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THE JEWS



NINETEENTH CENTURY.



A COLLECTION



iS«0a$«i, iHtt)ie\09, mil [email protected]$tarttal j%oti(e».



OllIGIVALLY



PUBLISHED IN THE 'JEWISH INTELLIGENCE."



BY THE REV. W. AYER8T, A.M.,

OF ST. John's college, Cambridge;

ilvlGS SECRETARY OF THE LONDON SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTJANITV
AMONGST THJi JEWS;

Formerly Missiona}-// to the Jews in Germany and Poland.



WITH A PORTRAIT OF THE LxVTE BISHOP OF JERUSALEM.



LONDON:
SOLD AT THE LONDON SOCIETY'S HOUSE.

3, CUATHAM-PLACE. BLArKFRIARS;

BY H. WERTHEIM, ALDINE < HAMBERS, PATERNOSTER-ROW; If A KHAR 1/

AND .SON, VICCADILLY ; AND BELLERIiY AND SAMPSON. YORK.

MDCCCXLVIII.



ALEX. MACINTOSH,

PRINTER,

GREAT NEW- STREET, LONDON.



StacR

Annex

q7\



TO THK



REVEREND ALEXANDER M^CAUL, D.D.,

OF TRINITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN,



ETC., ETC., ETC.,



Sj^is WH^^



IS AFFECTIONATELY INSCRIBED,



IN REMEMBRANCE OF THE VERY NUMEROUS INSTANCES



IN WHICH



HIS ADVICE HAS ASSISTED,



HIS EXAMPLE HAS ENCOURAGED,



HIS FRIEND AND BROTHER IN CHRIST,



THE AUTHOR.



2994GS3



PREFACE



The publication of the following pages has been
undertaken in the hope of giving greater publicity to
the information they afford, respecting the present
state and condition of the dispersed of the house of
Israel, They contain the substance of observations
founded on experience gained in more than tvrenty
years spent in humble, but earnest endeavours to
promote the spread of Christianity among the Jews.

The Author regrets that the publication of the
volume, of which by far the greater part had left the
press in March last, has been deferred through various
unforeseen and unavoidable causes of delay.

He is much indebted to his friend, Mr. J. C. Holm,
for his assistance in preparing the Survey of the
Foreign Missionary Stations, and for his aid in
arranging the materials of which the volume consists.

London, Dec. 30, 1847.



CONTENTS.



I. — Essays and Original Papers.

Jewish translations of the Holy Scriptures

The Jewish Synagogue Service .....

Jewish preachers and preaching .....

Jewish explanation of the motives by which the London Society

is actuated in seeking the welfare of their nation .
Talmudists and Anti-talmudists in Berlin
"Temple " of the Reformed Jews in Hamburgh
Service for the Day of Atonement ....

Death of an aged Israelite at Frankfort-on-the-Maine
Interview between a converted Jew and his father
Dr. Frankel and the Missionaries in Prussia
ITie three Moses .......

Jewish attachment to sacred literature unabated by poverty

and suffering

Popular prejudices against the Jews ....

Jewish testimony to the effects produced by reading the Hebrew
New Testament .......

Productions of the Jewish press at Jerusalem

A word in due season ......

What is the office of a Jewish rabbi ....

The Chasidim in Galicia .......

Anniversary of the arrival of the Protestant Bishop of Jeru
salem in the Holy City ......

Opinion of a learned rabbi concerning efforts for the conver
sion of the Jews ........

On the use of the Hebrew language ....

On the use of Hebrew in Jewish Divine worship

The Elect people .......

Early missionary labours of the late Bishop Alexander



1
13
23

36
41
46
50

62
66
71
76

83
8.5



91
93
95
97
100

105

107
111
114
117
120



n. — Reviews.

Rabbi Hirsch's Essays on Israel's duties in dispersion . . 141
'' Jeven Mezulah," or, Jews in Poland in the year 1848 . 152



VIU CONTENTS.

