William Archie Wheeler.

A contribution to the knowledge of the flora of souteastern Minnesota online

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Polemonium reptans,
Polygonatum commutatunty
Polygonum incarnatumy
Polygonum hydro^iferoides^
Po^ulus grandidentata^
Pofulus tremuloidesy
Potentilla canadensis^
Prunus americanay
Prunus nigray
Prunus serotinay
Prunella vulga^'isy
Prunus virginianay
Pteris aquilinay
Pyrola ellifticay
^uercus coccineay
^uercus macro car^ay
^uercus rubra y
^uercus velutina.

Ranunculus abortivuSy
Ranunculus seftentrionalisy
Rhus glabray
Ribes cynosbatiy
Ribes uva-crisj^ay
Rubus occidentalisy
Rubus villosuSy
Rudbeckia laciniatay
Rudbeckia triloba y
Salix amygdaloidesy
Salix jluviatilis ,
Sambucus canadensisy
Sanicula gregaria,
Sanicula marylandicay
Silene alba,
Smilax herbaceay
Solidago canadensis y
Stafhylea trifoliay
Syndesmon thalictroidesy

Thalictrum dioicuniy

Thalictrum j^ur^urescenSy
Tilia americanay

Trillium cernuumy

Trillium erectumy
Triosteum perjbliatumy

Ulmus americanay


Urtica gracilis y

Urticastrum divaricatumy
Uvular ia grandifloray

Vagnera racemosay

Viburnum lentagOy

Viola -pubescensy

Viola obliquay

Vitis vulpinay

Washingtonia claytoni,
Xanthoxylum americana.

■Digitized by



Mesophytic field vegetation.

The mesophytic field vegetation as it exists in the creek valleys
to-day is almost entirely a result of cultivation. The table lands
which bear the plants of the mesophytic field were formerly al-
most entirely wooded. To-day they are cleared of timber and
used for cultivation. They furnish the best fields for cultivation
in the whole district. They are not subject to the overflow of
the bottom lands, nor to the drought of the ridges, nor to the
washouts of the side-hills. Being so extensively cultivated the
plants growing upon them, which are not themselves cultivated,
are almost confined to the edges of fields and thickets. Under
such conditions a list of plants of this area would have no bear-
ing upon the natural ecological groups.

Bluffs, — The bluffs bordering the river differ from those
bordering creek valleys in being steeper and in having many-
more precipitous cliffs. The brow of the bluff along the river
for almost the entire distance bordering the territory covered ex-
cept where interrupted by branch valleys or ravines is one al-
most perpendicular limestone cliff, varying from a few feet to a
hundred feet in height. Cliffs of this sort are not so common
back from the river. The vegetation of the river bluffs differs
to some extent from the creek bluffs in its character. Some
of the common forest trees of the lowland of the creek valleys,
instead of growing on the lowland of the river valley inhabit
the foot of the river bluff. The proximity of the river
bluff to larger areas of water seems to raise the moisture
content of the soil of the river bluff above that of the creek
bluff at the same height above water level. The growth
then of such a tree as the black walnut at the foot of the river
bluff does not show that it grows here under more arid conditions
than in the creek valley, but that the same conditions of moisture
in the soil are found at a higher level on the river bluff than on
the creek bluff.

On all bluffs the vegetation shows the greatest variation with
the direction of the slope. Those facing from south to west
and receiving the direct rays of the sun from noon to 4 P. M.
are generally bare of trees (Plate XXII., B) and shrubs while
those facing from north to east are generally thickly wooded
(Plate XXVL, B). Ravines with their greater amount of
moisture in the soil and greater protection from winds are

Digitized by


Wheeler: flora of southeastern Minnesota. 365

generally wooded to some extent whatever the direction of the
slope (Plate XXII., A and B).

Near the heads of the creeks at the bases of the northern
slopes are many moist limestone cliffs with their characteristic
abundance of liverworts, mosses and ferns, sometimes almost to
the exclusion of the higher seed plants. The moist cliffs bear
more of the northern types of plants rare to this region than
any one other special area.

