William Augustus Larned.

Notes, grammatical and rhetorical, upon the oration On the crown : with an historical sketch online

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arms and carried the day." KENNEDY, etg is pa I a x I a v
with reference to the frequent charge of cowardice


brought against him by ^Eschines. 148, 152, 155, 175. if
ov T a, not, that I, but, that he the same man* being one ;
for though it refers to himself, he forbears, as long as he can, to
mention himself directly, n a cr v 1 1 ^ T a a iv, any scrutiny,
however severe. See 5. Id el v, to see, simply. ngoctt,oda-
6 a i, to see and feel the importance of what is seen, yroAmxd
otee/a, home-bred ; natural. See 234, 237. T t a i Siu*^-
a arc, by what means Philip managed the greater part of
those things which he achieved. T <5 d id ova i xai d i&-
cp 6 e I Q s i v, by promises and bribes to those in power, i <5
d i a (pd a gr\v a i tklnnov, in the matter of being bribed
by money or not, I have conquered Philip. &un e Q y &Q
TO v tivotiusvov. This is not an example drawn from the
buyer and seller of merchandize, but the terms so used are ap-
glied to bribery and corruption. For as he who offers to buy
6 &vov[i)>og, " emens, hie i. q. largitionibus corrumpens,"
SCHAEFER has conquered him who listens to the offer, iov
"kctfiovta, corresponding to 6 hvovnevos, the one to whom the
offer is made and who entertains it in case he buys him,
TTQlrjiat,, " si perpulit ut acciperet," SCHAEFER, 50 he who nei-
ther listens nor is bought has conquered him who makes the

In explaining the arrangement of the topics, we have been
compelled to refer frequently to the battle of Chseronea, and to
the present passage. The orator himself, however, it hardly
need be said, makes no such explanation, nor gives to it any
such prominence. He has done no more than mention once or
twice the fact of the battle ; and the present passage formally
relating to it is introduced without parade, in its natural, chro-
nological order, and is in no respect preeminent over the ad-
joining passages.

The duty of the Athenian statesman in the choice of his meas-
ures is what the orator had hitherto dwelt upon, and in respect
to which he had shown that he acted in the spirit of his coun-
try. The present topic relates to the execution of these meas-
ures, and here, too, he shows that he had failed in no duty
which could be exacted of the statesman. This completes his
defense ; both in the choice of measures, and in the execution of
measures, he stands acquitted of all blame.



In treating of the Amphissean war, the orator spoke first of
the treachery of JEschines, by which that war was brought into
Attica. With the battle of Chseronea terminates the course of
measures by which Demosthenes strove in vain to deliver his
country from that great calamity. One topic remains ; the
approval of these measures, notwithstanding the fatal issue of
them, by the people of Athens. Under this head, there are
three important facts which the orator brings forward ; his elec-
tion to several important posts connected with the defense of
the city, and his acquittal in various impeachments brought
against him, immediately after the battle ; his appointment to
pronounce the funeral oration over the slain ; and the inscrip-
tion placed upon their monument. These facts, however, take
up but a small portion of this part of the oration ; between the
first and the last two, the orator interposes two other topics of a
different kind ; a comparison of the Fortune of himself and
^Eschines, and a reply to the charge of deceiving and mislead-
ing, by the power of eloquence. We have, then, the following
topics :

I. Proceedings at Athens immediately after the battle. 248-

II. Reply to the charge that he was an ill-fated man, and a
comparison of his fortune with that of JEschines. 252-275.

III. Reply to the charge of deceiving and misleading, by the
power of eloquence. 276-284.

IV. Appointment to pronounce the funeral oration over the
slain. 285-288.

V. The Inscription on the Monument erected over the slain.


I g TO d i x a lu g T o i ex v T a y gd <p e i v jovrovt. De-
mosthenes seems to have forgotten, or, more probably, supposes
his audience to have forgotten, that he professed, at the outset
of this part of his speech, to have finished his defense, and de-


