d. Write the Union Signal, Evanston, 111; the National
Purity Federation, LaCrosse, Wis., The Scientific Temper-
ance Federation, Boston; the Chicago School of Civics
and Philanthropy, for data on No. 4.

e. Call for a report of the methods worked out by the
Chicago Vice Commission for combatting the social evil.



62



PROGRAM 7

THE PENSION SYSTEM AND MOTHERHOOD

1. What has been achieved by Way of Pensioning
Mothers? 18-Bulletin on Mothers' Pensions; World's
Work, V. 26, p. 272; 31-14.

2. What are the Arguments for and against a Pension
System for Mothers? 18- No. 31. Survey, V. 29, p. 737.

3. A Constructive Plan for Administering the Pension
System. Survey, V. 32, No. 1, p. 23.

4. In What Way May Some Advantage or Reward of
Merit be Offered to All the Mothers of Sound Children?
26-156; 13; V. 7, p. 418.

Suggestions

a. Note that we penalize parenthood by making life
harder for mothers than we do for non-mothers.

6. As was the case with the public school at first, the
mothers' pension idea is still under the ban of being re-
garded as a form of charity.

c. Does not the national income tax law place a pre-
mium on marriage and, incidentally, parenthood?

d. Figure the cost of orphanages and determine if
they are less expensive than hiring foster parents to take
care of children.

e. See back pages of Mothers' Pensions, Russell Sage
Foundation, for many reference readings.



53



PROGRAM 8

THE CHILDLESS WOMAN AND MOTHERHOOD

1. Jane Addams, Ida M. Tarbell, and Julia C. Lathrop
as Mothers of the Children of the Nation. See Who's
Who In America.

2. The Joy and Satisfaction Derived from the Adopted
Child. 27-321.

3. How May One Proceed to Securing a Safe and Sound
Child for Adoption? 31- A; Eugenics Laboratory, Cold
Spring Harbor, N. Y.

4. Some Ways whereby the Motherless or Unmarried
Woman May Act as Foster Parent for the Children of the
Community. 6-306; 27-203.

Suggestions

a. Bring out that part of the biographies of these three
women which shows their service to motherhood.

b. Let the one who has topic No. 2 attempt to obtain
helpful facts from actual and successful foster mothers.

c. There is something very significant in the fact that a
mother and child who are separated during the entire
period of childhood are not inclined to feel the normal
close ties of kinship.

d. There are many motherless women who feel that
their lives are empty. Let the one who has topic No. 3
inquire of eugenists, the keepers of orphanages, and others
and thus obtain a positive answer to this question.



54



PROGRAM 9

THE PRE-NATAL CARE OF THE MOTHER

1. How should the Expectant Mother be Nourished and
Clothed? 8-31.

2. In What Way May She Best Take Her Daily Exer-
cise? 21-3; 106-23.

3. What Amount of Work May She Perform Without
Danger? 15- State Board of Health; 31- c.

4. Some Lessons in Mental Poise for the Expectant
Mother. 6-331; 31- E; 101-75.

Suggestions

a. Let one of the members be assigned to visit a good
hospital and obtain the rules followed there in relation to
topic No. 1.

b. The person having topic No. 2 should visit at least
five physicians and put this question to them, sum-
marizing their replies.

c. A good way to prepare on No. 3 is to inquire per-
sonally of at least six busy mothers and take notes upon
their success-experiences relative thereto.

d. In preparing upon topic No. 4 note that the scientists
take little stock in the idea of birth marks and the prenatal
influence of the mother upon the mind and morals of her
coming child. However, prenatal poise and rhythm in-
fluence the general health of the infant favorably.



55



PROGRAM 10

THE BIRTH OF THE CHILD

1. Some Details of Immediate Preparation. 15- Kansas
State Board of Health; 31- c.

2. The Important Duties of the Attending Physician.
15- Apply to National Congress of Mothers for Bulletin.

3. How may the Nurse Render the Greatest Possible
Assistance? see The Home Nurse, Lowery (Forbes &
Co., Chicago).

Suggestions

a. Write to your state Board of Health for helps on the
topics above.

b. Many mothers are still careless as to what physician
is called to the birth side. Obtain definite information as
to the duties of the attending physician from one who has
a large and successful practice in this line.

c. In answering No. 3, consult, if practicable, a trained
baby-nurse who can give full details and who will especially
emphasize such matters as cleanliness and sterilization.

d. Many mothers are permanently injured during child
birth. Find out just what injuries are likely to occur and
precisely what the able physician does to make immediate
and permanent repairs.



