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William Bingley.

Memoirs of British quadrupeds, illustrative principally of their habits of life, instincts, sagacity, and uses to mankind. Arranged according to the system of Linnaeus online

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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA



PRESENTED BY

PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND
MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID



MEMOIRS



OF



BRITISH QUADRUPEDS.



MEMOIRS



OF

BRITISH QUADRUPEDS,

ILLUSTRATIVE PRINCIPALLY OF THEIR

HABITS OF LIFE, INSTINCTS. SAGACITY,

AND

USES TO MANKIND.

ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE SYSTEM OF LINN JEWS.



BY THE REV. W. BINGLEY, A. M.

-

FELLOW OF THE LINffEAN SOCIETY,
AND L4TE OF PETERHOVSE. CAMBRJDGA.



WITH ENGRAVINGS FROM ORIGINAL DRAWINGS,

EXECUTES CHIEFLY BV MR. SAMUEL



LONDON:

PRINTED FOR BARTON AND HARVEY; J. WALKER; LONGMAN,
HURST, REES, AND ORME; J. HARDING; J. RICHARDSON;

a. SCHOLEY; AND SHERWOOD, NEELEY, AN JONES.
1809



TO THE
HONOURABLE AND RIGHT REVEREND

BROWNLOW,

LORD BISHOP OF WINCHESTER,

DISTINGUISHED

BY HIS SOLICITUDE TO ENCOURAGE

USEFUL LITERATURE,

AND BY HIS UNREMITTED ATTENTION TO PROMOTE
THE BEST INTERESTS OF CHRISTIANITY,

THE FOLLOWING WORK,

IN WHICH IT HAS BEEN THE DESIGN OF THE AUTHOR

TO INCULCATE ONLY THE

PUREST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL RELIGION,

AND TO EXHIBIT,

AS FAR AS WAS CONSISTENT WITH THE PLAN OF HIS
UNDERTAKING,

THE WISDOM OF GOD,

IN THE WORKS OF CREATION,
IS RESPECTFULLY,

AND WITH GREAT DEFERENCE,

INSCRIBED.






PREFACE.



THE present is intended as the first volume

of a series of Memoirs of British Animals, in



which, for the accommodation of such per-
sons as are inclined to pursue the study of any
one branch of our Zoology, in preference to
the others, each class will be rendered per-
fectly distinct from the rest. The prominent
features of this work are meant to consist in
an accurate delineation of the habits of life,
instincts, and sagacity, of the animals of Great
Britain and Ireland, from the highest to the
lowest classes. The technical and descriptive
parts will be separated from the body of the
work, and inserted at the end of each class, in
the form of a synopsis. By such separation,
the author cannot but hope that he shall have
rendered an acceptable service, not only to the
general reader, but also to the scientific natu-
ralist. He has ever entertained the highest

sentiments



X PREFACE.

sentiments of respect and esteem for the me-
mory, as well as for the talents, of the late
Mr. Pennant; yet he has long felt that the in-
discriminate mixture of description and anec-
dote, throughout that gentleman's work on
British Zoology, is attended with numerous
inconveniences. In a popular view it is ob-
jectionable, as it certainly derogates from the
interest that would be otherwise excited; and
to persons desirous of examining the animals
from his description, it is, occasionally, very
troublesome. In the scheme, of which the
present volume affords a specimen, the de-
scription will be found in terms as precise as
can, with propriety, be adopted ; and to have,
in all cases, the respective parts following each
other, as nearly as possible, in the same suc-
cession.

During the several years that this work has
been in preparation, the author requests per-
mission to state, that no labour or diligence
have on his part been spared to render it de-
serving



PREFACE. XI

serving of approbation. From his own appli-
cation to the subject, and from the communi-
cations of numerous friends, (whose kindness,
he trusts, will still be continued,) a very con-
siderable portion of original matter, in all
the classes, has already been obtained. The
remainder of his materials will be furnished
from the works of the most authentic natu-
ralists of foreign countries, and from other
sources, which, for the most part, are not easily
accessible to the English reader.