clared the aim of his subsequent remarks to be, to retaliate on
^Eschines, not to justify Ctesiphon. See 126, and Note.
eld&g x a I o ^ x c6 , "probe sciens." DISSEN. ifi^e-
fl TJ x (5 , " versans in ipsis terroribus." SCHAEFER. Not con-
nected with the preceding participles, because standing in a
different relation to the finite verb. Although living in the
very midst of the horrors and dangers. f\ v ( x' n $ 6 $ & fi 6,
when it would not have been strange *> is omitted with ty,
as is usual in such phrases as, ala/obf ?)*>, elxbg iji>, and the like,
SCHAEFER, if the people had been somewhat disaffected 07-
v<HovT)val 11 towards me. v ii&v r\v, a commissary for
procuring grain ; an office of the greatest trust and importance.
See 87, 241. ygacp&g, etiOvvag, slaayyeMag, for
the distinctions, see Introduction, p. 88, 89, 90, and 13. x T a
vr\v ^fiBQctv ix&crTTjv, day after day. See 68. TOVTO
y d <J * x a T w >>, for this is both according to truth (U?/-
0&s, what facts, the reality require and is useful to, or, (as
we should rather say), worthy of judges, who are under oath
and who decide according to their oaths, vn Q T far <5 * -
xacnuv, " ulile judicibus, qui, si aliter judicarent, sibi ipsi
nocerent, quippe peierantes." SCHAEFER. See 1, 234. Here,
as elsewhere, Demosthenes regards the decision of the judges as
a matter of religious duty. See the Exordium, and 126. T /,
construed with ovoficc. T 6v 8^\^ov, i oi) s dixaar&g,
i^v d A ?J t a ?, correspond to the different kinds of trial,
since the eioayyella was tried before the people, the nuQavoiLiMv
y^aqpij before the judges, and the evOuvy, before the logistse,
where the question was a matter of fact ; hence, ^ <UrJ(9em must
mean, not truth in the abstract, but the reality, or as we should
Sa 7? facts. Was it not that ivhich he saw the people giving
not that, the Judges on oath not that, Facts confirming before
all. We naturally expect the sentence to end with <Uij#5*aj*,
tiOepsviiv being supplied, instead of which we have the fuller
ending, Jta^d Ttacrt, jtefiotiovaav. 7V~ i, qp 77 cr 1 v x a A 6 i , true,
8 250 ^ e sa y s ^ ^ ^ ne ^ f Cephalus was honorable, xA6v
being the predicate of TO rov Ks cp&hov ; u quod Cephalo
contigit pulchrum est." SCHAEFER. See JEschines, 194. x i
vri J * ' etid a i pov ye, and, by Jupiter, a happy one, at
least, if no more; xcd expresses the rapidity of the retort,
while ye, as if an afterthought, limits the assertion to the single


thing, that it was a happy lot. TO rod Ksy&hov x uk6v,
the honorable lot of Cephalus, xakov being the predicate attri-
bute of TO iov Keffxttov, as it was the adjective predicate before.
!j'tti//To, J I Gi $ 8, refer, according to Reiske, the former
to bringing, the latter to trying, the suit. But Schaefer makes
no distinction, considering them as only another instance of the
orator's love of pleonasm, p y d v, " Significantissimum h. 1.
(.ufit-v : ne putes valere idem quod ovdev. Hoc vult orator :
etiamsi forte sim deterior Cephalo civis, tamen tu quidem tali
usus argumento confiteris me nihilo deteriorem illo civem esse.
Tot verbis opus est ad explicandum quod Grsecorum mirabile
idioma solo negativarum discrimine significat." SCHAEFER.

The present passage is a fine example of a Condensed State-
ment of Facts. It differs from the Argumentative Narrative,
in which the conviction produced depends upon combination,
whereas, in the present case, it depends upon accumulation. In
the former, the individual facts may be unimportant, but yet
contribute to an important result ; in the latter, the individual
facts are all weighty, but by being closely compacted acquire
a greater momentum.