The zones of forest vegetation on the bluffs are often very
distinctly marked out by a few species. The oaks, J^. rubra^
J^. macrocarfa and J^. coccinea extend from the valley to the
ridge of the bluff in varying degrees of abundance and thus
do not determine the zone. With these, however, are a few
species which are limited either to the base or ridge. The
aspen and a large-tooth poplar as primary and the iron wood,
juneberry and wild crab as secondary species mark out the basal
zone of forest and the white oak, white birch and shagbark
hickory in varying proportions mark out the ridge forest. Be-
tween the zone containing white birch on the ridge and that con-
taining the aspen at the base is a zone which is almost entirely
covered with dark-barked trees. Thus the zones are clearly
shown by the white bark of the white birch on the ridge and
that of the aspen below with the dark-barked trees between.

The vegetation areas of the bluffs may be considered as moist
cliffs, wooded slopes and ravines, ridge forests, bare slopes and
open ridges, and dry rocks. The plants of the moist cliffs are
hydrophytic ; those of the wooded slopes and ravines which in-
clude a large part of the bluff area are mesophytic ; the ridge
forests are xerophytic and the bare slope, open ridge and dry
rock plants which grow on the most exposed and dry areas in
this region are distinctly xerophytic.

Moist cliff vegetation.

This group of plants is one of the most interesting of this re-
gion. One is always on the lookout for rare plants to this part
of the state from the secluded and often almost inaccessible
moist cliff. The short list of plants given here might be said
to be almost peculiar to moist cliffs as they are rarely found
elsewhere. Others might be named that grow upon moist cliffs,
but which are more characteristic of moist woods.

Some of the plants characteristic of moist cliffs are :

Digitized by



Acer sficatum^ Dirca -palustris^

Adoxa moschatellinay Pellcea stelleri^

Betula Ititea^ Viburnum ofulus.
Circcea alftna,

Vegetation of wooded slopes and ravines.

This group of plants borders and perhaps encroaches upon
the moist woods of the valley upon the one hand and the ridge
forest upon the other. It covers a large area but does not repre-
sent the variety of species that are found in the moist woods of
the valley.

Some of the plants of the wooded slopes and ravines are

Asflenium acrostichoides^ Lilium umbellaium^

Asflenium filix-foemina^ Lobelia cordifolia^

Castilleja coccinea^ Lobelia infiatay

Cypripedium hirsutum, Onoclea struthio^terisy

Cypripedium spectabilis, Osmunda claytonianay *

Cystopteris fragilisy Panax quinquefolia^

Epilobium coloratum^ Pedicularis canadensis j

Erechtites hieracifolia^ Polygonatum commutatum^

Eupatorium ageratoides^ Pteris aquilina^

Falcata comosa^ Rubus occidentalism

Hieracium umbellatum^ Rubus villosus^

Hieracium scabrum, Silene stellata^

Hypericum maculata^ Smilax herbacea^

Hypericum majus^ Smilax hispida.

Ridge forest vegetation.

Most of the woods upon the ridges are rather open and there-
fore present somewhat xerophytic conditions. The principal
forest trees of the ridges are those which have been previously
mentioned, /. e,y Betula papyrifera^ Hicoria ovata^ ^uercus
alba and ^uercus macrocarpa. Scattered trees of other kinds
are found on special areas. On the point of a bluff near the
village of Freeburg, several trees of Gymnocladus dioicus were
found in one of the most exposed locations that it could obtain.
This is a very unusual location for this tree. Prunus virginiana^
Juniperus virginiana^ Tilia americana and Celtis occidentalis
quite frequently grow near or on the rocky summits of the bluffs
but do not cover large areas.

Digitized by


Wheeler: flora of southeastern Minnesota.


Bare slope and open ridge vegetation.

