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THE GENERAL STRUCTURE, HABITS, INSTINCTS, AND USES OF THE
PRINCIPAL FAMILIES OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM;
AS WELL AS OF
THE CHIEF FORMS OF FOSSIL REMAINS
WILLIAM B. CARPENTER, M.D. F.R.S.,
LECTURER ON NATURAL HISTORY AND COMPARATIVE ANATOMY AT
ST. THOMAS'S HOSPITAL.
A NEW EDITION, THOROUGHLY REVISED,
W. S. DALLAS, F.L.S. &c.
IN TWO VOLUMES. VOL. I.
BELL & DALDY, 6 YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN,
AND 186 FLEET STREET.
LONDON. PRIKTr.D BT WILLIAM CI.OV.
IN the preparation of this Treatise, the Author has kept steadily in
view the objects at which he has aimed in the preceding volumes, and
in the attainment of which he trusts that he has been in some degree
successful ; namely, the Exposition of the principles of Science in their
simplest form, and the Illustration of these by the most useful and in-
teresting examples. He has so fully explained his views on the utility
of the study of Zoology, and on the mode in which it may be most
advantageously pursued, in the Introduction and First Chapter of the
present volume, that he considers any further remarks on these sub-
jects here uncalled for.
The general account of the Classes is translated, with some additions
and modifications, from the " Cours Elementaire de Zoologie " of M.
Milne-Edwards ; a work adopted by the French Government as the
Text-Book of instruction, in the Colleges connected with the Uni-
versity of Paris ; and the whole of the beautiful illustrations prepared
for that Treatise will be found in the present volumes. For the more
detailed accounts of the Orders, Families, &c., as well as for the first
Two Chapters, the Author is solely responsible. In the preparation of
these portions of the work he has availed himself of the best and most
recent sources of information; and has endeavoured to adopt the
most approved systems of Classification. As scarcely any two Na-
turalists agree, however, on this head, the choice has been frequently
a matter of difficulty ; and he cannot suppose that he has been always
equally successful. He has adopted as his chief guides, the last
Edition of the Synopsis of the British Museum ; and the Pictorial
Museum of Natural History, at present in course of publication ; and
to the latter of these works he is also under great obligation, for
numerous details, obtained from sources to which he might not other-
wise have gained access.
A little reflection will show, that any general Zoological Treatise
must necessarily be in great part a Compilation from the works of
other Naturalists ; and the merit of an Elementary work like the pre-
sent, must consist rather in the judgment shown in the selection and
arrangement of the materials, than in the originality of its contents.
How far the Author has succeeded in his present attempt, it will be
for his readers to decide.
W. B. C.
PREFACE TO THE PRESENT EDITION.
AN interval of twelve years having elapsed since the appearance of
the first edition of " Carpenter's Zoology," it was found necessary, upon
its republication, to submit the whole work to a careful revision, in
order to render it an accurate representation of the present state of
Zoological Science. Dr. Carpenter, who would of course be the fittest
person to revise his own book, was prevented by his numerous avoca-
tions, coupled with the state of his health, from entering upon an un-
dertaking which would necessarily require a considerable amount of
time and labour for its due performance ; and under these circum-
stances the Publisher, with Dr. Carpenter's concurrence, applied to
the present Editor to undertake the task. This he has performed to
the best of his ability, although, from his being placed in the some-
what anomalous position of the Editor of the work of a living Author,
it was not without its difficulties.
In preparing this edition, the Editor has endeavoured to preserve
as much as possible of the original work, and also to maintain and
follow out the Author's mode of treatment in those parts which re-
quired alteration. Changes have been introduced only when they ap-
peared to be imperatively called for ; and in some instances, where a
difference of opinion still exists in the minds of Zoologists, the original
statements of the Author have been retained, even where opposed to
the Editor's own views. In the first volume, which treats of the higher
Vertebrated Animals, the alterations are comparatively few, and re-
late principally to matters of detail ; the most important being the
elevation of the Batrachia to the rank of a distinct class. The second
volume, however, containing the Fishes and the In vertebra ted Animals,
required to be in great part remodelled, in order to give due system-
atic effect to the numerous and important discoveries which have been
made of late years in the anatomy and history of the lower classes of
the animal kingdom.
