William Brown.

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PRICE EIGHTEENPBNCE.




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THE




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rXABERNACLE



OF ISRAEL



AND ITS PRIESTS



SACRIFICES.



BY



LLIAM BROW^



FIFTH EBmON, WITH NUMEEOUS ILLUSTRATIONS.

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1S^.0LIPHANT, ANDERSON, & FERRIER




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THE TABERNACLE

AND

ITS PEIESTS AND SERVICES,

DESCRIBED AND CONSIDERED



IN RELATION TO



CHRIST AND THE CHURCH.



BY

WILLIAM BEOWN.



WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS.



Fiftb Edition.

REVISED AND ENLARGED.



EDINBURGH:

OLIPHANT, ANDERSON, & FERRIER.

1881.



EDINBURGH:

PRINTED BY m'fARLANE AND EESKINE,

ST JAMES SQUARE.



PEEFACE TO FIFTH EDITION.



^ITTTf HE Fourtli Edition of this book being out of
.^j^. print, a Fifth and Cheap Edition is issued in
^SiIa^ the hope that the circulation may be still
further increased. The Author is encouraged to take
this step by letters from ministers and missionaries in
different parts of the world stating that they had found
the work useful The Table of Contents, pp. 10-14,
and List of Illustrations, pp. 15, 16, show the plan of
the work, and serve the purpose of an index.

W. B.



5 Hanover Street, Edinburgh,
1st January 1881.



Table of Weights and Measures, . • . 18



CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTORY.

The Tabernacle Designed by God ; Chief Artists appointed
by Him ; Structure more beautiful than generally sup-
posed ; Occupies large space of Holy "Writ ; Many of the
Words and Phrases of the New Testament illustrated by it 1 9-21

CHAPTER II.
GIFTS OF MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TABERNACLE.

These all Supplied by Voluntary Contributions before
Beginning to Build ; Jewels of Gold ; Silver given by
Men only; Brazen Mirrors given by Pious Women ; Flax
brought by Men, and Linen Yarn by Women ; Blue,
Purple, and Scarlet Linen, not Wool ; Goats' Hair ;
Rams' Skins— similar to what still sold in Syrian towns ;
Badgers' Skins ; Shittim Wood ; Each Board and each
Bar probably cut out of more Trees than one ; Workers ;
All able for any work Volunteering their Services ;
Women Spinners and Men Weavers ; Liberality and
Zeal of the Israelites such that the Tabernacle is soon
constructed ; Estimated Value .... 22-32



10 CONTENTS.

PAGE

CHAPTER III.

THE SILVER FOUNDATION

Consisted of One Hundred Silver Sockets made of
Atonement Money ; Square Tapering Sockets ; More
probably Flat Sockets, and forming a continuous Base ;
Each Socket dovetailed to its fellow, and the whole by •
this means united forming a stable Foundation ; Flat
Silver Sockets determining the size of the Tabernacle ;
The entire remainder of the Atonement Money identified
with the supporting or bearing up of diflFerent parts of
the Tabernacle ; The Silver Sockets and the Foundation
of the Church ...... 33-41

CHAPTER IV.

THE GOLDEN FRAMEWORK.

The Boards and their Tenons ; Probable Size of Tenons ;
Internal Length of Tabernacle equal to that of the
Breadth of Twenty Boards, the number at each of the
Long Sides ; Difficulty as to the Breadth of the House ;
Conjectures to solve Difficulty by Josephus, Dr Kalisch,
Otto von Gerlach, and Author ; Five Rows of Bars
along each of the Three Sides ; Josephus and Mr Fer-
gusson (architect), mistaken as to the number and
arrangement of the Bars ; Pillars ; Cords and Pins ;
Golden Framework resting in and on the Silver Founda-
tion, though easily taken to pieces, yet of great Stability 42-61

CHAPTER V.

THE CURTAINS AND COVERINGS.