The soil of the southern slope and open ridge is generally
largely formed of sand and broken limestone. It becomes very
dry early in the summer, and then appears almost bare of
vegetation except where it is broken by scattered junipers
(Plate XXL, A) or patches of Rhus glabra.

Some of the plants characteristic of the bare slope and open
ridge are :

Acer at es viridiflora^
Ascle-pias verticillata^
Aster sericeus^
JBouteloua curtij^endula^
JBouteloua hirsuta^
Coreopsis -palmata^
Cyferus houghtoniy
Cyferus schwemttzuy
Draba carolinianay
Elymus canadensis^
Helianthus occidentalism
Euphorbia heterophylla^
Hieracium canadense,
Juni-perus communis,
Juniper us sabina,
Koeleria cristata,
Kuhnistera Candida,

Kuhnistera purpurea,
Lacinaria cylindracea,
Lacinaria scariosa,
Lappula lappula,
Linum sulcatum,
Lobelia spicata,
Oxalis violacea,
Poly gala verticillata.
Polygonum tenue,
Pulsatilla h irsutissima ,
Ratibida columnaris,
Rhus glabra,
Rhus radicans,
Silene antirrhina,

Valeriana edulis,

Viola pedata,

Viola pedatifida.

Dry rock vegetation (Plate XXL, B).

The rock plants and sand plants do not in many places form
distinct groups. The sand of the bluffs nearly always contains
considerable broken limestone and thus furnishes conditions
favorable to the growth of limestone plants. Pellcea atropur-
purea and Camptosorus rhizophyllus seem to be the only ones
that are restricted to the bare limestone. The former prefers
dryer and more exposed locations than the latter.

The characteristic plants of dry rocks are :

Betula papyrifera, Juniperus communis.

Campanula rotundifolia, PellcBa atropurpurea,
Camptosorus rhizophyllus, Valeriana edulis,

Cystopteris bulbifera, Zygadenus elegans.

Digitized by



Results of the survey. — The botanical survey of this part of
the state was undertaken with a great deal of interest by the
collectors. Never before has this region been explored for the
purpose of botanical collection. Great opportunities were there-
fore offered in the search for species, which may have made
this corner of the state the northern limit of their range and for
those which may have strayed down the Mississippi river from
their native home at its headwaters. With such possibilities in
view the collectors were not disappointed with the results.

As a result of the survey 578 species of plants were collected,
26 of which are Pteridophyta, 5 Archispermae, 87 Monocotyle-
dons and 460 Dicotyledons.

In the catalogue of species are reported the following plants
which either have not been previously reported from Minnesota
or have been reported without any known authentic collection.
The specimens have been placed in the Herbarium of the Uni-

Allionia linearis ^\ Hieracium umbellatum^\

Asflenium angustifolium^ Meibomia illinoensiSy

Bidens comosa , * Naias guadalufensis ,

Car ex torta^ Prunus nigra ^

Cratcegus macracantha^ ^uercus ^prinoides^

Falcata pitcher i* Rudbcckia triloba^

Gleditsia triacanthos^ Sanicula trifoliata^

Helianthus atrorubens , Senecio plattensis . *

The following plants collected are of great interest as rare
plants in the state or in this part of the state.

Arctostafhylos uva-ursi^ Gaura biennis^

Asclepias obtusifolia^ Hamamelis virginiana^

Azolla caroliniana^ Hydrocotyle americana^

Betula lenta^ Juniferus sabina^

Carex lurida^ Lactuca ludoviciana^

Cheilanthes gracilis^ Lactuca sagittifolia^

Cratcegus punctata^ Meibomia dillenii^

Cyferus houghtoni^ Polygonum tenue^

Dasy stoma grandiflora^ Polygonum virginianum^

Dryopteris goldieana^ ^uercus platanoides^

* Previously collected but not reported from Minnesota,
t Previously reported from incorrect determinations or from general distri-
bution ranges given in large manuals without authentic collection.

Digitized by


Wheeler: flora of southeastern Minnesota. 369

Sanicula gregaria^ Thalesia tmiflora^

Sagittaria cuneata^ Woodsia oregana.

