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Edmund's Day, 12 14. It is described by Lydgate,
the poet monk of Bury; as "of gold standing on a
pedestal of Gothic stonework." It was swept away by
the desecrators under Henry VIII, who describe it as
" most cumberous to efface." I said last time that I
did not know whether Abbot Samson lived to see the
baron's meeting ; I find now that he died two years
before it.

Runnymede brought the Charter, but not the
long-wished for peace. The war broke out again ;
East England was the field of it. At length the
barons in despair sought the aid of the French King,
Philip Augustus. He sent his son, afterwards Louis
VIII., who received the homage of the English barons



PETER LOMBARD 185

in St. Paul's. But they soon found that he meant
treacherously by them ; and when John suddenly
died, leaving a son ten years old, their sympathy went
out towards the boy King, and Louis went home
again, seeing his cause hopeless. But it is alleged
that before doing so he robbed churches by whole-
sale, that he carried away the body of St. Amphibalus
from Redbourn, and that of St. Edmund from Bury.
I say it is so alleged. But the evidence must be
called doubtful.

Nov. g.

I am obliged to begin with a trifle of autobiography.
Near upon fifty years ago (in 1845, 6, 7) I was a
student in St. Mark's College, Chelsea, and on my
last visit to Torquay I went up to the cemetery and
said a Requiescat over the grave of our old Principal,
Derwent Coleridge. In those days the two leading
members of the Council were Thomas Dyke Acland
and Gilbert Mathieson. There were reasons which
brought me into personal contact with them, and
when he heard that I was going to Exeter, the former
of them, now a baronet of eighty-five years old,
expressed a wish that I would go and see him.
Mathieson has gone to his rest these forty years or
more. So four of us, old fellow students, made up a



186 THE LETTERS OF

St. Mark's party to visit Sir Thomas, and were
welcomed most cordially. It was a touching sight to
see the old man, his hair still black, his foot firm, his
eye keen, taking us up the hill to his chapel, and
showing us the views from his beautiful park, his deer,
and his Exmoor ponies, some no bigger than col ley
dogs ; and yet more touching was it to sit down with
him and hear him pour out reminiscences of the old
days when the fight for Church education was being
fought. Much of what he said was new to me, and is
worth putting down, if it be only as a minute
contribution to a history of Education, which will
have to be written.

Sir Thomas went back to the days of the Melbourne
Ministry. The Tract movement was in full swing, the
clergy were waking up to a higher sense of duty ; even
those who held aloof from them were recognising the
power and spirituality of the new leaders. Not only
Pusey and Newman and Keble, with their friends, but
such men as Joshua Watson, Dr. Hook, Norris of
Hackney, Archdeacon Bayley, the Wordsworth
brothers, Samuel Wilberforce, were all busy in their
way, each with his own ideal of what the Church
should be. Mr. Watson was eager about S.P.G. and
S.P.C.K., but it was also he and Dr. Bayley who threw



PETER LOMBARD 187

themselves with great eagerness into a movement for
connecting the reviving life of the Church with
educational improvements, and seeing that it was
intellectually abreast of the time. Thus, for instance,
Lord Brougham and Charles Knight had been
mainly instrumental in starting the Penny Magazine
on a non-religious basis ; the two men I have named
started the Saturday Magazine, which aimed at being
fully abreast of the other in secular matters, whilst it
also recognised the powers of the world to come. So
Mr. Acland, Mr. Mathieson, Lords Ashley and Sandon
(afterwards respectively Shaftesbury and Harrowby),
Mr. Gladstone, Henry Nelson Coleridge, Samuel F.
Wood (an uncle of the present Lord Halifax), W. M.
Praed, S. Lutwidge set to work first of all to form
diocesan boards, with a view to forming training
colleges and providing for inspection. They were
anxious, too, to give encouragement to good teachers
by promoting them to Church middle schools. This
idea is put forth in Mr. Gresley's story, "Church
Clavering."

And they had great success. The first training
College was at the National Society's at Westminster ;
the clergy sent up promising lads to have a six
months', in some cases only a three months', training,



188 THE LETTERS OF

before settling down in country villages as school-
masters. And unpromising as all this may sound to
modern educationists, I can tell them that not a few
of these men proved well worth their training, very
good schoolmasters indeed. My own, for I was
taught in a village National school, would never have
got through a first year's examination, nor even a
Queen's scholarship. He was not clever, but he was
plodding and painstaking. His old rector helped
him, and all his life he did his best. And many of
his boys have done well in the world. There was an
emulation and a zeal amongst us youngsters which it
might be hard to account for, and he taught us to do
what he had done himself, to observe, to acquire facts,
and to like our books. And there were many such
steady-going men who had in a few months learned
at the training school how to learn when they got
back to their work.