Curtains, Skins, and Boards mentioned in the Text
IN the Order of their Relative Importance ; The
Cherub Curtains being those visible within, are by them-
selves called the Tabernacle, and are named first ; Their
Number and Arrangement ; Goat-hair Curtains, a Tent
over the Cherub ones and not over the Boards, plainly



CONTENTS. 11

PAGE

shown by the Text ; Their Number and Arrangement ;
Large Superfluity in both Sets of Curtains not easily
accounted for; The Skins form the Covering or Roof;
The Tabernacle, according to Soltau and others, like a
Coffin ; The Vails ..... 62-81

CHAPTER VI.

MR FERGUSSON'S SLOPING-ROOFED TABERNACLE

Shown to be Opposed to the Text . . , 82-98

CHAPTER VIL

THE DEAN OF CANTERBURY AND PROFESSOR MILLTGAN
ON THE TABERNACLE.

Contribution to the ** Bible Educator" by the Dean of
Canterbury shown to have been Written in
TOTAL Ignorance of the Subject ; Diagram of the
Tabernacle accompanying Professor Milligan's Contribu-
tion to the •* Bible Educator" not according to the Text
of Scripture ...... 99-105

CHAPTER VIII.

THE COURT.

Number of Pillars Sixty, or Fifty-six if Corner Ones
Twice Counted ; Text not very clear as to what Pillars
were made of; Probably made of Wood and overlaid with
Brass ; Hangings supposed to be a kind of Network ;
Door of Court similar to Door of Tabernacle ; Wall of
Hangings and Pillars very Beautiful ; Scene of Worship ;
Altar in Centre ...... 107-114

CHAPTER IX.

THE BRAZEN ALTAR.

Horns, rising Projections at each Corner ; Compass, a
Rim or Border encircling upper part of Altar ; Grate of



12 CONTENTS.

PAoa
Network, a Shelf or Platform around middle of Altar on
the outside ; Utensils ; Use of Altar ; Typical Import . 115-123

CHAPTER X.

THE LAVER.

Shape probably Roundish ; Foot, a kind of Saucer -like
shaped Basin ; Large, as a good quantity of Water re-
quired ; Made of Brazen Mirrors . . . .124-129

CHAPTER XI.

TABLE OF SHEWBREAD.

Description ; Utensils ; Shewbread .... 130-134

CHAPTER XII.

THE GOLDEN CANDLESTICK.

Made of a Talent of Gold ; Probably Hollow, and about
Three to Five Feet high ; Shaft and Six Arms ; Orna-
ments ; Three Bowls on each Arm, and Four on Shaft ;
Only One Knop to each Arm, and Four on Shaft ; Flowers
connected with Knops very splendid; Lamp -bearer;
Represented on Arch of Titus at Rome . . . 135-141

CHAPTER XIII.

THE GOLDEN ALTAR.

Description ; Only Two Rings ; One for each Stave ; This

Altar for Burning Incense upon .... 142-145

CHAPTER XIV.
THE ARK OF THE COVENANT.

Description ; Rings on the Feet ; Staves pass along each
End of Ark and not along the Front and Back ; Articles
placed in the Ark ; The Mercy-Seat ; The Cherubim ;
TheShekinah . • . . . . . U7-159



CONTENTS. 13

CHAPTER XV. ''*'''°

PRIESTS.

A^POINTME^T ; Qualifications ; Duties ; Maintenance ; Gar-
ments ; Breeches ; Coat ; Girdle ; Bonnet . .161-167

CHAPTER XVI.

THE HIGH priest's GARMENTS.

Blue Robe with Fkinge of Bells and Pomegranates ;
The Ephod and its Shoulder Pieces ; Curious Girdle of
the Ephod ; The Breastplate with its Four Rows of Pre-
cious Stones ; The Golden Mitre . . . . 169-181

CHAPTER XVII.

THE LEVITES.

The Levites taken instead of the first-born Israel-
ites ; Multifarious Duties ; Help the Priests ; Act as
Porters, Carriers, and Public Instructors . .182-188

CHAPTER XVIII.