Solidago ere eta ^

'Catalog of species collected.

The following catalog of plants contains only those collected by
Mr. H. L. Lyon and the writer in the southeastern part of
Houston county. With the exception of about ten species
which were collected in Brownsville, they were all gathered in
the townships of Mayville, Crooked Creek, Winnebago and

The determinations were almost entirely made by the col-
lectors, each determining the plants of his own collection. The
determinations of the species of Physalis were kindly made by
Mr. P. A. Rydberg, of Columbia University, and those of
Siuercus frinoides^ velutina^ coccinea and rubra^ and Betula
lenta by Professor C. S. Sargent.

The nomenclature is that of Britton and Brown's Illustrated
Flora of the Northern United States and Canada.



Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw. Schrad. Journ. Bot. 2:
III. 1800.
Coll. : Lyon 38, Winnebago; 207, Mayville. June, July.
Infrequent, rich woods and shady banks.


Osmunda clayloniana L. Sp. PI. 1066. 1753.
Coll. : Lyon 43, Winnebago. June.
Common, shady hillsides and ravines.


Onoclea sensibilis L. Sp. PI. 1062. 1753.
Coll. : Lyon 326, Jefferson. Aug.
Common, wet meadows and river bottoms.
Onoclea struthiopteris (L.) Hoffm. Deutsch. Fl. 2 : 11. 1795.
Coll. : Lyon 79, Winnebago ; 208, Mayville. June, July.
Common, moist thickets and river bottoms.

Digitized by



Woodsia oregana D. C. Eaton, Can. Nat. 2 : 90. 1865.
Coll. : Lyon 306, Jefferson. Aug.
Rare and local, on brow of river bluff. The only previous
collection reported from Minnesota is that from Stillwater
by Miss Field. There are no previously collected speci-
mens from Minnesota in the Herbarium of the University.

Cystopteris bulbifera (L.) Bernh. Schrad. Neuesjourn. Bot.
I : Part 2, 26. 1806.
Coll. : Lyon 57, Winnebago. June.
Common on shaded rocks and limestone ledges.

Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. Schrad. Neues Journ. Bot.
I : Part 2, 27. 1806.
Coll. : Lyon 221, Mayville. July.
Frequent in deep woods.

Dryopteris thelypteris (L. ) A. Gray, Man. 630. 1848.
Coll. : Lyon 461, Brownsville. Aug.
Common in swamps and wet meadows along Wild Cat creek.

Dryopteris goldieana (Hook.) A. Gray, Man. 631. 1848.
Coll. : Lyon 203, 222, Mayville. July.
Rare and local, deep rich woods. The only previous
autfientic collection in Minnesota is that of Leiberg at Min-
neopa falls. Blue Earth County.

Dryopteris spinulosa (Retz.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 813.
Coll. : Lyon 253^, Mayville. July.
Rare and local, deep rich woods.

Camptosorus rhizophyllus (L.) Link, Hort. Berol. 2: 69.

Coll. : Lyon 32, 65, Winnebago. June.
Infrequent or rare, limestone ledges and boulders.

Asplenium angustifolium Michx. F1. Bor. Am. 2 : 265. 1803.
Coll. : Lyon 204, 224, Mayville. July.
Rare, deep rich woods. Not previously reported from

Asplenium acrostichoides Sw. Schrad. Journ. Bot. 2: 54.
Coll.: Lyon 206, 223, Mayville; 318, Jefferson. July
Frequent, rich woods and moist thickets.