-^Eschines had represented Demosthenes as the Evil Genius of
Greece " TOJ> r^g ^Ellkdos tifaTfywr " involving every body in
destruction with whom he had any connection ; one of those
ill-fated men, according to the notion of the Greeks destined
of the gods to destroy themselves, and involve others in the
same destruction. The connection of this topic with what im-
mediately precedes is obvious. Having shown that the defeat
' did not happen from any thing within his sphere of action, the
orator proceeds to show farther that it was not brought about
by his evil Fate.

o A o> g piv has its opposite in Inti^ d\ the contrast being
between Demosthenes and JEschines. Tigocpeoei, " i. q. dvei-
Si^ei." SCHAEFER. %Qv\Tat, TO> Ao'y&j. See 233. 7) vvv
i n t y B i, which now prevails ; with reference to the victories
of Alexander. TO per TO I vv v TTO^TT e iv . Observe


g . how the orator condenses in this sentence the great prin-
* ciples of his defense ; the choice of what is honorable,
resulting, however, in what is useful. & i w, "arbitror."
SCHAEFER. -u ^ I v, that is, doKelv. * t;? t c* T ipa ?, has got'
ten the mastery over, n&v TW g, at any rate, 256, like nauuv
in 246. yvzQOTyTa, "folly," Lord BROUGHAM ; but
" bad taste ;" KENNEDY, nev lav Ttgonrjlcnti^e^ sneers
at poverty, ex i&v iv OVTMV, under the circumstances.
82^7 tpolfitv, repeated below, tyw pdv, and having its
' correspondence in av d\ n a i d I ft y, having its cor-
respondence in i^elOovii <5e, and ZneiSri dL e I a q> Q s t v,
" notum est dici, de tributo extraordinario ad belli necessi-
tates." DISSEN. x a I (k y', honorable at least, however dis-
astrous the result. Demosthenes never forgets his leading dis-
tinctions, olx^jou T d iv I KM*, holding the post of a
servant, not of a gentleman's son. TTJ [tyr gl avveo -
x s v o) Q o 5, you recited to your mother while she was per-
forming the rites of initiation lelovvy the formularies
TOI)? filfikovg, " carmina initiationum" SCHAEFER, and got
ready the other impostures, o-wso-xevwgov, " ceteras impos-
turas." DrssEN. Compare neQl naQan. 221, 279. vefiql-
5 w y, putting on the fawn skins ; that is, on the initiated, the
reason for which Reiske thus explains ; " nam deponendse ipsis
erant suse vestes, quo nudi baptizarentur." x gar s Q l^uv,
" bibendum dabat iis vinum e cratere sacro." DISSEN. x a 6 a l-
g w >/, a general term, including the several rites of the lustra-
tion, some of which the orator specifies ; purifying. & n o ft d T-
iwv n (,ii> go i> s 9 rubbing them down with clay and bran.
One part of the lustration was to besmear the body with clay,
nsQinhneiv and then to wipe it clean with bran aTto^&T-
rsiv. Reiske thus explains : " Loti fricabantur creta, ochra,
argilla, et furfuribus, quso sunt res abstergendis sordibus oleosis,
sudori, squalori, seu squamis cutis perquam accommodatse.
Saponem illi veteres ignorabant aut rarius eo utebantur."
d v i G i & , causing them to rise. " Sedebant humi, qui se
expiandos prsebebant sicut pcenitentes et lugentes. JSTun-c
finita tota re surgere jubentur." .DISSEN. scpvyov xax6v,
ei)Qov ajieivov, a form of words expressive of gratitude,
pronounced by the initiated, after their leader. yOiyyeadat,
o v T w fi e Y Demosthenes frequently refers to the loud voice