THE SACRIFICES UNDER THE LAW.

Burnt Offerings ; Meat Ofi'erings ; Peace Offerings ; Sin

Offerings ; Trespass Ofiferings ; Their Typical Import . 189-203

CHAPTER XIX.

THE DAILY SERVICE.

The Brazen Altar the first care of the Priests in the
Morning ; Ashes Removed ; Fire sorted and fed with
fresh Fuel ; The Morning Lamb Sacrificed ; Meat and
Drink Ofiferings ; Incense Burned on the Golden Altar ;
The two principal parts of the Daily Service typical of
the two great parts of Christ's Work . . . 204-210



14 €ONTENTS.

PAGE

CHAPTER XX.

THE GREAT DAY OF ATONEMENT.

The Greatest Day in the Jewish Year; Offerings peculiar
to this day ; Sin Offering for the High Priest and his
House ; Sin Offering for the People ; The Scape-Goat . 211-220

CHAPTER XXI.

THE SUPERIORITY OF THE HOLY OF HOLIES

Shown by Pillars, Vails, Hangings, Curtains, Shape

OF Places, Persons, and Symbolic Numbers . . 221-228

CHAPTER XXII.

THE ENCAMPMENT AND ORDER OF MARCH.

Encampment Square in Form ; Composed of Four Great
Armies ; Each of these composed of Three Divisions ;
Great wisdom displayed in grouping the Tribes into Armies
and Divisions, and assigning these their Places in the
Encampment ; Order of March .... 229-245

CHAPTER XXIII.

THE FIERY CLOUDY PILLAR.

F]iOM THE Day the Tabernacle was Reared to the Day
THE Israelites Crossed the Jordan, the Cloudy
Pillar inseparably connected with it ; Seat of the
Shekinah ; Shekinah enthroned on the Ark ; the Cloudy
Pillar and Ark being inseparably associated, the People
represented sometimes as following the one and sometimes
the other ; The Cloudy Pillar a Guide, a Light, a Shade,
a Shield, an Oracle, and an Avenger ; Type of Chribt . 247-259



ILLTSTEATIONS.



High Priest,



Frontispiece,



FOE FOUNDATION.




Square Tapering Sockets,


33


One Hundred Silver Sockets,


34


Flat Dovetailing Sockets,


35


Corner Sockets, .....


36


One Hundred Flat Sockets,


37


FOR FEAMEWORK.





Board and Tenons, .....

Josephus's Conjecture as to Corner Boards and Breadth of House
Kalisch's ,, „ ,»

Gerlach's ,, „ ^ ^

Author's ,, ,, „

Eing or Staple for Corner Boards, . . . ,

Five Rows of Bars variously arranged, ...
Board showing Tenons, Sockets, Bars, Rings, Cord, and Pin,

Pillar,

Diagrams showing all the Boards, Tenons, Sockets, Bars, Rings

and Pillars of the Tabernacle Framework, .
Perspective View of Tabernacle Framework,



43

44
45
46
47
48
51
53
54

56
58



16



ILLUSTRATIONS.



FOR CURTAINS AND HANGINGS.

Cherub Curtain, ....... 63

Two Great Cherub Curtains of Five Curtains and Loops, . 65

Ten Cherub Curtains indicating how arranged, . . . 6Q

One Goat-hair and one Cherub Curtain, showing diflference in size, 68

Two Great Goat-hair Curtains, one of five and one of six Curtains, 69

Eleven Goat-hair Curtains, indicating how arranged, . . 70



FOR MR FERGUSSON S SLOPING ROOF.

Length of Tabernacle and Sloping Roof,

Two Sides of Sloping Roof, ....

Cubit hanging over at North and South Sides, .

Perspective View of Mr Fergusson's Tabernacle Restored,

Diagram Illustrating Sides Westward, .

Open Spaces at Back End, for which no Curtains provided,



86
86
87
88
93



FOR COURT, FURNITURE, PRIESTS, ETC.
Diagram of Court, showing Pillars and Hangings, and Positions



of Altar, Laver, Sanctuary, and Cloudy Pillar,


]06


Brazen Altar, ......