But of course all this tended to more complete
work, and so a fuller training had to be provided for.
And the pioneers I have named set to work, and the
National Society founded St. Mark's and Battersea
for schoolmasters, and Whitelands for schoolmistresses.
St. Mark's, and I think the other two, were opened in
1841.



PETER LOMBARD 189

That was an eventful year in Church and State.
The Melbourne Ministry went out of office, and were
succeeded by that of Sir Robert Peel, and this was a
distinct gain to the Church party. But it was also
the year of Tract 90, and the year in which Newman,
as he tells us in his Apologia, set his face definitely
Romewards. The bitterness with which he and his
friends were regarded by the Evangelical party (and
it must be remembered that the latter were by far the
strongest numerically) had never been so great as
now. They were fiercely proscribed, not only in the
secular press, but in the two newspapers which
circulated among the clergy. On the other hand,
Pusey and Keble were men of learning as well as
holiness, and these bravely held their own in face of
clamour. And St. Mark's was from the first marked
as in sympathy with the High Church party. Mr.
Sinclair, the secretary of the National Society, so Sir
Thomas Acland told me, was hostile to the College
for that reason. However, when he became Arch-
deacon of Middlesex, I am certain that he behaved
fairly and generously to it. Except St. Paul's and
Westminster Abbey, I think the College chapel was
the only place in London where you could hear a
Choral Service. People used to come from all parts
and fierce was the onslaught which, more than once



190 THE LETTERS OF

was made upon it. Archbishop Sumner would never
go near it. I saw his brother there once, the late
Bishop of Winchester, who was a man of wider views.
Bishop Blomfield was always a most generous friend.

Justice should be done to the Whigs, however.
The appointment of the Committee of Council on
Education in 1839 was their act, and the gain to the
Church from it was very great. Under it the Church
Training Colleges were largely subsidised, the in-
spectors were Churchmen, and the teaching of the
Prayer Book and of Church history was fully sustained.
Here, for instance, are a few names that Churchmen
who remember them will always hold in honour —
Moseley, Archdeacon Allen, Norris, Tin ling, Cowie.

Under the Peel Government the Church movement
progressed quietly, though Newman deserted to Rome.
Sir Robert had but few bishoprics to fill ; so far as I
remember Wilberforce and Lonsdale were his only
nominees. In 1846 he gave place to Lord John
Russell, and the new Premier at once took up again
the question of National Education. I do not feel
called upon to re-open the controversies which arose
out of his measures. He was a religious, but narrow-
minded and self-satisfied little man, but according to



PETER LOMBARD 191

his lights he was energetic as well as conscientious.
The system which he inaugurated of grants of public
money to elementary schools, and of pupil teachers
to be prepared for the training colleges, has been
steadily pursued ever since, and it has tended to the
furtherance of the Church. No one would have been
more shocked than Lord John Russell, or Mr. Forster
after him, at the attempt to unchristianise our
elementary schools.



1896

Feb. 28, 1896.

How many men living can say they ever played
cricket with Cardinal Manning ? I can for one. It
was in June, 1845. He was Archdeacon of Chichester,
and he, Sir T. D. Acland, Gilbert Mathieson, and some
others gave the students of St. Mark's College, Chelsea,
a day's treat on Wimbledon Common, and we played
cricket together. The day is burnt into my memory.
I reminded the Cardinal of it at a King's College
Hospital dinner eight or nine years ago. I know I
got eleven runs, and missed a catch.

March 13.