of .JBschines, as something on which he prided himself. Thus,
in the nsyl nctgaTiQecrfielag, he asks, " who of all in the city can
speak the loudest and utter what he likes in the clearest tone ?
^Eschines." 228. See, also, below, 285, 313. dt&vovg.
See neyl nagan. 322. xovg nage la g, a noun in the accus*
ative plural from nagelag, used as an adjective ; copper-colored
snakes ; " est genus serpentinum ingentibus maxillis." DISSEN.
tf tj &TT7] g. Dissen supposes these words to be the refrain or
chorus of a mystic hymn, and to be put for the whole hymn.
" Hoc carmen saltabat ^Eschines, motu et gestibus liberioribus,
orgiasticis imitans verba et sententias dum canerentur," DISSEN,
dancing Hyes Attes, Attes Hyes. ^(>/og, leader of the
singers, the Coryphaeus, ngoiiyeptiv, leader of the danc*
ers ; " utpote qui thiasos ducerent." DISSEN. KtaTo^o^o^,
the chest-bearer ; " qui cistam sacram portaret qua reconditae
res mysticae." DISSEN. A i x v o <p 6go g . "fan- bearer." KEN-
NEDY, hlxvov, '" a fan-shaped basket, carried on the head at the
feast of Bacchus, containing the sacrificial utensils and the first
fruits ; Virgil's " Mystica vannus lacchi," LIDDELL and SCOTT.
& $ &hrj 6 oj g. See 85 and Note. y g {* ^ T e -6 e * v 9 to be
an Assembly-clerk ; an office held in contempt. See negl naoan.
222, where the word is faeyQafipaTGfovja, with the same
meaning, rol g agx id lo i g, " petiy magistrates" KEN-
NEDY ; a meaning not in Passow, or Liddell and Scott. -
qvfnbvoig, deep-groaning ; " sic dicti, opinor, quod in partibus
suis agendis inepte et contra naturam -vneynadovvces spectatori-
bus risum moverunt." SCHAEFER. ortwQdvrjg. Dissen and
Schaefer subjoin txelvog, making the reference to a particular
individual, but, besides the want of sufficient manuscript au-
thority, 'such a reference itself would hardly be expected from
our orator, ^a^^dyw^, in most editions is followed by
T^a^wceza, which is rejected by Dindorf on the authority of Co-
dex S. The present text has been translated thus : u plus inde
lucri faciens quam ex certaminibus^ sen potius pro vita veris
pugnis" DOBREE. That is, the players made more out of the
figs an 1 grapes and olives with which they were pelted than from
their playing, in which they carried on a constant contest with
the audience. %v y ay n 6 I e fi o g . This fine and forcible
sentence, nothing more forcible could be said of the most im-
portant war adds much to the picture, making it almost


nuttiorous: a war without a truce, and which admitted of no
herald. 3 e i 1 o v g, with reference to the charge of cowardice
so frequently brought against him by ^Eschines. /^Eschines,
148, 152, 155, 175. TOV tytnov) the objective genitive.
k n rj A 6 vov, it came into your head. <e r5 # e <5 , recklessly.
265 '# <N * of. We recall the course of thought. De-
mosthenes first spoke of himself, though briefly, passing
from boyhood to manhood, and then of JSschines, but at length,
tracing the successive steps of his life till he became a public
man. In both cases, he excuses himself from saying more of
himself, lest he might offend by seeming to boast, but of ^Eschi-
neS) because there were things which it would be disgraceful
for him even to mention. He now sums up the whole topic in
a- parallel between ^Eschines and. himself, in which the con-
trast is brought down to the present trial. The parallel, there-
fore, must be interpreted with this in view, jl ft * o> ^ t' v .
See 130. ^d^ara, the A, B, C's, 120. ^o/Twy,
that is, to respectable schools, 257. iiile^g, that is, into
the mysteries just described, 259. ZvelovpT] v, that is, into
the Eleusinian mysteries* i X^QGVG g, with reference to exog-
gotfievog urj arr^s, above* i f *f f r<v *i I famished a cho-
rus ; an honorable one. See 257* But, notwithstanding the
peculiarly emphatic contrast in the above words, it seems better
to render them without the circumlocution which would be
necessary to express it. You taught letters, but I went to
school ; you initiated, but I was initiated ; you danced in a
chorus, but I furnished a chorus ; you was a clerk in the As-
sembly, but I, a speaker ; you acted third parts, but I was a
spectator ; you was hissed off, but I hissed ; you managed
every thing for the enemy, but I^for the country, s % 6 n * n -
*$. This is more fully expressed in the ncgl 7ia([email protected]
You drove him off and hissed him from the stage, and onlujlid
not stone him to death, so that at last he gave up acting third