With respect to the plates, he considers
himself peculiarly fortunate in having obtained
the able assistance of Mr. Howitt, whose ex-
cellence in the art which he professes is too
well known, and too justly appreciated by
the public, to need, in this place, any enco-
miums. And it is but an act of justice to the
character of a young man, deserving of every
encouragement, to state, that the drawings for
several of the engravings, (particularly of the
Polecat, Weesel, Stoat, two species of Shrew,

and



X PREFACE.

and Water Rat,) were made by Mr. Harry
Hoyle, of Height, near Ripponden, Yorkshire.

Notwithstanding all the care that has been
taken, the author is sorry to remark, that
there are yet left three or four plates, particu-
larly those of the Great and Barbastelle Bats,
which are not quite so correct as he could have
wished them to be. He trusts, however, to the
candour of his readers to overlook the defects
of these, in consideration of what he hopes will
be thought real excellence in the greatest part
of the others.

It only remains to state, that the author
will consider himself much indebted to the
kindness of any gentleman who will take the
trouble to communicate to him such original
observations on the habits of life and economy
of the British Fishes, as may be thought likely
to prove interesting to the public.



CHRISTCHURCH, HANTS,
March I, 1809.






ENGLISH INDEX.



The Names marked with an * are Varieties of some other
Species; and those printed in Italics are synonyms.



Ass



PAGE.

437



Badger 208

BAT TRIBE 31

common, or little 38

long-eared ... 43

Noctule, or great 48

Barbastelle ... 51

. horse-shoe ... 52

lesser horse-shoe *51

Beagle 102

BEAU TRIBE 206

Badger 208

* Bloodhound 107

Brock 208

Buck 335

* Bull-dog 118

CAT TRIBE 136

wild 138

* domestic 141

* Cattle, wild 398



PAGE.

* Cattle, Devonshire 401

*- Sussex 404

* Holderness .. 406

* Lancashire . . 409

* Alderney 411

* Kyloe 413

* -Scots '415

* Welsh 416

* Irish 416

* SuffolkDuns . . 417

* Galloway . . . 418

* Northern 420

* Dutch 406

* Highland Stots 413

* Holstein 406

* long-horned . . 409

* Northern short -

horned 406

* York shire polled 410

Curr . 91



DEER TRIBE



320
Deer,



ENGLISH INDEX.



PAGE.

Deer, red 323

fallow 335

Roe 342

DOG TRIBE 76

common 79

Fox 124

* Shepherd's 91

* water 94

* Spaniel 76

* Setter 99

* Pointer 101

* Hound 102

* Bloodhound ... 107
* Irish Greyhound 110

* Common Grey-

hound 111

* Mastiff 115

* Bull-dog 118

* Terrier 110

"* Lurcher 122

* Turnspit 123

* Greyhound Fox 134

* Mastiff-fox ib.

*__ Cur-fox .. 134

Great Water -Dog 94

Lesser Water. Dog ib.

Wolf-Dog 110

Ermine 184

Finder 94

Fitchet ,.. 170

Flitter -mouse ...... 38

Foulmart . ,170



PAGE

Foumart ib.

Fox 124

* greyhound .... 134

* mastiff ib.

* cur ib.

Fox-hound 102

GOAT TRIBE 348

common 350

Grey 208

* Greyhound, common 111

* Irish ... 110

* Highland 111

Greypate 208

ffardy-shrew 296

HARE TRIBE 289

common 290

varying 308

Rabbet 309

white, or alpine 308

Htuxier 102

Hedgehog 237

Hinny 444

HOG TRIBE 449

common 450

* Berkshire 453

* Hound 102

German . . ib.

- Southern . . 103

HORSE TRIBE ...... 421

. common .... 422

. Ass 437

Mule . 444



Horse,



ENGLISH INDEX.



Horse, Hinny ...... ib.

* - Race-horse . . 425

* - Dray-horse . . 427

* - Suffolk Punch 423

* - - Lanark ____ 429

* - Galloways ,. 431

* - Shelties ..... 432

* - Irish ....... 434

* - Clydesdale .. 429

Index . ............ 99

Llavellan .' ........ 229

Leviner ........... 110

* Lurcher ...... ... 122

Lyemmer ......... 110



sweet ........ 1 59

Martern cat ........ ib.