Digitized by


Wheeler: flora of southeastern Minnesota. 371

Asplenium filix-fcemina (L.) Bernh. Schrad. Neues Journ.
Bot. I : Part 2, 26. 1806.
Coll. : Lyon 205, 220, Mayville. July.
Common woods and thickets.
Adiantum pedatum L. Sp. PI. 1095. 1753.
Coll. : Lyon 45, Winnebago. June.
Common, woods and shady banks.
Pteris aquilina L. Sp. PI. 1075. 1753.
Coll. : Lyon 42, Winnebago. June.
Common, hillsides and cut-over timber lands.
Pellaea stelleri (S. G. Gmel.) Watt, Can. Fil. No. 2.
Coll. : Lyon 77, Winnebago. June.
Infrequent, moist limestone ledges.
Pellasa atropurpurea (L.) Link, Fil. Hort. Berol. 59. 1841.
Coll. : Lyon 30, Winnebago. June.
Frequent, dry limestone cliffs and boulders.
Cheilanthes gracilis (Fee) Mett. Abh. Senck. Nat. Gesell.
3: (reprint 36). 1859.
Coll. : Lyon 299, 305, Jefferson. Aug.
Rare and local, dry limestone cliff. There is no previous
authentic collection of this from Minnesota in the Uni-
versity Herbarium. Sandberg's collection from Vermillion
lake made in 1885 and reported as this species should be
Cheilanthes lanosa (Michx.) Watt, which has not previously
been reported from Minnesota.
Polypodium vulgare L. Sp. PI. 1085. 1753.
Coll. : Lyon 76, Winnebago. June.
Local on limestone ledge.


Azolla caroliniana Willd. Sp. PI. 5: 541. 1810.

Coll. : Lyon 276, Allamakee Co., Iowa; 298, 444, Jeffer-
son. Aug.
Abundant on sloughs and lakes of the Mississippi.


Equisetum arvense L. Sp. PI. 1061. 1753.
Coll. : Lyon 102, Winnebago. June.
Frequent, meadows and pastures.

Digitized by



Equisetum pratense Ehrh. Hanov. Mag. 138. 1784.
Coll. : Lyon 29, Winnebago. June.
Frequent in light shaded soil.

Equisetum hyemale L. Sp. PI. 1062. 1753.
Coll. : Lyon 415, Winnebago. Aug.

Equisetum lasvigatum A. Br. ; Engelm. Amer. Journ. Sci.
46: 87. 1844.
Coll. : Lyon 18, Winnebago. June.
Local, moist meadows.


Selaginella rupestris (L.) Spring, in Mart. Fl. Bras, i : Part
2, 118. 1840.
Coll. : Lyon 78, Winnebago. June.
Infrequent, dry rocks.




Pinus strobus L. Sp. PI. looi. 1753.

Coll. : Wheeler 166, 254, Winnebago. June.
Local on bluffs along Winnebago and Crooked Creeks.

Juniperus communis L. Sp. PI. 1040. 1753.

Coll. : Wheeler 108, Winnebago; 213, Jefferson; 349,
Crooked Creek. June, July.
Common on dry bluffs. (Plates XXL, A and B, XXIV., B.)

Juniperus virginiana L. Sp. PI. 1039. 1753.

Coll. : Wheeler 158, 169, Winnebago. June.
Frequent on dry bluffs.

Juniperus sabina L. Sp. PI. 1039. 1753.
Coll. : Wheeler 214, Jefferson. June.
Rare and local on dry bluffs. No previous collection reported
from this part of the state. This is about the most southern
point of collection for this species in the United States accord-
ing to Britton and Brown.

Digitized by


Wheeler: flora of southeastern Minnesota. 373

Taxus minor (Michx.) Britton, Mem. Torr. Club, 5 : 19.
Coll.: Wheeler 289, Crooked Creek ; 317, Mayville; 433,
Jefferson. July.
Infrequent, generally on dry limestone ridges, occasionally
in woods. Not previously reported from the southern part
of the state.


Typha latifolia L. Sp. PI. 971. 1753;

Coll. : Wheeler 266, Winnebago. June.

Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm. in A. Gray, Man. Ed. 2,
430. 1856.
Coll. : Wheeler 423, Jefferson. July.