PAGE

Dr. Jost on the "Old Paths," &c. 156

Rise and progress of Talmudic influence . . . .160

History and literature of the Spanish Jews . . . . 166
The Confessions of a Proselyte — By Dr. Frankel . . .177

Memoir of Maria , a converted Jewess . • . . 187

The Itinerary of Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela .... 192

Christian Churches in Jerusalem and Syria . . . . 200

Wilde's Travels in Palestine 212

The Church of St. James 219

" The Spirit of Judaism " 227

The Jews in China 233

Eighteen Treatises from the Mishna ..... 240

The Talmud with a German translation 246

Sermon at the Burton-street synagogue, by the Rev. D. W.

Marks 249

" The Festivals of the Lord " 257

Jewish testimony to the effects produced by reading the Hebrew

New Testament ........ 259

" A Pastor's Memorial of the Holy Land " . . . . 260

" An Apology for the Study of Hebrew and Rabbinical Litera-
ture " 267

" Rabbi David Kimchi's Commentary upon the Prophecies of

Zechariah" 269

"Dr. Wolff's Mission in Bokhara' 276

" Modern Judaism investigated " 284

Eldad and Medad : a Dialogue, by Stanislaus Hoga . . 291

Interest taken in Jerusalem and Palestine . . . . 292

Funeral Sermons on occasion of the death of the Bishop of

Jerusalem ......... 296

The Jews in Great Britain ....... 301

III. — Historical Notices.

Reform among the Jews in London . . . . .311

Election of Chief Rabbi for England 337

The Annual Assembly of Rabbles 349

Oppression of the Jews 366

Religious Education of Jewish Females in France . . 382
Historical Survey of the Foreign Missions of the London

Society for Promoting Christianity amongst the Jews . . 389

London Society's Institutions at Palestine-place . . . 421



I.-ESSAYS AND ORIGINAL PAPERS.



^cbjtsf) translations of tije l^olg ^ctiptur^s.

One of the most important and encouraging signs of the
times, as it regards the welfare of the people of Israel, is
the desire which they manifest to procure copies of the
sacred volume. As many of them cannot read the original
Hebrew, so as to understand it without help, Mendelsohn,
the celebrated Jewish philosopher who flourished toward
the close of the last century, introduced the custom of
printing a correct German translation parallel with the
original text. This was a very great step. Before his time
very few of the Jewish nation were accustomed to read or
understand good and classical German. Among themselves,
and in their intercourse with other nations, they generally
made use of an imperfect and very irregular dialect, which,
although it contained most of the German words necessary
for the common purposes of life, was mainly indebted to the
Hebrew for all the terms employed in theological works and
religious discourses. Of course, the use of such a mixture
or jargon of two languages, often employed in a very
indiscriminate and sometiines in a very ungrammatical and
incorrect manner, was not likely to be favourable to regular
and sound habits of thinking.

It ia much to be deplored that the great Mendelsohn,

B



2 THE JEWS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.

at the time that he taught his nation to write and
speak German, and showed them that the language of
modern Europe may be properly used in discoursing
on the most sacred subjects, did not at the same
time endeavour to establish the authority of the sacred
volume as distinguished from all Rabbinical traditions.
While, however, we most sincerely regret the unsoundness
which prevailed among the Jews of Mendelsohn's school on
the most vital points of religion, it is quite evident that the
Bible has made its way among the bulk of the nation, since
the time that they were thus led to read it in a tongue which
is familiar to them.

As a proof of this, we now propose giving a short account
of eight different translations of the Word of God, published
by the Jews during the last fifteen years,* which have fallen
into our hands ; saying nothing of some others which have
been published at Vienna and other places, as these are, for
the most part, merely reprints of older editions, or only
take in part of the Bible.

The very existence of such books is a very important
thing. It shows that the Jews have not lost that attach-
ment to the sacred volume which marks the national
character of that people. Amidst their ^videst wanderings
and their saddest falls, "they are those to whom were com-
mitted the oracles of God ;" and we heartily rejoice that their
attention is still turned towards the holy page their fathers
have guarded so carefully and studied so diligently. It is,
indeed, very remarkable that during the thick night of the
dark ages of the Christian Church, biblical learning was so
diligently cultivated as we find it to have been, judging
from those stupendous monuments of Hebrew learning which
we possess in the writings of the rabbles of the twelfth
century, as Abenezra, Bamchi, Rashi, and others, Avho,
with all their faults, deserve our warmest admiration for
tlieir unwearied diligence and patient research.