116


Brazen Altar (No. 2), ..... .


118


Laver, .......


124


Laver (No. 2), .


125


Table of Shewbread, .....


130


Golden Candlestick, . . . . .


. 136


Bas-relief from Arch of Titus, ....


. 138


Golden Altar, ......


. 143


Ark of the Covenant, Mercy- Seat, and Cherubim,


146


Priest,


160


High Priest,


. 168


Encampment, ......


233


The Court and Cloudy Pillar, ....


. 246




Exodtts XXV. S, 9.

"Let them make me a sanctuary; that I may dwell among them.
According to all that I show thee, after the pattern of the tabernacle,
and the pattern of all the instruments thereof, even so shall ye make
it."



TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES ADOPTED
IN THIS WORK.



18 inches,
3000 shekels,
1500 02.. trov,



= 1 cubit.
= 1 talent.
= 1 talent.



•^




OtJD^



THE TABEENACLE.

**Let them make me a sanctuary."



CHAPTEK I.



INTRODUCTORY.




LTHOUGH the Tabernacle was made with
hands, yet it was devised by the Lord Himself,
^x^is who showed the "fashion" of it to Moses on
Mount Sinai, and strictly enjoined him to see
that all things were made according to this Divine
"pattern" (Exod. xxv. 9, 40, xxvi. 30, xxvii. 8; Heb.
viii. 5). The Lord also chose the chief artists under
whose superintendence it was to be constructed (Exod.
xxxi. 1-6). Are not these circumstances alone sufficient
to invest this sacred building with an abiding interest ?
As a work of art, it was far more beautiful and costly
than many persons are apt to suppose.

Even Dean Stanley, in the second series of his " Lec-
tures on the Jewish Church" at page 227, says, "There is
no inherent connection between ugliness and godliness,
and there was a greater danger of superstition in the
rough planks and black hair- cloths of the Tabernacle



20 THE TABERNACLE.

than ever was in the gilded walls and marble towers of
the Temple."

'No one unacquainted with the Bible description of
the Tabernacle, on reading these words of the Dean,
would ever imagine that the foundation of this sacred
structure was formed of solid silver; that the planks
composing its sides were all very smooth, and, moreover,
gilded with gold; that its pillars were graceful and
adorned with capitals; that even the capitals of the
pillars of the surrounding court and their connecting
rods were overlaid with silver ; and that the goat-hair
curtains, even granting that they were black (though
most writers are of opinion that they were manufactured
of fine white, soft, silky hair, similar to that of the
Angora goat), were draped with the most brilliant and
gorgeous tapestry, into which figures of cherubs w^ere
beautifully interwoven. There certainly was no rough-
ness or coarseness either within or without. The struc-
ture was worthy of its Divine Arcliitect; honouring to
the willing-hearted Israelites, who gave two or three
hundred thousand pounds sterling worth of gifts for its
construction; and creditable to the many skilled artisans
who vied with each other in carrying out the design of
their God and King.

Though it is not right to judge of the importance of a
Bible subject by the space it occupies in Holy Writ, yet
it may not be unworthy of remark that much more is
said about the Tabernacle than about Solomon's Temple,
both in the Old Testament and in the New. Nearly
three hundred verses in Exodus are devoted to an
account of the Tabernacle and its furniture, whilst the



INTRODUCTORY. 21

corresponding account of the Temple and its furniture,
in 1st Kings and 2d Clironicles, is comprised in half
that number of verses.

The Tabernacle, its priests, its rites, and its sacrifices,
have all passed away ; but the description and history
of them remain, and form part of those sacred writings,
which testify of Christ, who said of Moses, " He wrote of
me."