Potamogeton natans L. Sp. PI. 126. 1753.
Coll. : Wheeler 460, Jefferson. Aug.
Potamogeton lonchites Tuckerm. Am. Journ. Sci (II.) 6 : 226.
Coll. : Wheeler 395, 488, Jefferson. Aug.
Potamogeton zosteraefolius Schum. Enum. PI. Saell. 50. 1801.

Coll. : Wheeler 462, 490, 497, Jefferson. Aug.
Potamogeton pusillus L. Sp. PI. 127. 1753.

Coll.: Wheeler 461, Jefferson. Aug.
Naias flexilis (Willd.) Rost. & Schmidt, F1. Sed. 384. 1824.

Coll. : Lyon 329, Jefferson. Aug.
Naias guadalupensis (Spreng.) Morong, Mem. Torr. Club, 3 :
Part 2, 60. 1893.
Coll. : Lyon 443, Jefferson. Aug.
Not previously reported from Minnesota. Sloughs and lakes
of the Mississippi river.

Alisma plantago-aquatica L. Sp. PI. 342. 1753.
Coll. : Lyon 384, Jefferson. Aug.

Digitized by



Sagittaria latifolia Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 409. 1806.
Coll.: Wheeler 123, Winnebago; 304.
Crooked Creek ; 492, Jefferson. June-Aug.
Sagittaria cuneata Sheldon, Bull. Torr. Club, 20 : 283. fl.
759. 1893.
Coll. : Wheeler 491, 495, Jefferson. Aug.
Not previously reported from this part of the state or the
Mississippi river. Frequent in sloughs.
Sagittaria rigidaPuRSH, Fl. Am. Sept. 397. 1814.
Coll. : Wheeler 486, Jefferson. Aug.

Sagittaria cristata Engelm. ; Arthur, Proc. Davenport Acad.
4: 29. 1882.
Coll. : Lyon 481, Jefferson. Aug.


Philotria canadensis (Michx.) Britton, Science (II.) 2 : 5.
Coll. : Lyon 174, Winnebago. July.


Andropogon furcatus Muhl. ; Willd. Sp. PI. 4 : 919. 1806.
Coll. : Wheeler 404, Jefferson. July.

Chrysopogon avenaceus (Michx.) Benth. Journ. Linn. Soc.
19: 73. 1881.
Coll. : Lyon 354, Jefferson. Aug.

Syntherisma sanguinalis (L.) Nash, Bull. Torr. Club, 22:
420. 1895.

Coll. : Wheeler 424, Jefferson. July.
Panicum crus-galli L. Sp. PI. 56. 1753.

Coll. : Wheeler 420, Lyon 478, Jefferson. July, Aug.
Panicum porterianum Nash, Bull. Torr. Club 22: 420. 1895.

Coll. : Wheeler 388, Jefferson. July.
Panicum scribnerianum Nash, Bull. Torr. Club, 22: 421.

Coll. : Wheeler 182, Winnebago. June.
Panicum virgatum L. Sp. PI. 59. 1753.

Coll.: Wheeler 421, Jefferson. July.
Panicum capillare L. Sp. PL 58. 1753.

Coll. : Lyon 477, Jefferson. Aug.

Digitized by


Wheeler: flora of southeastern Minnesota. 375

Cenchrus tribuloides L. Sp. PL 1050. 1753.

Coll. : Lyon 287, Jefferson. July.
Zlzania aquatica L. Sp. PI. 991. 1753.

Coll.: Wheeler 523, Jefferson. Aug.
Homalocenchrus virginicus (Willd.) Britton, Trans. N. Y.
Acad. Sci. 9: 14. 1889.

Coll. : Wheeler 564, Jefferson. Aug.
Spartina cynosuroides (L.) Willd. Enum. 80. 1809.

Coll. : Wheeler 426, Jefferson. July.
Bouteloua hirsuta Lag. Var. Cienc. y Litter 2: Part 4, 141.

Coll. : Wheeler 347, Crooked Creek; Lyon 291, Jefferson.

Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr. Emory's Rep. 153.