The other day I got Collingridge's large map of
London, and stuck into it a brass drawing-pin on the
site of every old London church. It certainly was a
remarkable map to look upon when so bedecked. The
City portion was as thickly studded with bright spots
as a star-map. And then I carefully cut out a paper

x 9 t



THE LETTERS OF PETER LOMBARD 193

pattern exactly marking the ravages of the great Fire
of Sept. 2-6, 1666, and stuck it on. What an awful
event it was ! The earthquake of Lisbon was far more
terrible as regards loss of life, but the destruction of
property there was as nothing compared with the Fire
of London. It ravaged 396 acres, burnt 13,200 houses,
nearly all the great public buildings, four of the City
gates, 89 churches, and (it is estimated) property worth
three or four million sterling. The covering of the
burnt part revealed a noteworthy fact, namely, that
outside it the churches were comparatively few. There
are two reasons for this. First, that a great portion
of what is now so thickly populated was then fields. I
hope to say something hereafter about the outlying
churches as they existed then ; there are not many of
them. But these which were so crowded together in
the City could hardly have been all needed for the
population, one would think, though it was a dense
one. Many of them were built by City merchants who,
in mediaeval times, made their dwelling places within
the walls, and who very frequently built churches, as a
nobleman has a private chapel in his country
mansion.

Wren rebuilt fifty-three of the destroyed churches
and patched up one. The rest were never rebuilt.

O



194 THE LETTERS OF

But their names survive in those parishes which are
now joined under some one or other of the restored
buildings. Thus the rector of St. Margaret's, Lothbury,
has six other parishes, the united population of the
whole, according to the Clergy List, being 543. The
rector of St. Nicholas Cole Abbey has six parishes,
the population being 322. One of these (St. Mary
Mounthaw) has, I believe, three houses only, the rest
having been swept away by the construction of Queen
Victoria-street. The first time I meet the rector I
shall inquire how that parish manages about church-
wardens. I should think they would find it simplest
to " go the odd man."

The names of these churches and parishes are
interesting. Some of them, whether dedicated to
scriptural or ecclesiastical saints, have an affix, e.g.,
" St. Andrew Hubbard," " St. Laurence Pountney."
In both these cases, as in some others, the second
name has reference to the founder or benefactor of the
church. Sometimes it refers to the site, " St. Olave
Jewry," " St. Martin Vintry," " St. Mary Bothaw," i.e.,
" at the Boatyard." One of the most curious is St.
Benet Sherehog. A "hog" was a young eighteen-
month-old ram, and its first shearing was supposed to
produce extra good wool. There was a place for the
sale of such wool in Pancras-lane, and the church was



PETER LOMBARD 195

in the midst of this market. Hence the name. St.
Mary Aldermary means the elder church of St. Mary,
there being others which were its daughters, St. Mary-
le-Bow being one. Some of the names point to
Danish settlements in the city, as St. Olave, and also
St. Alphage and St. Edmund. The latter were
Englishmen ; but the Danes, who had martyred them,
paid special honour to their memories on becoming
obedient to the faith.

The name of St. Botolph is remarkable as having a
church dedicated to his memory at every gate which
led East and North ; Aldersgate, Bishopsgate, Aldgate,
Billingsgate. Too little is known about him to enable
one to say for certain why he was held in such signal
honour, but there are over fifty churches dedicated to
him in Eastern England. He was a rich Londoner
who gave up the world while yet a young man, went
away to Lincolnshire, founded a monastery and there
died. Obviously the churches at the gates were
intended for travellers into his county, who might
pause there on their journey and beseech his inter-
cessions before starting. The frequency of some
of the names, e.g., St. Martin, is to be accounted
for by the fact that they were the patron saints of
the Guilds. St. Martin was that of the Vintners ;
St. Mildred, of the bakers ; owing, I believe, to the

O 2



19G THE LETTERS OF

fact that the Isle of Thanet, which was under her
protection, was in early days the source from which
the Londoners got their corn supplies almost entirely.
One of the churches dedicated to her had for its
weathercock a ship, the hull of which would contain
exactly a bushel of corn.

March 20.

Sir Christopher Wren's work must surely be
reckoned among the wonders of the world. He built
nearly every parish church now existing in the City of
London, and also its magnificent cathedral. Of his
other great works here and elsewhere I do not pur-
pose to speak. Nor does the marvel stop here. There
are two other English cathedrals which may fairly
claim for themselves that one man designed them as
they stand. Salisbury was the work of Bishop
Osmund Poore, though the spire was raised after his
time ; and Truro is the work of Mr. Pearson, though
he skilfully brought in some work which he found
already on the site. But Wren laid the foundation-
stone of St. Paul's in 1675, and witnessed his son
laying the last in 1710, and for some thirteen years
longer came ofttimes to look upon his finished building.
And the original contractor, Robert Strong, also lived



PETER LOMBARD 197

to see the completed work. He lies buried in St. Peter's
church at St. Albans which Lord Grimthorpe has just
so generously restored. Bishop Compton, who took
the see the same year that the stone was laid, held
it until 1 7 14.