Martin, common .... ib.

- - , pine ......... 166

^white-breasted . 159
- 5 yellow-breasted 1 66
Martlet ........... 159

- Mastiff .......... 115

Mold-warp ........ 215

MOLE TRIBE ....... 214

- common ..... 215

Mole, water ....... 229

Mouse, common .... 259

- , long-tailed field 262

- , harvest' - - ... 266

- , meadow ...... 272

- Afield ......... 262



.PAGE.

Mouse, wood 262

, short-tailed

field 272

Mouse-hunt 175

Mule 444

OTTER TRIBE 191

common .... 193

Ox TRIBE . . , 390

Common 391

* __ Wild Cattle 399

*. Devonshire .... 401

* Herefordshire . . 403

* _ Sussex , 404

* Holderness . . . 406

* Lancashire . , . . 409
* Alderney 411

* Kyloe 415

* Scots Cattle .... 414
* Welsh Cattle ..416

* Irish Cattle ib.

* Suffolk Duns .. 417

* Galloway 418

* Northern 420

* Dutch 406

* Highland Stots . 413

*-Holstein 406

*- Long-horned . . 409

* Northern short-

horned 406

* Yorkshire polled . . 420

.* Pointer 101

Polecat 170

b 2 Rabbet,



ENGLISH INDEX.



PAGE.

Rabbet, wild 309

* domestic ... 318

Ranner Mouse 38

RAT TRIBE 247

Norway 248

common, or black 254

water 256

Common Mouse 259

Long-tailed field

Mouse 262

Harvest Mouse . 266

Meadow Mouse . 272

field- 262

brown 248

Rere Mouse 38

Roe or Roebuck .... 342

Sea-calf , . 57

Sea-gog ib.

SEAL TRIBE 53

common 57

pied 67

great 72

* Setter 99

old English . . ib.

SHEEP TRIBE 360

Sheep, common .... 361

* New Leicester 369

* Lincolnshire . 371

* Teeswater . . . 372

* South Down . 374

* Ryeland 377

* Herdwick ... 378

* Cheviot . . 380



PAGE.

* Sheep, Shetland 382

* Dorsetshire . . 384

* Wiltshire 385

* Exmoor 386

* Norfolk 387

* Heath ib.

* Irish 389

* Dishley 369

* Herefordshire 377

* Kindly 382

* Sussex 374

SHREW TRIBE 225

fetid 226

water 229

fringe-tailed

water 231

Shrew-Mouse 226

Shrove-mouse ib.

Sleeper 285

Sleut. hound 170

* Spaniel 96

English . . 99

SQUIRREL TRIBE 275

common . . 277

Stag 323

Stoat 184

* Terrier 119

Todd , 124

Tumbler 122

* Turnspit 123

URCHIN TRIBE . 232

Hedgehog .. 237

Fare



ENGLISH INDEX.



Vare



PAGE

175



Want ... 215

WEESEL TRIBE 157

Common Mar-
tin 159

Weesel, Pine Martin. 166



PAGE.

Polecat 170

CommonWeesel 175

Stoat or Ermine 1 84

White Weesel ib.

Pine Weesel . 166

Whitred 175

Whitret . ib.



ERRATA ET CORRIGENDA.

,



P. 33, I. 8, for ephemera read ephemerae.
^ _ 4, from the bottom, for their read the.
34, 5, for become read becomes.
48, 23, for generally read usually.
95, 17, for which read that.
123, 3,4, and 7 ,/or it read he.
129 } _22, for entirely read wholly.
131, _ 15, for her cubs read the cubs.
153 ? 22, after and insert have.
204, 18, for hestige read vestige.
* 218, 21, dele of them.
V ?62, 15, /or their read there.

348, 9, for feet read foot.
388, 16, for is read in.

Synopsis. 4, 5, from the bottom, for oroque read oreque.
7, 3, for Iseek read sleek.
1 1 , 27 , for phoco read phoca.
14, 4, from the bottom, for familiarus read familiaris.



