William Augustus Larned.

Notes, grammatical and rhetorical, upon the oration On the crown : with an historical sketch online

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T (3 d rj fi G>, in those things in which some all-important matter
of the commonwealth is at stake, and in which the people are con-
tending against their enemies, n Q b g T o v g ivavvlovg
luil To> ^TJ^G). Some manuscripts and editions have 0Tl -it,,
but TI is also omitted by Dissen, and Vcemel ; " et ubi adversus
adversarios res est populo." DISSEN. But Kennedy, " and he,
(the orator) is opposed to the adversaries of the people." T a v T a
y no 1 1 1 ov, for these things call for the noble and good
citizen; it is theirs to direct them. Compare 190. /uyd e vbg
d e 6 * c vj /i err v g e % G i x a x la v. This section contains
the same topics as are dwelt upon, more at length in 12-16.
See especially 15, 16. n a a a v % a x lav, all possible wick-
edness. Compare nacrav e^eicccrir, 246. xal pot, doxelg
T i pwQ la v. For same topic, see 226. A 6 y w v ; qpw^
v a a x I g.- These are distinct things ; eloquence and elocution.
" Duas res ^Eschiries dicitur ostentare voluisse, orandi faculta-
tem et vocis sonorem. Docent quse sequuntur." SCHAEFER.
inl TTJ atir TI$, " scilicet tiyxvoag." DISSEN. A proverbial
expression, sometimes found without the ellipsis. Herod. 7, 188.
" Does not anchor in the same roadstead :" Lord BROUGHAM ;
" rides not on the same anchorage :" KENNEDY. These transla*
tions give the thought, but with a slight change of the figure ;



he is not held moored by the same anchor, fyco, " scilicet,
eadem nitor anchora." REISKE. eZalyeTov o i) <5 ' Vd *o v,
nothing separate from the public, nor personal. " / have no
interests separate and distinct" KENNEDY.

The triumph of oratorical art would be for the orator, at the
time of speaking, to be himself unconscious of being an orator r
and to be unthought of as such by his audience. Whatever is
attributed to art is so much detracted from the impression
which should be made, not only as putting the hearer in a crit-
ical state of mind, so that he listens as a judge of what the
orator is, not of what he says, but, also, as leading him to fear
being misled by false reasoning and artful appeal. Hence, the
frequent charge, on the one hand, and disclaimer, on the other,
of being an orator. Never was there a more felicitous reply to
such a charge ; never a more dextrous use of the opportunity
afforded by such a charge. The parallel between himself and
JSschines as to the ends for which they had respectively em-
ployed their power, besides being most admirable in itself, en-
ables him in an easy and natural way, to repeat his leading
topics. Upon the frequent repetition of topics in this part of
his speech, Lord Brougham remarks : " Here is the same lead-
ing topic once more introduced ; but introduced after new top-
ics and fresh illustrations. The repetitions, the enforcement
again and again of the same points, are a distinguishing feature
of Demosthenes, and formed also one of the characteristics of
Mr. Fox's great eloquence. The ancient, however, was incom-
parably more felicitous in this than the modern ; for in the lat-
ter it often arose from carelessness, from ill-arranged discourse,
from want of giving due attention, and from having once or
twice attempted the topic and forgotten it, or perhaps from
having failed to produce the desired effect. Now in Demosthe-
nes this is never the case : The early allusions to the subject of
the repetition are always perfect in themselves, and would suf-
ficiently have enforced the topic, had they stood alone. But
new matter afterwards handled gave the topic new force and
fresh illustration, by presenting the point in a new light."



I'x' of p s iv ov, still the more. v olg, when.
security in speaking what they thought. " Vacuitas raetus ab iis

3 use cogitat, etiamsi libere eloquatur." SCHAEFER. v n o h a fi-
& v o v f B g with this text, the sentence is unfinished. Dissen
has the finite verb -bnM.u$vivov . nag p o 1. See above, 277.
inl ?&g -tacp&g = inl ity x&v j&ywv Ttctgaaxevriv : WESTERMANN ;
over the burial, w s , " referendum ad superlativum." SCHAE-
FER. exacrTo g IxcicrTq), each survivor to each of the dead.