parts. 389. Milton has professedly imitated this parallel*

In reply to the charge of frequenting play-houses, founded
on certain play-house expressions in his writings, he says :
" But since there is such necessity to the hearing of a tire, a
periwig, or a vizard, that plays must have been seen, what dif-
ficulty was there in that ? when, in the colleges, so many of
the young divines, and those in next aptitude to divinity^ "



been so often upon the stage, writhing and unboning their
clergy limbs to all the antic and dishonest gestures of trincu-
loes, buffoons and bawds, prostituting the shame of that minis-
try which either they had or were nigh having to the eyes of
courtiers, and court-ladies with their grooms and madamoiselles.
There while they acted and overacted, among other young
scholars I was a spectator ; they thought themselves gallant
men, and I thought them fools ; they made sport, and I
laughed ; they mispronounced, and I misliked ; and to make
up the atticism, they were out, and I hissed." Apology for
Smectyrnnus. dAAd wvl TWJ> y^cpwv, but now to-day
I ^/cb /nev contrasted with ool d? am on trial as to whether
I deserve to be crowned, and am admitted to have done no
ivrong whatever, while you of necessity on the one hand ov-
xoy&vjy per having its correspondence in xwdvveteig de must
be regarded as a malicious accuser, and on the other, run the
risk, whether it must needs be that you should still carry on
this business, or be now stopped by not getting the fifth part
of the votes. With respect to this contrast of their respective
situations on the trial, the point is this : Demosthenes is ac-
knowledged to have done no wrong, the only question being
whether what he has done deserves a crown ; ^Eschines is
known as a malicious accuser, the only question, or rather the
risk which he runs being whether he shall continue in that
business, or be stopped in it.

8 9fi7 &v ay vw, let me read, the first person being used to
correspond to xJ 0v, although the orator reads it only
as causing it to be read, as is manifest from fays below. A u-
fi a I v o v, which you murdered. T\*W nvlag. I came,
"the mansions of the dead, and the gates of darkness," leav-
ing Amc6j>, from a verse not quoted. Eurip. Hecuba. 1. * a-
xay y elslv fi 8 , u hic quoque Euripidis Sophoclisve ex
tragoedia perdita versus est." W. DINDORF. x o * v 6 , kind,
o TU d i *>, u scilicet, sinoifu." KEISKE. Tr^oa^^^cro^a^ " sci-
licet, 7T(Mi>." DlSSEN.

Demosthenes having spoken of the fortune of ^Eschines and
of himself, both as private and as public men, proceeds to speak
of the prevalent fortune of all men and nations, in order to
show, on the one hand, the true cause of the common calami-
d, on the other, the unfairness of ^Eschines in charging
r \vith being the cause.


8 2*70 &7t a kla y s t g, having escaped ; as if from some-
thing unpleasant. Compare analla^ 145. tf?r6
T o V T o y troy T] A to y , under this sun, the world of the
Greeks ; like the English, " under the sun" cpoy&v T iv
n Q a Y ^ T w y, "a certain force of circumstances." Lord
BROUGHAM. Toy na^b -lovroicrt n enoli^j ev yiiv o y,
charge me with being the cause, who conducted public affairs
among these ; that is, only among these, whereas the suffering
had been extended to persons, who had never seen or heard him.
x a I i CCVT' eld co g. The orator introduces here another topic,
that in making such a charge, ^Eschines really brought an ac-
cusation against all the Athenians, and not least against himself.
Demosthenes returns now to a favorite topic, already several
times used, that JEschines should have given better counsels, if
he had any, at the time measures were to be decided upon, not
now find fault. 188, 189, 196. otf j'cxo T i p w y, for not
out of good-will at least did you relinquish to me hopes, glory
and honors. 1 n I d w y, " spes laudis et praemiorum." DISSEN.
jraod fiev T o i v v v T ol g &M o i g. The comparison is
between all other men and JEschines ^Icr^tv^g rolvw though
not formally carried out ; hence, the corresponding particle dt
is not used. dJ^KEt rig x<y. See, for this form of the
sentence, 117, 198. v T ol g v o p I {to i g, "in scriptis
legibus." DISSEN. T o? g ay Q&<po i g. Lord Brougham re-
fers to Cicero's well-known " non enim scripta sed nata lex ;"
WCTTS xceT^oper, 50 that even what he enumerates as
MISFORTUNES, even these he imputes to me AS CRIMES "as
crimes," implied in xT?^o^r, and necessary, to make out the
antithesis. Lord BROUGHAM.

