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Italy in transition; public scenes and private opinions in the spring of 1860 online

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against which the Government whereof he claims to
be the alter Ego, has inscribed in the great book of
its working laws a dolorous penalty, too well known
in the hospitals of Europe. The Pope, with paternal
care, undertakes to aid the Austrians in evading that
penalty; and the Corporation of Bologna was
ordered to defray the expense of securing medical
skill for that end. They refused to do so. The
Government insisted : the Corporation was sturdy ;
and a long correspondence was closed by the follow-
ing document, which we shall give with all its
marks, from page 487 of the first volume : —


"3.788. N. 49.564.

"Most illustrious and most reverend Sir,

"The Holiness of our Lord has graciously
deigned, in the audience of this morning, to appoint
Doctor Peter Zuola as first fiscal Surgeon of
Bologna, with a monthly pay of fifteen crowns;
and, as his substitute, Doctor Julius Borzaghi,
vfiih the pay of twelve crowns, on condition that
both one and the other shall gratuitously attend to the
cure of women of bad life ; the extra allowance which
they have hitherto had for that purpose ceasing.

" I communicate to you, most illustrious Sir, this
gracious act of the sovereign will, for your guidance ;
and send you the official note of nomination, that
you may promptly have it delivered.

" And I beg to subscribe myself, with sincere
esteem of your most illustrious and most reverend
Lordship, the devoted servant,

" Martel,
" Minister of the Interior.
" Rome, April 22nd, 1857."

Directed to " Monsignor the Apostolic Commis-
sioner of Bologna."

The words " holy," " sacred," and " holiness," are
sadly dragged through the mire at Rome ; and who
will fail to reflect on the easy and unembarrassed
manner in which " the Holiness of our Lord " is


coupled with an effort to enable sinners to sin on
with impunity ?

We have given enough under this head to show
that, whatever advantages the Pope may have derived
from his kingly position during the last ten
yearsj independence in temporal, spiritual, or moral
questions was not one of them.

In the second volume are the following lists : —
Those condemned to death and the galleys, 23

Political exiles, emigrants, and recusants, 12

Persons shot in the city of Bologna, 6 pages, 186

Persons sentenced in Bologna to be shot, but
executed elsewhere, 3 pages, 90 names.

Police notes on persons suspected and politically
compromised in Ferrara, 30 pages, 534 names.

Persons condemned to death and the galleys, as
recorded by political prisoners from memory, in the
fortress of Paliono, for Caesar Mazzoni, written by
him on fragments of paper in microscopic characters,
40 pages, nearly 3000 names.

Members of the Constituent Assembly exiled, 3

Persons sent out of the State, and not permitted
to return without previous leave of the police, 5


The effect of this system of government upon the
minds of the people, is stated in addresses which
■were presented to the Pope himself, when, in the
year 1857, he made the celebrated "progress"
through his States ; which, at the time, the " Journal
of Kome" paraded before the world as one con-
tinual ovation, proving the love and honour with
which the Pontiff was regarded by his subjects. In
July of that year, the Corporation of Ravenna repre-
sented matters as follows : —

"Most blessed Father,

"Your august presence in any province of the
State must raise in the soul of your subjects the
most flattering hopes. If they had easy access
to your august presence, or if, at least, they were cer-
tain that their petitions would not be concealed by
those who surround you, you would be made clearly
to see the grave wants that press upon them, and the
radical improvements which they permit themselves
to anticipate from the justice of the Prince, and the
charity of the High Priest. Laws, finances, taxes,
municipal affairs, public institutions, — all, all,
demand enfranchisement, regulation, reform. O !
do not be deluded by ephemeral pomps, — artificial
flatteries, — forced, or rather extorted, by the blood
of the poor, and always connected with self-interested
designs of the dishonest, and the adulation of cour-


tiers ! Those are not your people, — who are
anxious to twine for you a crown worthy of the first
days of your Pontificate. Wearing it, you will
return to Rome with the pride and glory of having
restored to the Papacy a degree of power and vene-
ration which is the wish of your admirers, and also
that of universal Christendom ; and without it, what
will become of your people, and what will become of
you in the face of the human race, and of history ? "

It is seldom a Prince hears such language from a
Corporation j but what can we say of the following ?

"Address from the People of the Romagna,


June, 1857.