Coll. : Wheeler 362, Crooked Creek. July.
Eragrostis hypnoides (Lam.) B.S.P. Prel. Cat. N. Y. 69.

Coll. : Wheeler 524, Jefferson. Aug.
Eceleria cristata (L.) Pers. Syn. i : 97. 1805.

Coll. : Lyon 113, Winnebago. June.
Panicularia americana (Torr.) MacM. Met. Minn. 81. 1892.

Coll. : Lyon 59, Winnebago. June.
Bromus ciliatus L. Sp. PI. 76. 1753.

Coll. : Lyon 414, Winnebago. Aug.
Bromus kalmii A. Gray, Man. 600. 1848.

Coll. : Lyon 259, Jefferson. July.
Bromus secalinus L. Sp. PI. 76. 1753.

Coll. : Lyon 184, Winnebago. July.
Elymus virginicus L. Sp. PI. 84. 1753.

Coll. : Wheeler 418, Jefferson. July.
Elymus canadensis L. Sp. PI. 83. 1753.

Coll. : Wheeler 292, Mayville. July.


Cyperus schweinitzii Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3 : 276. 1836.

Coll. : Lyon 375, Jefferson. Aug.
Cyperus esculentus L. Sp. PI. 45. 1753.

Coll. : Wheeler 526, Jefferson. Aug.

Digitized by



Cyperus flliculmis Vahl, Enum. 2 : 328. 1806.
Coll. : Wheeler 348, Crooked Creek. July.

Cyperus houghtoni Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: 277. 1836.
Coll. : Wheeler 346, Crooked Creek. July.

The only previous collection. known from Minnesota is that
of Holzinger, St. Croix River, Minn. Britton reports this
collection in the Bull. Torr. Club, 18: 368. 1891.

The collection from Crooked Creek was made from the sum-
mit of a very dry sandy hill. Both C. houghtoni and C.
schweinitzii grow in sand but the former probably grows
in the drier locality of the two.

Eleocharis acicularis (L.) R. & S. Syst. 2 : 154. 1817.
Coll. : Wheeler 527, Jefferson. Aug.

Scirpus lacustris L. Sp. PI. 48. 1753.

Coll. : Wheeler 148, Winnebago. June.

Scirpus atrovirens Muhl. Gram. 43, 18 17.
Coll. : Wheeler 267, Winnebago. June.

Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth, Enum. 2: 170. 1837.

Coll. : Lyon 168, Crooked Creek ; Wheeler 425, Jefferson.
June, July.

Carex lupulina Muhl.; Schk. Riedg. 2: 54. y. 123. 1806.
Coll. : Lyon 280, Jefferson. July.

Carex lurida Wahl. Kongl. Acad. Handl. (IL) 24: 153.
Coll. : Wheeler 142, Winnebago. June.
No Minnesota specimens in the Herbarium of the University.
Previously collected at Lake Itasca, Sandberg No. 1180.

Carex hystricina Muhl. ; Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 282. 1805.
Coll. : Wheeler 119, Winnebago. June.

Carex filiformis L. Sp. PI. 976. 1753.

Coll. : Wheeler 121, Winnebago. June.

Carex torta Boott; Tuckerm. Enum. Meth. 11. 1843.
Coll. : Lyon 60, Winnebago. June.
Not previously reported from Minnesota. The nearest point
of previous collection, as shown by the Herbarium of
the University, is Winnebago county, Wisconsin.

Carex stipata Muhl. ; Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 233. 1805.
Coll. : Wheeler 116, Winnebago. June.

Digitized by


Wheeler: flora of southeastern Minnesota. 377

Carex yulpinoidea Michx. F1. Bor. Am. 2 : 169. 1803.

Coll. : Wheeler 144, Winnebago. June.
Carex rosea Schk. Riedgr. Nachtr. 15. f. //p. 1806.

Coll. : Wheeler 11, 143, Winnebago. June.
Carex tribuloides Wahl. Kongl. Vet. Acad. Handl. (II.) 24:

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