• This was written towards the close of the year 1839.



JEWISH TRANSLATIONS OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES. 3

I. Mr. S. J. Cohen published a Bible at Hamburgh, \n
five volumes octavo. This edition has the Hebrew text and
the German translation on opposite pages. We believe this
to have been the first complete copy of the Old Testament
published by a Jew for the use of his countrymen in com-
mon German. Before this, only parts of the Old Testament
had been printed in common German, or they had used the
Hebrew character in printing, which makes the work inac-
cessible to a great portion of the modern Jews. The work
bears date 1824. Li the Pentateuch Mendelsohn is followed
with but sUght variations, although the translator does not
acknowledge it. This translation has never been very
extensively used, so that it is not often met with. Perhaps
the expensive form in which it was printed might prevent its
more general use.

II. Dr. Ileinemann published a Pentateuch at Berlin, in
1831, in five volumes octavo, containing the Hebrew text
with Mendelsohn's German translation in Hebrew letters in
parallel columns, accompanied by the Targum of Onkelos,
the Commentaries of Rashi and Mendelsohn, as also one of
his own, entitled Tttbnb "ilSa. The synagogue prayers
for the Sabbath are added at the end of each volume, as also
the riT^tacn, or lessons from the prophets. I have noticed
this edition here, as it would be wrong to omit all those
which have the Rabbinical commentaries ; and although I
have not yet seen anything more than the Pentateuch, I find
that Dr. H. has pledged himself to complete the whole
Bible ; he commenced printing the remaining books a
long time ago, but I do not know how far he has as yet
gone.

III. Dr. Johlson, of Franhfort-on-the-Maine, began to
publish his translation of the Bible in 1831. He published
a second part in 1836. This edition, which lias not yet
extended to the poetical books, is greatly extolled as being a
work of great labour and diligence. The high price at
which it is published is probably an obstacle to its use in

B 2



4 THE JEWS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY,

many cases. Although it only contains the German text
with occasionally a short remark on the different senses of
the original words, the price is 4s. 6d. for the five ])Ooks of
Moses, and as much for the next part, which would make
at least three times as much as the editions by Salomon
and Zunz.

IV. Dr. G. Salomon published at Altona a complete
German " Bible for Israelites." This Bible has neither note
nor comment. The name of each book is printed both in
Hebrew and in German at the top of each page ; and in the
Pentateuch the contents of each section are given at the
beginning of the same, in the same way as at the beginning
of the chapters in our common Bibles. This edition is
stereotyped, and was first printed in 1837 ; it has been
extensively circulated. It has, however, been complained of
as incorrect and loose in many passages. Dr. S. boasts, in
some " Introductory Remarks " to this Bible, that he is the
" first who has published a complete German Bible for the
children of his people." This is not true, except indeed it
be taken merely in the sense that Cohen, who published
thirteen years before him, added the Hebrew text on the
opposite page, and that in the edition with Commentaries the
German translation has been printed in Hebrew letters.
Cohen borrowed, indeed, Avithout acknowledging it ; but Dr.
S. has not translated the whole himself, so that in this sense
he is not the first.

V. Dr. Zunz edited a Bible, printed at Berlin in 1838.
This is also completed and is stereotyped ; and must cer-
tainly be considered as the best translation that has yet
appeared in this way, A chronological table is added at the
end of the work, in which Dr. Zunz fixes the date of events
much nearer that given in the margin of our English
Bible, than the common Jewish account does.

VI. Dr. PhiUppson has commenced publishing in Leipzic
an " IsraeUte Bible," containing the original text, a German
translation, and extensive notes, with woodcuts. This, like



JEWISH TRANSLATIONS OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES. 5

the works of Zunz, Salomon, and Heinemann, is well
printed, forming in this respect a great contrast to many of
the common editions of Bibles and Prayer-books published
among the Jews. Many pages in Cohen's work are scarcely
legible. Dr. P. seems, however, inclined to outdo all the
rest in point of paper and printing. His Commentary con-
tains a great deal that is derogatory to the Holy Scriptures.
It will be a voluminous work if completed in the same way
in which it is begun. Three parts have already appeared,
containing 120 large octavo pages closely printed, and the
twenty-fifth chapter of Genesis is not yet finished.