56



PROGRAM 11

THE NOURISHMENT OF THE BABY

1. Advantages and Rules of Breast Feeding, 2- 42.

2. What is a Proper Diet for the Mother? 15- Cornell
University Bulletin; 32- Leaflet; 135-44.

3. Time and Frequency of Nursing the Child. 2-104.

4. Supplementary Feeding of the Breast Fed Baby.
31- e; see Mother and Baby, Newton (Lathrop).

Suggestions

a. This program will interest the club of young mothers
most. Probably every one of them should own a copy of
Dr. Holt's book.

b. More infants are killed by improper food and drink
than by any other cause. The breast-fed baby has the
better chance to survive.

c. Topic No. 2 is the most important in this list. But
how vitally it is related to the physical health, the amount
of work and exercise, the quality of mind, and the like,
of the nursing mother.

d. Topic No. 4 is a diflScult one upon which to secure
reliable data, because of the very different quality of
mother's milk and the other food. Consult a specialist, if
at all convenient, and give the club the benefit of his
assistance.



57



PROGRAM 12

NOURISHMENT FOR THE BOTTLE-FED CHILD

1. The Right Quantity and Quality of Milk. 2-549.

2. A Practical and Easy Method of Sterilization.
15- Cornell University Bulletin; 2-107.

3. What is Pasteurized Milk and What are its Virtues?
3-10.

4. The Right Way to Secure Cow's Milk. 2-63.

Suggestions

a. One of the four papers, perhaps by a specialist, should
make a careful analysis of the pure-food problem as it
affects the life of the infant, showing how disease is in-
troduced into the digestive tract through unsanitary
feeding.

b. The matter of proprietary foods for infants is certain
to come up for discussion. Many experiences regarding
their use may be related by the members. Perhaps it
will be apparent that infant stomachs are as much unlike
as the infant characters, and that meat for one is poison
for the other.

c. The point will be made that most probably there
will be need of experimentation, in many instances, before
the best can be found.



58



PROGRAM 13

WEANING THE BABY

1. A Balanced Ration for the Weaning Baby. 2-49;
135-65.

2. Preparing the Food for the Newly Weaned Child.
2-52.

3. Some Sources of Danger in the Infant's Dietary.
15- Cornell Bulletin; 32- Leaflet.

4. The Proper Regulation of the Infant's Meals. See
Better Babies and Their Care, Anna S. Richardson
(F. A. Stokes & Co., N. Y.).

Suggestions

a. Weaning time is a danger period in the life of the
child. Therefore, attempt to secure carefully prepared
papers on these topics.

6. The young mothers will especially wish to know how
to prepare quickly the simple and wholesome dietaries.
On one occasion the writer of the paper copied her formulas
on the black board.

c. The teething period is a precarious age for children.
What special means and devices are to be relied upon for
tiding the baby over it?

d. Negative reports, such as tell of bad and fatal condi-
tions, are good only to stimulate effort. Clear and positive
rules and methods will be far more serviceable.



59



PROGRAM 14

THE SPECIAL ORGANS OF THE INFANT

1. Care and Treatment of the Baby's Eyes. 2-17;
21-190.

2. Care and Treatment of the Baby's Ears. 2-171.

3. Ideal Conditions of the Nose and Throat. 15-
Miimesota State Board of Health.

4. Proper Attention to the Genital Organs. 31- F.

Suggestions

a. Bulletins from the various state boards of health and
articles from the medical journals will be the chief sources
of literature for this study.

6. Some one should speak with authority on the follow-
ing points: (1) Hurtfulness of bright light to the baby's
eyes, (2) Dangers of infection at time of birth, (3) Safe-
guarding the eyes during time of such diseases as measles.

c. It is now known that a large percentage of children
are addicted to nose and throat troubles, especially ade-
noids. Learn whether or not these may be treated during
infancy.

d. Find out what is done to stretch and re-adjust the
foreskin as a substitute for circumcision.