Wren, as we all know, was not a " Gothic " architect.
His whole genius lay in the Italian style, though I
hope to say something hereafter about his Gothic
churches. The reproach which has been cast upon him,
that he understood nothing about making chancels,
is unjust. However we account for it, the old churches
in London that remain have the same feature, the
absence of the chancel arch, e.g., St. Ethelburga's, St.
Olave Hart-street, St. Katharine Cree, St. Giles
Cripplegate. At most you have simply a recess.
The fact stated in my last paper, namely that many
of the churches were as chapels of the great City
merchants will largely account for this. The whole
tenor of Wren's life goes to prove that his view was
entirely in agreement with Laud's about the position
of the altar, and the reverence with which it should
be treated. He was following the traditions of past
London, and considerations of space absolutely pre-
cluded his making deep chancels if he had wished to
do so. But his fertility of resource, and apparently



198 THE LETTERS OF

endless power of variety, are very wonderful. And
though he did not construct chancel arches, there are
at any rate two beautiful screens of his existing,
namely, at St. Peter's Cornhill, and St. Margaret's
Lothbury. The latter has been brought from the
lately demolished church of All Hallows, Thames-street,
and fitted by Mr. Bodley with great success in its
present position. But let me now go to one of Wren's
churches by way of a beginning.

St. Martin's at Ludgate is not one of the most
elaborate, yet it is both skilful and handsome. Look
at it from the street. . A blank grey wall, with a
tower in the middle surmounted by a lofty black spire.
You enter this tower and find yourself in a corridor
running along the whole length. You cross this
corridor, open the door on the other side, and are in
the church. Well, what was that empty place for?
It effectually shuts out the noise of the busy street.
When you get into the place of worshipping you
might be fifty miles away from the roar of the cease-
less traffic. There was just the same feature about
St. Mildred's church in the noisy Poultry, now pulled
down. The side facing the street was a dead wall
without any windows at all. And so with St. Mary
Woolnoth, built by Wren's pupil, Hawksmoor. I



PETER LOMBARD 199

heard Mr. Penrose, the cathedral architect, point out
that he, too, whilst presenting a blank wall on the
Lombard street side, yet managed to make that wall
a very handsome object.

When you are in this church you find that its floor
is a parallelogram. But Wren has placed four
composite pillars in square in the centre, and upon
these has placed a groined roof. Then he has placed
entablatures round the remaining portions of the roof,
and a waggon-shaped ceiling to each arm of the cross.
The whole appearance thus created is that of nave,
aisles, transepts complete, and the top of the cross
forms, of course, the chancel. It has been raised two
steps ; between the two eastern pillars and the wall is
the choir ; the sanctuary stands two steps higher still,
and the holy table is elevated on a foot-pace. The
whole effect is very beautiful in its simplicity. The
organ is at the west end, so is the font, which has
round it the well-known " recte et retro " inscription,
NltONANOMHMATAMHMONANO^IN
— " Wash from sin, not the countenance only." This
church, if I mistake not, was the last which was
restored by the late Mr. Christian, and critics who do
not look kindly on a good deal of his work confess
that he has done this admirably. Though I had been



200 THE LETTERS OF

in it previous to the improvements, I do not recollect
it sufficiently well to dwell on the changes, but merely
describe it as I saw it the other day. But there are a
few other features to note. The present rector was
incumbent of St. Mary Magdalen, Old Fish Street,
until that church was destroyed by fire in 1886. He
then accepted this, the rector of St. Martin's resigning
and the two parishes were united. Another parish
that of St. Gregory-by-St. Paul, had also been united
since the fire of 1666. The present incumbent has
succeeded, with the help of friends, in setting up
appropriate symbols of the three saints who are thus
combined. On the east wall of the quasi-aisle are two
frames from the altar-piece of St. Mary Magdalen's,
with a benefaction board of the same church, on which
are paintings (1) of St. Mary Magdalen, after the
Mantegna in the National Gallery, and (2) of St.
Gregory. To these has been added that of St. Martin
dividing his cloak with the beggar. It is a copy of a
work by Van Dyck. That painter took St. Martin for
his subject more than once. There is one by him in
the Queen's collection at Windsor, and there is a copy
of it in Vintners' Hall, Upper Thames-street He
also painted it for the village church at Savcnthem,
near Brussels, where it now is, though Napoleon stole
it with so many more for the Louvre, and loud were