The present topic furnished the orator with an opportunity
to draw another parallel between himself and ^Eschines, but
on another point ; having reference to the feelings with
which each regarded his country and its citizens ; Demos-
thenes, rejoicing in her prosperity and sympathizing with the
people in their adversity, ^Eschines, sad in her prosperity and
exulting in her adversity. This point, the orator enforces again
and again henceforth to the end.


d r] ft o or I a , at the public expense, ^nt^gdifoct. " In-
Bcribebantur talia ai^ly in sepulchro positae." DISSEN. The
ashes of those who fell in battle were burned in the Ceramicus,
and Pausamias mentions having seen in the suburbs of the city
the monument which was placed over those who fell at Chaero-
nea. 1,19,11. By whom the inscription was written is not known.
I tj fi a i o g. The reading of the manuscripts, delfiaiog, fear, is
corrupt, for which the conjecture of Valckenser, adopted in
the text, seems to be the best substitute, ^fiaros as well as
&QSTYI$ is construed with P^affi. And fighting they spared not
life, but made death the common rewarder of bravery and valor
common, says Dissen, because all were worthy of rewards
for the sake of the Greeks. %\d e X $1 cr t, g, which follows. v
PLOT r ( enogev, but in life that is, of men, in contrast with
0<aj>, or expressing the abstract in the concrete form, among
men to flee from fate the Deity permits not o {I T* n o p e ?,
that is, 6 6e6g. &v 6 r] x e, that is, 16


291-324. CONCLUSION.

The honors paid to the slain fitly conclude the fatal drama of
the last sacred war. The orator has gone through it with all
the skill of consummate art, and has made out for himself a
perfect defense. With this terminates, also, the course of his
entire defense ; and from this point he begins to draw towards
the end of his speech. What remains is, for the most part, a
repetition, under the form of refutation, of the principal topics
of his defense. There is a definite course of thought, the topics
of which may be arranged as follows :

I. The feelings exhibited by ^Eschines at the calamities of
his country. 291-293.

II. The betrayal of the freedom of Greece. 294-296.

III. The course of Demosthenes against the traitors. 297-

IV. Cooperation of JEschines with them. 306-313.

V. A comparison of himself and ^Eschines, with reference to
the great men of former times. 314-320.

VI. The feelings exhibited by -^schines and Demosthenes
towards their country. 321-323.

VII. Peroration.


CALAMITIES OF HIS COUNTRY. n O I 1 1 rj g , " Subaudi #Ot."

SCHAEFER. s <r x s T^y y v o& fi rj v , he expressed no senti-
ments. n & $a $ IT\V qp w y rj y. How subtle the discrimina-
tion, which detects the false patriot in the tones of his voice,
and how fine the turn which is thus given to the charges which
JEschines had brought against him. TO? $ yeysvyfiivoig
rots SAAotg. For a similar topic, see 217. T&V rwy
v6[i(*)v q)Qovrteiv. JEschines, from the conservative
point of view which he assumed, had dwelt much upon the
ancient laws and constitution of the government. T tf T d
hvneladai rolg nollolg. For a similar topic, see 280.
-iwv x o i v G> j>, public measures. n Q& y ft a T a, difficulties,
Demosthenes using the milder word, but ^Eschines the stronger
(xTu/r^aaia. See JEschines, 57. ^iQaTTOfj,rr i . For this
position of the participle, see 98, 1 20, 314. d i ' [* d e-
d (6 x a i e. Compare 206. e v e x oc TTJJ n Q 6 g e p e % %-
fiqag. See 279, and compare 125.


orator passes from ^Eschines to the whole body of traitors who
cooperated in betraying Greece. This topic is introduced under
the guise of a reply to the charge of philippizing which JGschi-
nes had brought against him.