-,



BRITISH QUADRUPEDS.



PART I.



$*& *#!!%*$

^ INTRODUCTION?

CONTAINING
A GENERAL VIEW OF THE

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF

I!;, .?rm y-

QUADRUPEDS.



Que de charmes, que d'idees donees, agreables, nous pr6sente
1'Histoire Naturelle ! Que d'objects varies et interessans ! Quelle
source inepuisable d'observations, de recherches et destruction pour
celui qui se sent un gout decide pour cette vaste science!

Daudin.



J_ HERE is a wide difference, with respect to intellectual
powers, betwixt men and brute animals. The faculties of
the latter are confined within extremely narrow bounds.
Guided only by appetite and instinct, they are capable of
little knowledge further than what is necessary towards their
own immediate support and preservation 1 ; and there is not
one of the whole race that can extend its industry beyond
its instinct, be its necessities what they may. The Ape,
which delights in the warmth of the embers that the tra-
veller has left in the woods, has not yet learned to imitate
him, by adding fuel to the heap, in order to keep alive the
blaze. The Ox has never thought of sowing the grain that
he treads out with his feet on the floor of the barn ; nor the

B Boar,



2 ON THE STRUCTURE AND

Boar, the acorns which he discovers amongst the fallen leaves
in the woods. Man subjects to his dominion the whole both
of the vegetable and animal creation. " The fear of you,
"and the dread of you, (says the Almighty,) shall be upon
" every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air,
" upon all that moveth upon the earth, and upon all the
<c fishes of the sea: into your hands are they delivered.
" Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you :
" even as the green herb have I given you all things*.

The barrier which separates men from brutes is fixed, and
immutable j and how slender soever it may sometimes appear
to us, Divine Wisdom has ordained that it shall not be sur-
mounted.

In the general structure of the bodies of men and quadru-
peds, there is, in many respects, a very close alliance. They
are formed of precisely the same elements, and have, for the
most part, similar organs. They are supported by a bony
skeleton; have motion by means of muscles, sensation by
nerves, and are nourished by a fluid that circulates within
them, and which is itself renewed by digestion. They have
each a bony head, containing the brain and the principal or-
gans of sense, placed at the anterior extremity of a vertebral
column, (part of the skeleton,) which contains the spinal mar-
row, or the com mon fasciculus of the nerves, and of which
the' posterior extremity is" elongated into a coccyx or tail,
joining to each side of the upper part of the vertebral
column, are several long and curved bones, or ribs, which
bend forward so as to form within them a somewhat circular
cavity, for the protection of the most important of the vis-
cera They have likewise, in common with man, arteries
and veins, and a muscular heart, for the purpose of pro-
pelling the blood into every part of the body. Their brain,

* Genesis, chap. ix. v. 2 and 3.

and



FUNCTIONS OF QUADRUPEDS. 3

and their general organs of sense, have the same essential
parts. They have all an alimentary canal, a liver, a pan-
creas, a spleen, and kidneys. In short, their general structure
is so nearly allied, that it is difficult to determine whether,
on the whole, the resemblances or the differences are to be
considered most predominant. These surely are so many
satisfactory demonstrations that " no disposition of matter
can give mind ; and that the body, how nicely soever it
may be formed, is formed in vain, when there is not infused
a soul to direct its operations."

The Organs of Motion.

The bones, (or skeleton,) constitute the frame-work of
the bodies both of men and quadrupeds. They surround
the cavities, defending the parts which ar6 of greatest im-
portance in the animal economy, such as the brain, and the
heart; and they serve as levers on which the muscles act.
They are covered, externally, with a membrane composed
of nerves and vessels, denominated 'periosteum ; and the
cavities of all the long bones contain a peculiar kind of
fatty substance called marrow. They are joined together
either, as in the skull, by sutures, where the edges of two
flat bones are denticulated into, touch, or lie upon each
other ; by being wedged one into another, as the teeth into
the sockets of the jaws; or by ligaments, a tough and
strong arrangement of fibres, which alone allow of free
motion to the members. In the articulations of the im-
movable bones, the periosteum is continued from one bone
to the other, and is more intimately connected at the place
of their junction, than to any other part. On the contrary,
in the movable articulations, the 'opposite surfaces of the
bones are free and distinct : each is coveted with a smooth
and polished cartilage, and the interval is occupied by a

B 2 mucilaginous



4r ON THE STRUCTURE AND

mucilaginous or slippery fluid called synovia, which issues
from certain glands situated near each joint, for the purpose
of diminishing the friction.