" Your journey in the midst of your people ought
to procure you that felicity which a good father feels
when entertained by his own children. Around you
all is festive, all is joy. But if the Corporations did
not cover our wounds, our miseries, under draperies
and gold ; if with the sound of the church-bells and the
roar of cannon they did not prevent you from hear-
ing our lamentations ; if they had enough civil
courage to tell you our necessities, our misfortunes,
and to let you know what havoc of the persons and
property of your subjects is committed in the pro-
vinces, the tears which you now shed from joy would


change into a gush of sorrow and compassion. The
first days of your Pontificate opened every generous
heart to hope. All Europe applauded your first acts.
The world itself admired you. It seemed^ for a
momentj that the Cross of the old Pontifi"s was lifted
up by you once more, to defend the people against
the abuses and tyranny of secular Princes. In that
juncture you were sublime. But it was a short in-
stant J and from the height in which genius soars
you soon descended to the level of mediocrity.
Alarmed by the prospect of too grand a future, after
having initiated your people in a better way, you
have endeavoured to lead them back to the old usages,
and to re-establish a state of oppression, called, in
the vocabulary of the Government, ' order.' Whether
your conduct can be justified by too rapid a move-
ment of the people to realize certain ideas, future
history will decide. For us, it is enough to note the
fact, that ' order ' was restored. The state of things
that has followed it, is certainly unknown to you ;
and we wish to place it under your eyes, and that
only to make you understand that you deceive your-
self in imagining your people to be happy with the
present political and financial administration.

" Holy Father, in the year 1850, after some months
— for you of trial — you accomplished your return to
Rome, and re-established your Government, with aU
its forms, because you had been preceded by the


French, Austrian, and Spanish armies, -which had
been obliged to give proof of their prowess. Your
desire, your pride, was gratified; but how many mis-
fortunes rained down upon your people on the ar-
rival of these foreign forces ! How many horrors !
Perhaps all were committed without your knowledge ;
but all in your name, holy Father !

" ^lartial law was declared in all our cities, and
shooting, and beating with the stick, without dis-
tinction of age, became the order of the day.
Informers for gain, and informers from party spirit,
rose up everywhere, — and everywhere victims fell.
The ' cudgel ' became a remedy for all evils. Con-
fessions were wrung, by dint of blows, equally from
the alleged political offender, the assassin, and the
thief; and the innocent were sometimes obliged to
bear the penalty of the guilty, when they had
escaped by flight. Commissions, formed of men not
the most respectable in society, filled the prisons
with youth ; and using the vilest means, they sought
tn the proceedings not truth, but, by the most
refined persecutions, to give formal proof of their
attachment to the Government, whence they might
derive a title to lucrative promotion. Anonymous
information against a simple citizen was sufficient to
throw him into the depths of a prison. The witnesses,
always threatened with the galleys, and with the
beastly cudgel, most frequently deposed to things


that in their consciences they regarded as calumnies,
and for which they wept in secret. It appeared that
the object was not to discover criminals^ but rather
to satiate the thirst of a party for blood. All this
in your name^ holy Father I '

"Then came the sentences of the (High Court of)
Consulta, dictated so much by caprice, that it would
be difficult to say which was most evident, —
ignorance of facts, or cruelty. And it is a grievous
thing to hear that a body of Judges, a moral corps,
the motto of which ought to be ' impartiality,' con-
demns to the galleys and to death, with a levity that
appals ; for, generally speaking, no proof of guilt is
manifest in their sentences, by which there is not a
city that has not had torn from it some precious
citizen ; and, not to speak of all, Senegaglia, your own
dear native town, still shudders when she calls to
mind the guilty shooting of her most innocent and
most virtuous Jerome Simonelli: — and all this in
your name, holy Father !

"Further, the disarming of all the citizens, even
in the rural districts, was the natural consequence
of martial law, through which every one has-
tened to surrender his defensive arms, at the dif-
ferent offices of Police, to avoid being sent to the
galleys, or being shot, as happened to those unhappy
persons who showed reluctance to obey the supreme
command. All, both in town and country, being