60



PROGRAM 15

INFANTILE HEALTH AND SANITATION

1. How About Giving Medicine to the Baby? 2-87.

2. The Wholesome effects of Fresh Air and Sunlight.
19-200; 122-32.

3. How to Give Baby a Bath. See Mother and Baby,
Newton (Lathrop, Lee & Shepard Co., N. Y.).

4. Why Should Thumb Sucking and False Nipples be
Avoided .5^ Inquire of State Board of Health.

Suggestions

a. In making preparation of a paper upon No. 1, let the
appointed member write to the Bureau of Chemistry for
some valuable pamphlets on the subject of poisonous
drugs and patent medicines. Bring up the matter of the
many advertisements of such hurtful drugs, giving names
and actual illustrations when possible.

h. It is said that not one person in five ever learns during
his life time to make the best use of the bath as an agency
of health. Appeal to the medical authorities for help on
this subject.

c. From the literature cited frequently above, and from
other sources, make a schedule of hours for sleep, and
exercise for infants of various ages.



61



PROGRAM 16

THE BEGINNINGS OF BABY HABITS

1. How to Regulate the Infant's Eating and Sleeping.
10-14; 5-154; 95-13.

2. How Much Fondhng and Handling will an Infant
Endure? 21- 16; 31- e.

3. How Much Crying and Laughing is good for Baby's
Health? 2-160.

4. How to Prevent Nervous Shocks and Fears. 10-32;
54-169.

Suggestions

a. Dr. Woods Hutchinson does not agree with Dr. Em-
mett Holt in saying that crying is good for the baby's
health. But is it not possible that the infant might remain
quiescent too much and then not employ that inner
friction which stimulates activity and learning?

b. The over-fondled child is likely to become either
sickly or precocious, both of which are very undesirable.

c. We criticise the mother who occasionally lets her
child cry itself to sleep for the sake of discipline; but how
about the one who, every time the little one "cheeps" the
least mite, runs straightway to offer some form of speedy
relief?



62



PROGRAM 17

CLOTHING THE BABY

1. Garments for Protection of the Delicate Organs.
2-21; 138-15; 135-155.

2. The Winter Clothing most Suitable for the Baby.
2-23; 126-164.

3. The Baby and its Warm Weather Wardrobe. 2-22.

4. Outdoor wraps and Extras for the Little One. 135-
160.

Suggestions

a. Make the point of adaptability of the child to the
various conditions of both food and clothing. It seems to
be a fact that some mere infants slowly become inured to
the use of heavy adult food and scant clothing. Or, are
these merely examples of the physically fittest to survive?

b. Probably more children suffer from too much cloth-
ing than from too scant clothing.

c. It is suggested that the program makers try to bring
out a little research work, by having some one visit those
mothers who are actually caring for children and inquire as
to their methods of clothing the little ones.



63



PROGRAM 18

THE BABY AS A LEARNER

1. Assisting the Infant to use his Hands and Feet.
3-16; 9-79.

2. Teaching the Baby to Creep and to Walk. 3-23;
138-34.

3. The First Language Lessons of Infancy. 19-96;
116-163.

4. How to Teach "Baby Must Not do That." 20-33;
54-82.

Suggestions

a. Have a member review chapter one of King's
Psychology of Child Development. This will open the
way to the understanding of many of the problems of
infancy.

6. Childhood activities awaken irregularly. One infant
may learn to creep very early and another learn to talk
very early. The attempts to grade the intelligence of
babies on the basis of using the sense organs as a sign of
acuteness, is a mere joke.

c. Baby habits, whether good or bad, should be noticed
in the treatment of these topics. Some children are
regarded as dull when, as a matter of fact, they have
scarcely ever had a single hour of instruction in anything.
They have merely been turned loose.



64



CHAPTER VII

TEE PRESCHOOL DEVELOPMENT OF THE
CHILD

PROGRAM 19

THE HOME PLAY PROBLEM

1. The Newly Discovered Meaning of Play. 5-75;
1-73; 6-85.

2. Some Simple Devices for Home Play. 5-77; 16-
No. 35.

3. How and When to Play With the Children. 4-78;
316-39.

4. Play as an Introduction to Juvenile Industry. 1-114;
11-129; 16-39; 9-159.

Suggestions

a. Keep the four members participating strictly to their
topics, and urge that something vital be contributed in
each case. Reread Chapter IV. of this text.

b. The speaker on topic No. 2 may make some careful
inquiries among those who have helpful devices, and re-
port accordingly.

c. Someone has said that a person is not fit to work with
children unless he knows how to play with them. How
can the busy parent keep up this fine art of play?

d. Is there really much difference between the play of
the child and the industry which he loves to perform?

e. The Magazine Playground is a standard authority
and help in this work.


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