The bones which compose the skeleton present three prin-
cipal divisions; the head, the trunk, and the limbs or ex-
tremities. In the quadrupeds the head is never wanting. It
is placed, (as before observed,) at the anterior extremity
of the vertebral column ; and has a free motion in various
directions. It is composed of, first, the cranium, which
contains the brain, and in the partitions of which are situ-
ated the cavities of the internal ear, and frequently part of
those of the nose ; secondly, the face, which contains the
orbits of the eyes, and the nasal cavities, and terminates
below in the upper jaw ^ and, thirdly, the lower jazo. This
last is always movable, and from its motions, in aiding the
mastication of food, is to be considered one of the most im-
portant members of the animal body. The elongation of the
head of quadrupeds increases in proportion as they recede
from man ; and this elongation in most of them is such that,
were they to stand upright, the head could not be preserved
in equilibrium, unless the mouth were turned upwards, and
the eyes turned back. When standing on its four feet, the
head of a quadruped is not, like that of man, capable of
being retained upon the spine by its own weight, but is
principally kept in its place by a peculiar ligament at the
back, (wanting in man,) called the cervical ligament. In
the base of the skull there is a large hole, through which the
brain unites with the spinal marrow.

The trunk is formed by the dorsal spine, the ribs, and the
breast-plate or sternum. The dorsal spine is a sort of co-
lumn, formed by a number of bones, called vertebrce, which
are joined to each other by ligaments that admit of a slight
degree of motion. Those ribs which proceed from the ver-
tebrae and join the sternum are denominated true ribs ; and

those



FUNCTIONS OF QUADRUPEDS. 5

those which do not extend so far as the sternum are called
false ribs.

The limbs 9 or extremities, are each divided into four
parts. Those which belong to the anterior extremities are
the shoulders, the arm, the fore-arm, and the hand; and
those which belong to the posterior extremities are the hip,
the thigh, the leg, and the foot. The shoulder consists of
the scapula, or blade-bone, which is placed against the
back ; and the clavicle, or collar-bone, attached to the ster-
num. In several of the quadrupeds the latter is wanting;
but it is always found in those which occasionally use their
fore-feet as hands. The scapula, however, is indispensable
in all, since the shoulder bone is articulated into a hollow in
its anterior angle. The arm, which extends fromJiie
shoulder joint to the elbow, is composed of one bone only ;
but the fore-arm, which extends from the elbow to the
wrist, has two. The hand varies with respect to the num-
ber of its bones, in the different species of animals; but the
bones which exist in it always form a wrist, the body of the
hand, and the fingers. This organization prevails even in
birds, which have their ringers enveloped in a skin covered
with feathers. It likewise prevails in the amphibious
quadrupeds, and the cetacea, in the latter of which the
whole of the anterior extremity is reduced externally to the
shape of an oar or fin.

The fore-legs and feet of quadrupeds, besides being instru-
ments of motion, are of use to them in several other respects.
The predatory species employ them in seizing and retaining
their prey ; the monkeys and most of the Glires in conveying
food to their mouth ; the Moles and other subterraneous
kinds, in digging habitations under the surface of the
ground ; and, by means of a thin membrane which connects
the greatly elongated fingers, and extends round the hinder
part of their body, the bats are enabled to rise into, and flit

B 3 through



6 ON THE STRUCTURE AND

through the air. They are generally shorter and more weak
than the hind-legs; and in some of the animals, as the Kan-
guroos and Jerboas, they are so extremely short, as scarcely
to be of any use in walking. In the long-armed Ape, and
the Giraffe, their length is, however, considerably greater
than that of the hind legs.