disarmed, the field was clear for robbers and
assassins to haunt the highways with impunity, and
without the least risk of being disturbed. This part
of Italy, to the astonishment of the world, afibrds
the miserable sight of organized bands of brigands,
who took possession of cities and villages, and who
insulted in every way the citizens, and even laid
enormous contributions upon conquered towns. The
striking point is, that all this took place in a State
of only three millions of people, where the armies
of the two most formidable nations in the world
were quartered, for the establishment of order and
general tranquillity. But, probably, you were told
that aU these crimes were nothing more than a little
j)Ocket-picking. What further shall we say of the
ordinary civil and military Courts, grown more im-
moral than usual through the misery of the times ?
In these the poor, without patronage, always fall by
the force of gold, if opposed by the rich. In these
the barbarous inquisitorial proceedings, often united
to ignorance, and sometimes to corruption of the
functionaries, leave miserable creatures to waste for
an indefinite time in unhealthy prisons, before they
can see their lot decided. For the sake of brevity
we shall not enumerate all the abuses, all the
wrongs, to which are abandoned the people of the
little villages left at the discretion of some incapable
Governor, or of an officer of police, who bears him-


self as a General : — and all these abominations you
are ignorant of !

"But do not imagine, holy Father, that the
series of miseries which afflicts your subjects end
here. Add to all that has been said, as its conclu-
sion, the immense financial deficit, the exorbitant
taxes of every kind that are paid for the support
of foreign troops, and for the boundless luxury
of the Court of Rome and her treasury. This ill-
regulated outlay has so wasted the small means
of the greater number of the citizens, that nothing
remains to them but a future of distressing poverty.
The revenues raised are certainly not according to
the wants of the State, but according to the extrava-
gance of a very bad Administration.

"And it is truly extravagance to maintain, in a State
of three millions, French, Austrian, Spanish, and
Papal armies ; nor can it be believed that the pre-
servation of order in so small a State should require
such an array of force ; for then it would be confessed
that the Government had so fallen into contempt by
its continual despotism, that it could not possibly
exist without a pedestal of bayonets. Woe to that
Government which does not maintain itself by influ-
ence and persuasion, but rests only upon force, in
days when civilization has decreed that at any cost
the right of the strong shall no longer prevail
against reason ! After all that has been laid before


you, ttink within yourself, holy Father^ if a
Sovereign, passing through his States where so many
wrongs take place, where thousands and thousands
of mothers are weeping for their sons in exile, in
dungeons, or dead by the hands of the executioner,
— think within yourself, if he can be well received,
and if the demonstrations which have the appearance
of festivity are not rather the effect of fear. Do not
delude yourself, O holy Father; and reflect that
if it HI becomes a secular Prince to have a realm in
which the subjects are governed like beasts of bur-
den, in which the caprice and will of man are always
substituted for law and reason ; much worse is it
if this Prince is the successor of Peter, the head
of that religion which has for motto, 'Equality,
love, and pardon.' Reflect, and set matters right."

After the general corruption of Christianity East
and West, by the adoption of heathen or semi-
heathen practices, from the imperfectly Christianized
multitudes who had flocked into the ranks of the
Church, subsequent to her public triumph in the Em-
pire, two powers arose to dominate over the enfeebled
Christians. The one retained the Christian doc-
trines, adhered to the corrupt practices, claimed
chiefly spiritual domination, and, placing the
Scriptures under the shade of tradition, adopted a
system of impressing the senses, holding the con-
F p


science by priestly power, and gradually supplanting
and overlaying the old truths by adding new
dogmas. The other restored, as against both
Pagan and Christian idolatry, many of the primitive
forms of Christianity ; rejected its cardinal doctrines ;
without disowning, supplanted its Scriptures ; based
its religious hold on a Book and on the intellect,
aided by passion ; and aimed at temporal dominion.
Both used the sword ; but only one the Inquisition ;
they flourished around the Mediterranean, dividing
its shores between them, and thence extending the
one North and West, the other South and East.
Each took, as its chief seat, one of the capitals of the
Roman Empire. Both prepared the way for their
social ruin by undermining the Christian family
institute, the one adopting the Pagan system of
Celibacy, the other that of Polygamy. By the
former, Rome has filled Italy in Christian times
with the unnatural vice of Heathen countries; by
the latter, Islam has wasted its settled nations.
"Turkey is perishing for want of Turks," Rome
for want of Romans : and all Romish nations that
would preserve their strength have been obliged so
far to learn from Reformed Christianity as to
restrain conventual abuses.