VII. Dr. S. Herxheimer, rabbi at Anhalt Bernburg, has
also commenced a work of the same kind, containing the
Hebrew text, a literal German translation, and notes. It is
pubhshed on a smaller scale than the preceding, and the
notes are much shorter.

"When these works are further advanced it may be
desirable to give a fuller account of them than can now be
done ; at present it may suffice to observe, that both these
commentators belong to the Rationalist school. Dr. H. is
well spoken of as to his learning in the " Annals of Israel "
edited by Dr. Jost ; the text in this edition is said to be
" correct," and the translation to be a " good literal " one.
This work is published at Berlin.

Our Jewish brethren in Germany have a peculiar difficulty
to contend with, in their laudable endeavours to procure a
literal and faithful version of the Old Testament. It is
impossible to read a page of any one of their translations
without feeling how incomparably they fall short of Luther,
in point, force, vigour, and I may add, notwithstanding a
few antiquated phrases, of purity, as it regards the German
language. They may know the Hebrew grammar better
than he did, but I think any one who can judge impartially,
must admit at once that all that has hitherto appeared will
not bear any comparison with Luther's manly, scriptural
style. Luther was not so exact in a variety of passages as



6 THE JEWS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.

may be required, and the Jews do well to attempt for

themselves to translate anew ; but there is something stiff,

forced, unnatural, in almost every chapter, especially in

Zunz's Bible, which is the best on the whole ; and this must

be felt by a great many, especially of the less educated of

their nation, who must find the forced imitation of the

original which has thus been attempted, to be rugged and

uncouth. As, however, this is a point which it would not

be easy to set in a clear light by any imitation of these

translations in the English language, and as it is of far less

importance than the great question, as to the fidelity of the

versio?is, it is not worth while to dwell longer on it, although

it could not be entirely passed over. It is rather a difficult

undertaking to represent the different versions satisfactorily

to an English reader : but as every one who cares for Israel

must feel interested to know how far they really give the

sense of the original, we wiU endeavour, as literally and

faithfully as may be, to give a specimen of the different

renderings as we find them in the copies before us : —

I. and II. Cohen and Heinemann, who both follow

Mendelsohn, translate Gen. i. 1, 2 —

In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. But
the earth was unshaped and mixed, darkness upon the surface of
the abyss, and the Divine Spirit moving upon the waters.

III. Jolilson translates the same passage —

In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. But the
earth was confused and waste, and it was dark upon the floodings :
a breath of God moved upon the waters.

rV. Salomon —

In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. Never-
theless the earth was waste and desert, and it was dark upon the
surface of the abyss ; but the Spirit of God hovered over the water.

V. Zunz—

In the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth. And
the earth was desert and waste, and darkness upon the surface of
the abyss, and the Spirit of God hovering upon the surface of the
waters.



JEWISH TRANSLATIONS OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES. 7

VI. Pliilippson

In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth, But the
earth was waste and confused, and darkness upon tlie flood, and
the Spirit of God moving upon the waters.

VII. Herxheimer —

In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. And
the earth was a desert and emptiness, and darkness upon the
surface of the mass of water, and the breath of God hovering upon
the surface of the water.

Gon. XV. 6, is translated thus by the different authors
above-mentioned : —

Cohen and Heinemann —

Abraham believed the Eternal, and he reckoned this to him for
virtue.

Johlson —

And he believed the Eternal. This he reckoned to him for
virtue.

Salomon —

And he triisted God. And he reckoned it to him for righteousness.

Zunz —

And he trusted in the Eternal, and he reckoned it to him as
piety.

Philippson —

And he believed the Eternal. And he reckoned it to him as
righteousness.

Herxheimer —

And he trusted in the Eternal. And he reckoned it to him for
uprightness.

As the Bibles of Zunz and Salomon have been ste-
reotyped and very extensively circulated, it may be well to
add a few more passages from them.

Zunz translates Psalm ii. 12 —

Do homage to the Son, that he be not angry, and ye go astray on
the way ; for his wrath is soon kindled. Blessed are all that hide
themselves in him.