(pilinnKj pbv. In speaking of the First peace, ^Eschines
charges Demosthenes with being a flatterer of Philip, 61. &$
& A 7] 6 o) c, really. See 85. iovg tinay/ovr a g, "civessuce
factionis, scilicet, clientele," SCHAEFER, each their own parti-
zans. For this meaning of belonging to or being friendly to
in -bn&QxovToig, see 1 74. ^ x Q w T r\ ^ i, a a p e v o *, " mutilating"
Lord BROUGHAM. TJ^OTT STTWXOJ e g, " toasting away? Lord
BROUGHAM. We have had several descriptions of the traitors
before -see especially 46-49 but this is the finest of all.
Nothing can be added, nothing taken away ; the whole intense
indignation of his soul is poured out in these few terrible epithets.

TORS. d v a I T i o $ , guiltless ; " carens culpa." SCHAEFER.
*l*& yC tQMTqg. See ^Eschines, 236. y w ?j. <5rj ex-
presses the assurance with which the orator speaks ; to be sure
I say to thee ; I do not hesitate to say. o <r a av^e^ov-
X s v x a, nor in whatever counsel I at any time gave to these,
did I give the counsel like you, as if in a scale, inclining to the
side of interest. Q&TIWV enl TO ^^a ( wa f "inclinans ad lucrum"
DISSEN. For the same figure, see negl Bl^vys, 60. dtiav-
Qeg. See ^Eschines, 236. otf lldo^g. See ^Cschines, 84.
otfcP in I -IOVTOI $ <jp>oyc5, nor, of my measures TW*
iiiaviov am I the most proud pfyunox qp^o^w of these. BUTT-
MANN Gr. 147, p. 417. TOO*' tpavjov construed with fifyivTov.
joi>$ & pv vov p & v ov g, " nempe prsesens participii cum ar-
ticulo est pro substantivo," DISSEN ; and many troops for the
defense of these the Athenians.

301-305. The orator having spoken of the general aim of
his measures, now proceeds to particulars. We find a similar
topic in 240-241, and 230-231. trig opogovg T^TT^. " Puta
Megarenses, Corinthios, Achaeos." DISSEN. q> t, 1 1 ^, supply
/co^uy, along a friendly region to the Piraeus. *& d' onwg
or f $ *, to manage the others, that they may become friendly
and allied, n a Q e 6 i w a , "per negligentiam." SCHAEFER.
"per proditionem" SCHAKFER.


without the article, and hence spoken of only a portion of the
commanders. *) n&v T a &v ei gs y ct v, or all these weak-
ened the chief interests of the republic id ota = summa reipub-
licce, SCHAEFER till they worked destruction.


tinriQxer. civ omitted, as also with nqoar^v. See 248,
Note. (^g T i QU g. See 85. fii v e vv depends upon ifoocr-
T&VTCC. r}crv%la. See jEschines, 216. v&vOQ&niva,
includes, besides the idea of belonging to man, the idea of
frailty ; and many are human casualties, a a q> & g x a i &n-
v e v or i /, in a clear tone, and without pauses : a picturesque
description of one who speaks without feeling, as if from mem-
ory, something in which he has no earnest interest, e v Tolg
avto '/gbvoig, in the earlier period of the republic, con-
trasted with 6 TtageWuv /oo*oc, the times just preceding, e I e-
T a v i g, a trial : these things were the tests of public men.
&n o d e I $ e i g, opportunities ; that is, of showing what he was.
i v o I g , " scilicet, ^.vdq^at, xakoTg xayadolg, id quod e proximo
Mql xaAoi js xaya^w tacite excipiendum." REISKE. o v x o v v