With respect to the posterior extremity of quadrupeds,
the two hips, united into the pelvis, serve as a support to the
intestines. Into a hollow in each of the hips is articulated
the head of the thigh bone. This bone is single ; but the
leg, which extends from the joint of the knee to the foot,
has two bones, the larger called the tibia, and the smaller,
(which is on the exterior side of this,) denominated the
fibula. Over the articulation of the thigh bone with the
tibia, in some of the animals, there is -a little bone, almost of
a circular shape, but somewhat pointed below, placed for
the purpose of preventing the tibia from being extended in
front beyond a right line. This is called the patella, and is
the bone that forms the angle of the knee. The ancle and
the foot have a general resemblance in their external ap-
pearance, and in their uses, to the wrist and hand . The toes
of all the feet are armed, at their extremities, either with
nails or claws, or are enveloped in hoofs. A few of the
animals, as the Seals and Otters, which live much in the
water, have their toes connected together by strong mem-
branes, to serve the place of fins or oars in swimming.

In addition to the preceding four extremities, most quadru-
peds have a tail, or fifth extremity. The Apes, some of the
Bats, the Guinea-pig, and some others, are, however, en-
tirely destitute of this member. It seems given to them chief-
ly to serve the purpose of a whip, to drive away some of
those swarms of insects with which, in hot climates particu-
larly, they are often teased; and also as a covering, to
guard the posterior parts of their body from injury. In a

few



FUNCTIONS OF QUADRUPEDS. 7

few of the quadrupeds it is long and prehensile, or capable
of being coiled round objects, to supply the place of a hand
in fastening or suspending themselves. The tails of most
quadrupeds are covered with hair : those of some of the
Glires are naked, or covered with scales, and thinly scattered
with hair. The tails of the Armadillos are composed of
horny rings.

The flesh of quadrupeds is composed of vessels, fibres,
and nerves, and has the denomination of muscles. Each
muscle is made up of many fibres, united together into little
bundles, and appears red and soft, from the blood with
which it is constantly drenched. The fibres at the extre-
mities of the muscles are called tendons: they are closer and
more firm than the others, and are of a silvery white colour.
It is by means of these that the muscles are attached to the
bones. Their substance is almost entirely gelatinous; and,
in a healthy state, they possess neither sensibility nor irrita-
bility.

The muscles are the organs of motion ; and when the
body is in a state of health, the will exercises a constant and
prompt power over them, A small number, however, are
not subject to the influence of the will. These produce in-
ternally the movements which are necessary to life, and
which cannot be interrupted ; such as the motion of the
heart and the intestines. The motion of some other muscles,
as those connected with respiration, appears to be of a
mixed nature ; we can stop their action, but their motion
is continued by habit, without our formally willing, or with-
out our being even conscious of it.

Each muscle is inclosed in a thin covering called cellular
membrane. This descends into the substance of the muscle,
connecting and surrounding the most minute fibres, and af-
fording a support to the vessels and nerves. The muscles

B4 are



8 ON THE STRUCTURE AND

are surrounded on all sides by fat, which is also spread be-
twixt their bundles of fibres, and betwixt the small fibres
themselves, which lie contiguous to each other. This fat,
being pressed out by the turgescence of the muscles and
their fibres, tends to render them soft, flexible, slippery,
and fit for motion : and gives to the body its softness and
beauty, at the same time also that it protects from injury,
and keeps warm several of the more tender parts.

The Organs of Nutrition.

The function of nutrition commences in the mouth, info
which the aliments are taken, and where, when they are
solid, they are masticated, and moistened with the saliva.
From thence they are passed into the alimentary canal for
digestion i Mastication is performed by the teeth, aided by
the motion of the tongue. The jaws are horizontal, and^
the mouth always ojfens, by their separation, from the front
backwards. The teeth are inserted into cavities or sockets
of the jaws. They consist of three different substances; of
the proper matter or ivory, of bone, and of enamel. The



Online LibraryWilliam BingleyMemoirs of British quadrupeds, illustrative principally of their habits of life, instincts, sagacity, and uses to mankind. Arranged according to the system of Linnaeus → online text (page 1 of 30)