8 THE JEWS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.

Salomon —

Do homage to the Son, that he be not angry, and ye perish
(the German is literally, go to ground) on the way, for his
wrath is easily kindled —

Blessed are all they who seek defence in him.

The last part of the verse is made by Salomon to begin a
new line, and has also the mark — to divide it from the first
part, which we have copied. This seems to be intended to
lead the common reader to refer the word " him " not to the
Son but to God, as mentioned in verse 11 ; as this is the
usual way of attempting to get rid of the argument for the
divinity of the Son, as implied when read in the natural way.
Zunz only puts a common full stop before the word "Blessed"
and does not begin a fresh line with the last clause. We
need hardly add, that in the Hebrew there is not the least
intimation of any division or separation of the words, more
than in the middle of the other verses of this or any other
Psalm. We cannot imagine any motive for thus separating the
clauses here, unless it be that which we have mentioned.
But although this is a liberty which ought not to be taken
in translating the sacred text, it must not be forgotten that
the translation of the first part of the verse is worthy of
particular notice. Most Jews, in argument, when pressed
with this text, maintain that the word "13, here translated
son, means purity. This is the explanation given by Rashi,
and although both Abenezra and Kimchi say that ~)2 means
son, to say nothing of a host of others, still we have often
had to encounter no small degree of contempt among the
Jews for translating the passage as it is rendered in the
English authorized version. It is therefore satisfactory to
see that in these two Bibles the point is conceded in our
favour ; as the passage is a very striking and important one.

Zimz translates Isa. ix. 5, 6, (or according to the English

Bible, Isa. ix. 6, 7,) —

For a child is born to us, a son given to us, and the government
is upon his shoulder ; and his name is called Wonder, Counsellor,
strong God, eternal Father, Prince of Peace; That the government
increase, and there be no end of the peace upon the throne of



JEWISH TRANSLATIONS OP THE HOLY SCRIPTURES. 9

David and in his kingdom ; to set up and to support it by duty and
right from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the Eternal of
hosts does this.

Salomon —

For a child was born to us, a son was given to us, and the chief
power rests upon his shoulder, and his name is called : Wonder,
Counsel of the mighty God, of the eternal Father, Prince of Peace,
that he increase the chief power and the peace without end upon the
throne of David, and in his kingdom, that he establish and support
it by right and by righteousness, from henceforth and for ever. The
zeal of the God of armies will do this.

Dr. Salomon translates Jehovah by the word God, print-
ing this word in a different way from the others, so as to
mark its peculiar importance.

Both Zunz and Salomon translate n^b^H, Isa. vii. 14.
the young looman.

TaXxwz translates Isa. liii. 1 —

Who would have believed our information? And the arm of the
Eternal, upon whom hath it revealed itself?

Salomon —

Who would have believed what we now hear ? and the arm of
God — to whom hath it revealed itself?

Zunz translates Zech xiii. 7 —

Sword! awake upon my shepherd, and upon the man whom 1
have associated with me! is the word of the Eternal of hosts; smite
the shepherd that the sheep be scattered, and I will turn my hand
again to the spare ones.

Salomon —

Sword ! arise against my shepherd, and against the man who has
associated himself to me, saith the God of armies : Smite the
shepherd, that the flock may be scattered; but I turn my hand
towards the tender ones.

Johlson translates the latter part of Gen. xxxii. 31 —
I have seen divine Beings from face to face, and my soul was
delivered.

Zunz —

I have seen God face to face, and my soul has been delivered.
Salomon —

I have seen Angels face to face, and my soul was dehvered.
B 3



10 THE JEWS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.

These specimens may suffice to show in what manner
these translations have been made.

It seems that the Jews in France feel the same desire to
possess and understand the Word of God.

VIII. Mr. S. Cahen has nearly finished his French trans-
lation of the Hebrew Bible with notes. We must, however,
lament the awful departure from rehgion and truth, which
we find to prevail in the translation thus offered to our
Jewish brethren in France.

It is sad indeed, that a son of Abraham should so far
foi'get his duty to liis God and liis rehgion, as to print
such a loose and incorrect version ; but at the same time,
it is delightful to find that there are those left in Israel
who cannot and will not sit quietly by and see the ark
of God thus trifled with. This, at least, is as it ought to
be ; God grant that the time may speedily come when all



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