The decay of these systems has been by opposite
causes, as their developement was by opposite
tendencies. Islam has lost territory, but held fast


the opinion of its own people : a strong proof that
even among Southern and Oriental races a spiritual
worship has deeper hold than a sensuous one ; that,
after all, reason, not imagination, is the imperial
faculty in man. Rome lost its strongest races
by the revolt of opinion. Both have now long
been dependent on foreign support; but, in the
case of the Sultan, it is to protect him from the
aggression of neighbouring States, or the uprising of
conquered races ; with the Pope, it is to sustain him
against his own. The former holds his capital,
and governs withia his realm ; the latter exists
only by force of alien armies bearing down his own
people. In Islam the Porte has gone much in
advance of the people, in moderating the intolerance
of the system, and adopting from Christian nations
milder principles and methods, thereby risking its
influence and even its existence : in Romanism the
people have gone much in advance of the Papacy, in
adopting from Reformed Christians ideas of civil and
rehgious polity, which have been resisted in theory
and practice by Rome till it is imperilled by the
conflict. Islam has receded before every form of
Christianity; on the North it has lost several
provinces to the followers of the Greek Church, on
the West Algeria to the quasi Romish French, and
on the East the grand Mogul Empire to a Pro-
testant power. Never confronted, until lately, with
2 F 3


a non-idolatrous ritual, all its losses Lave been by
arms, its people cherishing a proud persuasion of
their superior purity of worship. Rome, on the
other hand, has had her frontier nations raised,
enlightened, and led forward by the influence of
Eeformed Christianity correcting and stimulating
them ; while her central populations, shut in from
this influence by Alps and Pyrenees, have steadily
gone downwards, till those she directly rules can no
longer beai their miseries, and those who would
uphold her are decrepit and powerless.

A doom overhangs them both. Islam sees all her
frontiers falling in, Eome her centre heaving
beneath her: humanity, sighing under the feet of
both, does not ask, " Will they fall ? " but, " When ? "
Freedom, Education, Virtue, Domestic Comfort,
Commerce, Science, and Patriotism, all the forms
owned by the common consent of mankind as the
good angels, attendants of true Religion, cry aloud
for their downfall ; and only three forms shriak at
the prospect, — Tyranny, Ignorance, and Super-


Appendix A, page 103.— 2%e Wife of Garibaldi.
(See "Documents," vol. ii., pp. 608-610.)

N. 3454 P. E.


Most EETEEEin> Excelienoy,

In my humble comnaunication of the 12th instant,
bearing the same number, I submitted to your Excellency,
that by means of the inquiries made by the Police and by
confidential persons secretly posted about, I have arrived-
at a clear knowledge of the facts respecting the unknown
body of a woman. There is no longer any doubt
that the body is that of the woman who followed
G-aribaldi. She was brought dying, on a phaeton, by
Gai-ibaldi himself, to the farm-house of the brothers
Eavaglia, bailiffs of the Marquis Guiccioli on one of his
estates at Mandriole. The woman was suffering from
pernicious fever, as it was expres.sed by Doctor Nannini
of S. Alberto, who was casually present when they
arrived, and felt her pulse. Carried into a chamber, and
laid on a bed, the assistance of a glass of water was
brought to her ; but she had scarcely imbibed a few drops
when she ceased to live. Garibaldi was present, and
broke out into bursts of inconsolable grief for such a
misfortune, and shortly after took to flight ; charging the


family to give the body honourable burial. These facts
occurred on the 4th instant, towards evening, in the
presence of more than twenty persons, the labourers
being assembled to receive their week's wages.

I, at once, sent poUce to arrest the brothers Eavagha,
which has been accomplished ; and the Court is preparing
the indictment. It is already ascertained that the above-
named farmers, seized with fear of the grave responsibility
to which they were exposed, for the momentary shelter
given to Graribaldi, and for the death of his wife occurring
in their house, adopted the plan of hiding it, and hence
buried the body in the fields.

It win be my duty to inform you of the result of the
trial, and in the mean time, with perfect esteem and
profound respect, I remain,

Your most reverend Excellency's

Most devoted and obhged servant,

A. LoTATEiiLi, Delegate.

Ravenna, August 15th, 1849.
To S. E. B. Mons. Comm. jExtraordinwry, Bologna.