^i)ciy6Tw, not) at least in any of those things by which
the country was benefitted. ** Inest his verbis sarcasm us satis
amarus. Hoc enim orator vult : certe virtus tua civica nihil quid-
quam contulit ad eas res, quibus civitas augeretur." SCHAEFER.
rig y &Q a v ft fia % I a. For a similar sentence, see the negl
nagan. 323. fig /^^^drwy, what pecuniary aid of a
political and public character from you to the rich or the poor?
such as was furnished by Demosthenes' Trierarchy law. " nolir-
ixtl xtxl xowri junguntur ut affinis voces sensus ; nam qua? xo*y(i
sunt, sunt eadem nohnixti" SCHAEFER. in s d id oa y, after
the battle of Chseronea. lg T i\v in n i [tlav, for his civil
rights ; that is, for their recovery, n a g^ld s g. " Magna vis
est in verbo na^Wsg. ^Eschines 6 TTQOJSQOV noWdxtg q)0ey!;&[ue-
rog inl tov fifyttfitg, quo tempore pecunia largienda esset ad
necessitates civitatis sublevandas, cavit nctQeWelv xal <f6iy%otcr-
^t." SCHAEFER. o g ye n e VT s i a k& v T w y, who at least
inherited from the estate of your kinsman Philo more than five
talents. SCHAEFER. e g v o v . " The support which private
individuals procured by means of a particular agreement which
they made by entering into a society (eyavog) differed from pub-
lic maintenance. The society itself and the money subscribed


was called egavog, the members IQ&V terra/, their whole number,
the community of SgavurTat, (TO xoivov TWJ/ eQaviaitiv), and
their president, tytrptyjp^c. Their objects were of the most vari-
ous description ; if some friends wanted to provide a dinner, or
a corporation to celebrate a solemnity, to give a banquet, or to
forward any particular purpose by bribery, the expense was de-
frayed by an ^a^og." Bceckh, Pub. Econ. of Athens, Bk. II,
Ch. xvii, p. 245. eQuvov dwQE&v, a club-gift. ilv^r^vM.
It would seem from this that JEschines was bribed to procure
the abrogation of Demosthenes' law of the Trierarchy. i v a. p^
exx^ovcrw, that speaking word after word passing from
topic to topic / may not carry myself aivay from the present
topic, v eav lag, an adjective ; active.



The most powerful passages in the speech of ^Eschines were
those in which he brought forward the ancient heroes of Greece,
Solon, Aristides, Themistocles, Miltiades, and placed them in
contrast with Demosthenes. Demosthenes, however, turns this
very topic greatly to his own advantage. Under cover of it he
refers to these heroes, and thus is enabled to say, without of-
fense, that at least in spirit and purpose, he had aimed at the
same things with them. It was in appealing to these ancient
heroes on this point, that he reached the climax of his speech,
in the Oath ; but it was too important a topic not to be intro-
duced into his concluding address ; and here it comes in very
appropriately. The orator had stated his own policy with re-
gard to the conspiracy against the freedom of Greece, and con-
trasted it with the policy of ^Eschines. He now refers naturally
to the great men of ancient times, and shows that his policy
aimed at the same things with theirs, while that of JEschines
accorded with the policy of those who opposed those ancient

TtgohafiovTa, taking advantage of; or, turning to his
own account, x g I v w jtia i xai 6 e w ow fia i ; dm I to be
judged and scrutinized ? nl i o v n a g 6 v T a @ I o r, " in
prcesentem cetatem." DISSEN. x a T' e x e t v o v g , in those
times, d iia VQOV ^y, toijg d e. " Adverte sedem harum


particularum. Hse enim particulae duo period! membra hand
J-aro ita jungunt, ut qui notionum ordo in priori membro fuit
in posteriori convertatur. Sic ordine notionum converse hie ad
se referuntur ditcrvgov et inr^vovv, rods ovrag TtSie et TOV$ ngdre-
gov yeyevrmivovgC' 1 SCHAEFER. See, also, 163. ^ ?? d e v & I K }
nothing else, that is, than & xgyvrt. TOV s x a 6* a tf T 6 y,
those of the same age ; the orator and his contemporaries. & cr-
M e g TotAAa TT cfc i> T a, " Scilicet t&r&^ew as del. 11 SCHAEFER.
See 171, Note, for the neuter, otd iv Iglvrafiat,, /
shrink from none; " comparationem cum nemine defugio"
SCHAEFER. & v e <pa iv 6 fiy v, of whom, when it was in the
power of the state to choose the best course, love of country being
proposed to all in common as the object of rivalry, I ap-
peared proposing that which prevailed, x q&t i at a, " scilicet,
quae preeferebantur caeteris et victoriam reportabant, aliorum
sententiis et rogationibus postpositis." DISSEN. i% ia <r i> $,
see 310. iv T&^et, Inn or go q> o $ , in a position of
distinction trf|i, a position, but here used emphatically of a
distinguished position : " cine ansehnliche Stelle" PABST. and
a great and splendid keeper of race-horses, Innorgtifpo $>
Men of ambition and high rank were accustomed to train horses
for the games and races, and among the young men there arose
an excessive passion for horses, which is spoken of by many
ancient writers. Boeckh. Pub. Econ. of Athens, Bk. I. Ch. xiv,
p. 74. " Became flourishing, and wealthy ', and attended with
equipages" Lord BROUGHAM.