PETER LOMBARD 201

the lamentations of the Parisians when after his fall
the Allied Powers compelled them to restore the ill-
gotten booty. " Nos conquetes " was the wail that went
from north to south as the lions of St. Mark, and
Rafifaele's Transfiguration, and multitudes of others
were sent back to their owners. So would the Artful
Dodger have mourned if Charley Bates had restored
a stolen watch. But this by the way. The picture of
which I have been speaking is copied for St. Martin's,
and a very admirable work it is. Van Dyck died in
the immediate neighbourhood on December 9, 1641.
His daughter, Justinian, was baptised at St. Anne's
Blackfriars, on the very day of her father's death. He
was buried in Old St. Paul's, near John of Gaunt.
Their memorials perished in the fire.

March 27.

There are several dedicated to All Hallows. That
of which I am about to write is called All Hallows-
on-the-Wall, built in part, at any rate, on the wall
with which the Romans encircled London in the end
of the second century. It used to be said that the
clergyman on duty had to leave the parish to get into
the pulpit ; he goes into the vestry by one door and
enters the pulpit by another, and the allegation was
that the vestry was not in the parish of All Hallows,



202 THE LETTERS OF

but in that of Bishopsgate. I believe this was really
the case at one time, but it is not so now, for at
present, unless I am misinformed, the parish boundary
runs along outside the walls of the church. The
vestry in question stands on a bastion of the old City
walls, and a portion of that wall is still visible close
by. The old church, probably older than the
Conquest, escaped the Fire of 1666, but afterwards
becoming ruinous, it was pulled down in 1767, and
rebuilt by Dance, the architect of the Mansion
House.

The parish records are of great interest. There is
a complete list of the rectors (about fifty) from 1335,
and a book of churchwardens' accounts going back
to the days of Edward IV. In this volume are some
curious details about one " Simon the Anker,"
£*., Anchorite, who seems to have lived in the bastion
already mentioned. He was apparently a Chantry
priest, and there are other " Ankers " named at
different times, so that the conclusion arrived at by
Dr. Freshfield in a paper read before the Middlesex
Archaeological Society is that these " Ankers " were
attached to the church, as lecturers are still to some
of the City churches. Simon the Anker was a some-
what generous benefactor to his flock. The Guildhall



PETER LOMBARD 203

librarian, Mr. Welch, found in the British Museum
a volume printed by Wynkyn de Worde, entitled the
"Fruyte of Redempcyion," at the conclusion of which
the reader is entreated to pray for Simon the Anker
of London Wall, who has compiled this volume for
the ghostly comfort of those that understand no Latin.
He gave a chalice to the church weighing eight
ounces, and some other gifts.

The last incumbent held the living for fifty years,
a dear old man of refined tastes and most winning
manner. He remembered the Jubilee of George III.,
and I wanted him to go with me and see that of
Queen Victoria, but he excused himself by saying
that he thought he was getting too old for crowds.
He was ninety-six. But he waited at his window to
see me return, and immediately came bustling out
to hear all about it. His anecdotes about celebrities
at the beginning of the century were really most
fascinating.

Nov. 13.

The Horseferry-road in Westminster is a winding,
somewhat dingy street, with a good many interesting
associations, which some day may be worth looking
up in this column. Its name explains itself. There



204 THE LETTERS OF

was formerly a ferry across the Thames from Millbank
to Lambeth, in other words, from Middlesex to
Surrey, and it was the only horseferry allowed on the
Thames in the neighbourhood of London. At a time
when there was no other bridge than that of London
across the river the tolls must have been very large.
They went to the Archbishop of Canterbury. When
Westminster Bridge was opened in 1750 the Primate
received £3,000 compensation. The ferry was not
unused, however, for passengers until the present
Lambeth Bridge was built exactly on the site in 1863.
Old writers not infrequently write of " Lambeth
Bridge," e.g., it is mentioned in Archbishop Parker's
letters. It simply means the landing-stairs at the end
of the ferry. I remember the old ferry well. Stand-
ing by this ferry, then, on Millbank you see across the
water a smoke-blackened, yet stately building. It is
Lambeth Palace, the residence for seven centuries of


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