W. S. D.
London, 9th September, 1857.
CONTENTS OF YOL, I.
OBJECTS AND NATURE OF ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE ; PLEA-
SURES AND ADVANTAGES OF THE STUDY ... 1
ON ZOOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION 25
GENERAL CHARACTERS OF VERTEBRATED ANIMALS . 83
OF THE CLASS MAMMALIA . . . . . .92
SUB-CLASS I. YIYIPAROUS MAMMALIA.
ORDER I. BIMANA . . . . .137
ORDER II. QUADRUMANA .... 153
ORDER III. CHEIROPTERA .... 181
ORDER IV. INSECTIVORA . . . 194
ORDER V. CARNIVORA . . . . .202
ORDER VI. CETACEA ..... 237
ORDER VII. RODENTIA ..... 246
ORDER VIII. EDENTATA ... .271
ORDER IX. RUMINANTIA . . . , .283
ORDER X. PACHYDERMATA .... 317
SUB-CLASS II. OVO-YIVIPAROUS MAMMALIA.
ORDER XI. MARSUPIALIA .... 342
ORDER XII. MONOTREMATA . . 354
RELATIONS OF THE SEVERAL ORDERS OF THE CLASS MAM-
OF THE CLASS OF BIRDS .'SOI
ORDER I. RAPTORES ..... 396
ORDER II. INSESSORES ..... 423
TI.IBE I. CONIROSTRES . . . 427
TRIBE II. DENTIROSTRES .... 440
TRIBE III. FISSIROSTRES . . . .450
TRIBE IV. TENUIROSTRES .... 453
ORDER III. SCANSORES . . . 467
ORDER IV. RASORES ..... 473
ORDER V. CURSORES .... 484
ORDER VI. GRALLATORES .... 492
ORDER VIL NATATORES . . . 503
CLASS OF REPTILES 523
ORDER I. CHELONIA . .042
ORDER II. LORICATA . . . 548
ORDER III. SAURIA ..... 554
ORDER IV. OPHIDIA .... 566
CLASS OF BATRACHIA ... . 574
ORDER I. ANURA . ... 582
ORDER II. URODELA . * . ., 584
ORDER III. AMPHIPNEUSTA ., 535
ORDER IV. APODA . ... ib.
ORDER V. LBPIDOTA . . 586
OBJECTS AND NATURE OF ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE; PLEASURE
AND ADVANTAGES OP THE STUDY.
THE objects of Natural History are perhaps in general less
clearly understood than those of most other sciences, even
among those who pursue it as their professed employment. And
it is partly in consequence of this misconception, that its advan-
tages as a means of intellectual and moral cultivation, and the
pleasures which arise from the pursuit have been, in the opinion
of the Author, very commonly underrated. It is usually sup-
posed to be a Science of names and of intricate classification; but
it will be shown, in the course of this Introduction, that these
are not the objects of the Science, but merely furnish the me-
chanism (so to speak), by which its true ends are to be attained.
In Natural History, as in all departments of Philosophy, the
first step is made by collecting and registering facts, just as the
Astronomer collects his facts, from observation of the movements
of the heavenly bodies, or the Chemist, from experiments upon
the properties of the different substances found on the earth.
In these last sciences, it is as requisite, as in Natural History, to
give names to the objects whose movements or properties are
being described ; simply in order that various Astronomers or
Chemists may be enabled to compare their observations, which
they could not readily do, if there were no name or title to
designate them. This may be easily understood, from such a
case as the following. Let the reader suppose himself to be often
in company, in public meetings, and private society, with a gentle-
man of whose name he was ignorant, but who might take so
active a part in the proceedings or conversation, as strongly to
attract his attention. He would himself have no difficulty in
recognising this individual, on one occasion after another ; and
he might form an opinion of his character, from the actions he
witnessed, or the opinions he heard expressed by him. Now a
knowledge of his name would add nothing to his information
respecting such an individual ; unless an acquaintance with his
name led to some further knowledge as of his family, or of his
proceedings elsewhere, which might throw additional light on
his character. But suppose the reader to wish to make the cha-
racter of this individual a subject of discussion with a friend, who
might have had the same or other opportunities of observing it ;
he could not do so, without making his friend know to what
individual, among the many into whose society they might have