Having thus completed the general subject of the conspiracy
against the Freedom of Greece, together with his own opposi-
tion, and JEschines' support of it, and having compared their
conduct respectively with that of the great men of former times,
he returns to the topic with which in 291293, he commenced
this part of the oration ; the feelings exhibited by himself and
^Eschines towards their country.

d v o d' e tivotav, these two things, Athenians, it becomes
the citizen of naturally ordinary worth, to have -for to speak
thus ovrw, " quod dico me no^lrrjv yvaet, itiiqiovf SCHAEFER


will be the least invidious for me in referring to myself, see
10, on the one hand, in emergencies, "Sunt i^ovulon oppor-
tuna momenta, ubi liceat T<* Tr^wreia persequi, quemadmodum
supra dicit ore [IBV TTJ nbket, ia ^r terra hleaOat Tramp," DiSSEN,
to maintain the CHOICE of that which gives honor and the
first rank to the state, but on every occasion and in every action,
goodwill ; for of this latter maintaining goodwill nature is
mistress, but of power and superiority, other things ; that is,
fortune, or faults of generals, or corruption of traitors, as De^
mosthenes enumerates in 303. Lord Brougham remarks that
" it does not very distinctly appear that Demosthenes enumer-
ates two qualities." The first quality is that hereditary spirit
of independence, that regard for " glory, ancestry, and poster-
ity," which, as the orator had before said, 199, would lead to
the choice of what is honorable, even in the certainty of defeat.
The second is, that natural kindness, which manifests itself in
love to the citizens as individuals. The orator contrasts emer-
gencies tv [ih rals tZovaiaig with the routine of ordinary
life ev navtl de xca^a), and lays down the principle of duty
in each, ivith the reason of it. In all cases, the citizen should
maintain goodwill, for nature is mistress of this ; in emergencies,
the choice of what is honorable the choice, for of the success-
ful results of his choice, other things are arbiters. The clause
TOU dvvaadav eiega gives the reason for the use of the expres*
sion, TT\V TtQoalgscriv diaqjvk&Tisiv instead of duvavOat, xctl icr%ti-
evv. i a TO T ?; v, that is, evvoiav. t > f a i T o {> {u E v o g, " ab Al-r
exandro post eversas Thebas." DISSEN. n ay 6v TMV, spoken
oi JEschines and his party. T e g w v, the Macedonians. i*Bl-
cre, Macedonia, cp aa I d si v T T] g si v. See 89.


The orator ends as he began, with a prayer, e I co ^ e t, s
x al ngo&ists, " est solennis formula imprecantiurq. diras,
v. p. 395." SCHAEFER ; utterly destroyed,



1. Give the structure of the sentence, 1-2 ; also of its

2. Kepeat the remarks made upon the mailer of the sen-
tence apart from its form.

* 3. Character of the exordium.

4. Give the contents of the First Part of the oration, and
point out the skill of the orator in making this division.

5. In divayxcuov dtxouov in 9, point out the emphatic po-
sition of the words.

6. In the defense of his private Life, 10-11, mention
the characteristic of the orator which is pointed out.

7. What is said of the Depreciation of an Opponent, in
remarks to 12-16.

8. Into what three divisions does the orator divide the topic
of the Peace ?

9. In 18-20, point out the structure of the sentences
analyzed in the notes ; also, what is said of that kind of nar-

10. Why does the orator speak of the Agents of the peace,
after the causes of the peace, 21.

11. Give the remarks on Refutation, founded on 22-24.

12. Mention the practice of the orator in the statement of
facts, as founded on 25-30.

13. Mention what is said on the section, treating of the re-
mote consequences of the Peace, 42-49.

14. Demosthenes coming to speak of the Indictment itself,
has to answer the claim of ^Eschines, that he should follow
the same order with himself; how does he answer it? how
does this answer differ from that at the opening of the speech ?
Why are these answers kept distinct ? What is said of the
skillfulness of this movement ? pp. 148-150.