Lord Brougham remarks that " the whole passage upon For-
tune seems inferior to the general style of Demosthenes." But,
certainly in respect to style, no part of the oration is more care-
fully elaborated ; few passages, indeed, are equal to the descrip-
tion of the rites of initiation, or to the parallel between the
lives of the two orators. With respect to the topic itself, doubt-
less it would never be formally introduced into a modern speech,
yet Demosthenes had sufficient reasons for entering upon it.
The sentiments were in accordance with the popular opinions of
the age, and it is not unlikely that it was necessary to remove


the effect of the charge of being an ill-fated man. Besides
there were several incidental advantages in the topic.

1. It enabled the orator to set forth the common fortunes of
all men in that age as hard and severe, and thus to fortify his
position, that the battle had been lost by the decree of Fortune.

2. In drawing the comparison between himself and ^Eschines,
he was enabled to repeat several of the more important points
of his defense, without the appearance of repetition ; such as,
that, " his enemies even could not say that the policy which
he had adopted was not at least honorable ;" or, that "^Eschi-
nes grew bold and cheerful, just in proportion as the country
suffered adversity."

3. It also enabled him, without offense, to conciliate the

food-will of the audience, and at the same time to depreciate
is opponent.


Demosthenes has shown that the ill-success of his Theban
policy was not attributable to any thing within his sphere of
action, nor to his evil fate ; to all appearance has shown it. But
yet, the judges, if they trust to JEschines, may think it an ap-
pearance only, produced by the magic of oratory. That im-
pression, the orator would remove ; hence, the present topic,
which, like the preceding, is opened abruptly, without a transi-
tion sentence. $ e * v 6 v, an adjective, used as a substantive,
to which the abstract deivoi^n below corresponds ; calling me
an artful speaker, and juggler, and sophist, and the like. ^Es-
chines, 16, 207. cb g t&v $ % o v * a, as though, if one
should be the first to say of another what belongs to himself, that
even now, or, at once becomes so; xat d$, "protinus" SCHAE-
FER. " Nam xl <J?j apud Atticos prope idem est, quod fyfy."
HERM. ad VIG. p. 827. For the construction of & with the
participle, see KUHNER Gr. 3 1 2, 6, d. Also, 122. X/TO
| Y w f CPQOVGIV, although I perceive that those who hear
are for the most part masters of the power of those who speak ;
the audience controls the speaker, not the speaker, the audi-
ence -for according as you receive and favor each speaker, is he
thought to be skillful. In the negl nuQciTtgeapelctg the orator


states the same truth negatively : other powers are tolerably in-
dependent, but that of speaking is reduced to nothing when you
who hear are unfavorable. 393. According to modern no-
tions, it is paradoxical to say that the audience is master of the
power, natural or acquired, of the speaker ; but with the Greek,
power in oratory is only power so far as it is successful, and
success depends mainly upon the character which the orator
bears among those whom he addresses. Aristotle, in his Rhet-
.oric, dwells upon the reputation of the speaker for good sense,
good will, and integrity, as affecting his power over his hearers.
So, also, Whately. But this short parenthesis gives the sub-
stance of all that has been since said by Rhetorical writers.
nag' efioL. See 110, 233. t % s i a^o UB vrjv. l&Td^ov.
Oat,, to be tested ; hence, as a result of such trial, to be shown to
be so and so ; and, hence, to appear to be, or simply, to be, so
and so. Manifested, si' rig e A ti n y a e i i. See below,
307. G I 8' # Q' e x i v, but if perchance there is a neces-
sity, to have them mildly and moderately disposed, e v ol g .

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Online LibraryWilliam Augustus LarnedNotes, grammatical and rhetorical, upon the oration On the crown : with an historical sketch → online text (page 23 of 25)