N. 1076—576.

I'rom tTie Imperial and Soyal Civil and Militarg



Feom the judicial proceedings recorded by the Civil
and Criminal Court of Ravenna against the brothers
Stephen and Joseph Eavaglia of Mandriole, accused of
killing the wife of G-aribaldi, we gather that the suit is
justly suspended as to this charge ; and considering that
the momentary reception accorded to the fugitive husband
and wife Garibaldi, in the house of the Eavaglias, from a


sense of humanity, took place before the publication of
the Notice of August 5th, this cannot be regarded as at
all affecting the act in question.

Therefore better to respond to your valued communica-
tion of the 3rd, M. A. N. 560, in which you request
me to expedite this affair, I directly order the Signor
Delegate of Eavenna instantly to discharge the brothers
Eavaglia from prison.

I return the above-named judicial proceedings, and beg
to assure you of my esteem and consideration.

In the name of the Governor,


Bologna, September 5th, 1849.
To S. E. S. Mans. G. Beiini, Commissioner
Extraordinary, Bologna.

Appendix B, page 130. — The Confm-teria of the Ferrara


(See "Documents," vol. ii., pp. 539-545.)

Conforteria di Luigi Parmeggiani in Cittadella, la nottes

delli 15 alii 16 Jilarzo 1853.

Il dopo desinare del giorno 15 Marzo 1853 U tre con-

fortatori destinati da S. E. il sig. Governatore si portarono

alia casa del Rev. Sig. Arciprete Presideute alle ore 4 e

mezza pomeridiane. Mezz' ora dopo entrarono in carrozza

e furouo condotti in Fortezza. Smontarono sotto U log-

giato di guardia e si misero a sedere su delle panche e

vi passarono uu' ora. Venne un Capitano che parlava

egregiamente 1' itaHano, Ii condusse in ima camera di rice-

vimento, Ii servi di Caffe, e U pregb di aspettare TUditore

che pranzava aU' Europa. Dopo 1' ave Maria furono ri-

condotti nel loggiato come sopra, ed aspettarono ancora

on' ora, perche la moglie del Sueci iirlava disperatamente^


ne voleya partirsi dalla camera del marito, e quella del
Parmeggiani presa da convulsioni impizzi, bestemmiando
orribilmente. Queste infelici seppero la fatale destiiiazione
del loro consorti dalle loro bocche.

II Rev. Presidente Guitti, e li tre confortatori entrar
rono nella camera del Suoci: stava in piedi a testa sco-
perta, guardato a vista da cinque soldati, armati di fucile.
II paziente non era legato, ma tutto sciolto. Gli dissero
come uno di loro era venuto a tenergli compagnia, a pian-
gere con lui, a riconciliarlo con Dio : scegliesse. Succi
disse in tuono alto, " lo accetto tutti ; ma poicbe io sono il
piu. vecchio dei tre disgraziati, soegliero il confessore piii
vecchio." Allora il M. Arciprete, gettandogli le braooia
al coUo, e baciandolo in fronte, disse, " Son io." Ma sog-
giunse il Paziente : "Prima voglio fare un poco di testa-
mento, e dire che la confessione, e deposizione in iscritto
che ho fatto alia commissione militare, mi e stata estorta
colla violenza, colla panca, col iastone, e colle catene :
ne minacciavano solo, ma hattevano, e se non si voleva
morire sotto il flagello, lisognava dire quello che essi

Passarono dal D. Malagutti. Come li vidde si gittb in
ginoecliio piangendo dirottamente, bacib a tutti la mano,
e disse : " Sia ringraziato Iddio che veggo un Sacerdote in
queste mie angustie obe mi opprimono dalle ore undici
antimeridiane : " si alzo e continue : " Io voglio confessare
tutti li miei peccati, e dirli che confido tanto nella miseri-
cordia di Dio, die mi pare sino peccare di presunzione. E
sappiano che Me' miei costituti ho dovuto dire quello che
essi volevano; che ho sofferto una tortura orrihile ; che
mihanno cagionato una emmoragia di sangwe . . .stiimo tutti
con me, non mi abbandonino." Quando gli dissero che
scegliesse, disse, " II mio compagno di scuolad'aUora, Don
Luigi Zuffi."


Passarono dal Parmeggiani. Si alzb da sedere : tenne
il cappello in testa e disse, " Sono venuti per conf'essarini ?
io sono innocente ; io mi voglio confessare in pubblico, alia
presenza della Commissione, e dire che quello ohe ho detto

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Online LibraryWilliam ArthurItaly in transition; public scenes and private opinions in the spring of 1860 → online text (page 23 of 26)