15. Mention, in their order, the principal topics of the
Defense, pp. 145-146.

16. What are the principal topics in the account of his
Foreign Administration ? p. 150.

17. What new topic is suggested by diexw^vdi] in
60 ? and what is said of the consistency of the several
parts of the oration ? p. 151.

18. Into what two parts is the statement preliminary to the
account of his Foreign Administration divided ? What is
said of the topic in the first part ? p. 153.

19. Analyze the structure of the compound sentence
* JL* > 4 x T??i*a ylyveadui,, in 61, pp. 152-153.

20. In the second part, Demosthenes contends that there
was no other honorable course left than to interpose for the
defense of Greece ; Under what three aspects does he pre-
sent the proposition ?

21. In 73-78, Demosthenes proves that Philip, not Ath-
ens, broke the peace ; that other statesmen, not himself, pro-
posed war ; why was he anxious to show this ?

22. What is said of Demosthenes' mode of treating facts,
as appears from the account of his Foreign Administration ?
pp. 165, 168.

23. Give the remarks upon the examples alleged by De-
mosthenes in justification of his measures, pp. 172-174.

24. Give the structure of the sentence, ti (* e I g tolwv
7t^a^(9^yTwy. Also, show how the sentence, * 1 T o i
T 6 T e c5 Q M *, repeats and condenses the former.

25. Give the account of the Trierarchy prefixed to the an-
notations upon Demosthenes' account of his Trierarchy law.
pp. 175-178.

26. What is said of that account ? p. 181.

27. What is said of Demosthenes' treatment of the merely
Legal Points of the case ? p. 188.

28. What is said, in the passage of transition from the Sec-
ond to the Third part of the speech, 123-125, upon the
topic with which it ends ? and what as to the periodic form
of the Defense ? On what pretense does he take a new posi-
tion in the Third Part of the speech ?


29. Give the summary of the three parts of the speech, in
p. 191.

30. Mention the general topics of this part of the speech.

31. What is said of the portion of the speech relating to
the Amphissean war? and what are the principal topics ?

32. What is said on the topic of exaggeration, in Remarks
to 140-144 ? p. 200.

33. What, of the 81^01$ cbrotfet;mx7|, in 143-148 ? p.

34. Give the topics in the account of Demosthenes' course
in the Amphissean war. p. 204.

35. Give the remarks on the description of the consterna-
tion at Athens, on the news of the seizure of Elatea. pp.

36. Why is the reported speech of Demosthenes in a lower
style of oratory ? p. 209.

37. What is said on the Remarks preliminary to a consid-
eration of the results of the proposed measures ? pp. 210,
218. Give the order of the remarks, p. 211. What is said
upon the WCTTTEO viyogt p. 211. What on the Oath ?
pp. 219-221. What upon the topics which immediately fol-
low ? p. 221.

38. What is said upon the orator's treatment of facts, in
the Narrative? p. 222.

39. Upon what facts does the orator depend to show that
the people approved his measures, after the defeat at Chse-
ronea ?

40. What reason is given for the introduction of the topic
of Fortune where it is ? and what is said of the topic itself?
pp. 243-244.

41. What, for the introduction of the reply to the charge
of misleading by his oratory, where it is ? and what is said
of the topic itself? What, of the frequent repetition of top-
ics ? p. 246.

42. What is the course of thought in the concluding por-
tion of the speech and the order of the topics ? What is the
character of the topics ?



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Online LibraryWilliam Augustus LarnedNotes, grammatical and rhetorical, upon the oration On the crown : with an historical sketch → online text (page 24 of 25)