Many of the most important words and phrases em-
ployed in the New Testament have either arisen from
or are illustrated by the Tabernacle and its rites, of
which the following are examples : " Vail," " Mercy-
Seat," "Propitiation," "Laver of Eegeneration," "Priest,"
" High Priest," " Eedeemed," " Intercession," " Lamb of
God who taketh away the sin of the world," "Washed,"
"Cleansed," "Purged," "Eeconciled," "Sacrifice," "Offer-
ing," " Atonement," " Without shedding of blood is no
remission," " Gave Himself for us," " Bare our sins in
His own body on the tree."

An earnest and prayerful study of the Tabernacle,
and the purposes it served, cannot fail to increase our
knowledge of the grand truths of redemption. That
you may find the following chapters in some degree
interesting, and derive some profit from their perusal,
and may, while studying this earthly sanctuary, be
growing in meetness for the heavenly one and its
unutterable joys, is the prayer of your friend the Author.
May David's choice be yours ! — "One thing have I desired
of the Lord, that will I seek after, that I may dwell in
the house of the Lord all the days of my life, to behold
the beauty of the Lord, and to inquire in His temple."



CHAPTER IT.

GIFTS OF MATERIALS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION
OF THE TABERNACLE.




ANY chapels are burdened with a load of debt
occasioned by the bad habit of congregations
building, either wholly or in part, with
borrowed money. But the Hebrews acted
more nobly than such builders, for they collected by
voluntary contributions the entire materials with which
the sanctuary was constructed ere they began to build
(Exod. XXV. 1-9, XXXV 4-9, 20-30). Their free-will
offering for the work of the Tabernacle is, in many
respects, the most splendid one that was ever given for
the purpose of raising a place of worship.



GOLD.

Foremost in the procession of willing-hearted offerers
came men and women bringing "bracelets, and ear-rings,
and seal-rings, and tablets," all of gold (Exod. xxxv. 22),
till the heap comprised many thousands of articles, and
weighed no less than 29 talents and 730 shekels (Exod.



GIFTS OF MATERIALS. 23

xxxviii. 24), equal to 43,865 ounces, the value of which
at the present day is £180,000 sterling.

Some render the Hebrew word translated "bracelets"
in the above passage "nose-rings," as in 2 Kings
xix. 28; Isaiah xxxvii. 29; and that translated "tablets,"
" necklaces " or " head-bands." The probability, in our
opinion, is, that some of the Hebrew words designate
more than one particular jewel, and that the offering
consisted of all the various kinds of gold ornaments
worn by the Hebrews and the Egyptians (Exod. xii. 35)
at the time of the Exodus.



SILVER.

Gold was contributed by men and women, but silver
by men only. This, however, was not on account of
the women, who cheerfully gave their gold ornaments,
refusing to part with their silver ones, but because silver
was to be taken from none but adult males, who were
required to give half a shekel each as a ransom for the
soul (person) (Exod. xxx. 11-16). The sum of the silver
brought was 100 talents and 1775 shekels, or 301,775
shekels (Exod. xxxviii. 25-27), which proves that every
one of the 603,550 men comprising the Hebrew encamp-
ment paid the price of his redemption. This was done,
however, not by compulsion, but freely ; the silver as
weU as the gold was to be a free-wiU offering (Exod.
XXV. 2, 3). The whole was equal to 150,887^ ounces,
and would now realise £40,000 sterling.

Silver appears to have been the only metal used as
money by the Hebrews, at least up to the period of the



24 THE TABERNACLE.

Exodus, and this circumstance no doubt accounts for
the ransom price being paid in silver (Gen. xxiii. 15,
xxxvii. 28).

BRASS.

Gold and silver were the most precious metals, but
brass (copper) was also needed for the work of the
Tabernacle, and those who possessed it — and amongst
them might be some who had no gold to bestow —
brought 70 talents and 2400 shekels (Exod. xxxviii. 29),
equal to 106,200 ounces. The original word rendered
brass in the text is from a Hebrew root signifying to
shine. As brass, which is a mixture of copper and zinc,
was not known to the ancient Egyptians, it is generally
thought now that the Hebrew word signifies copper, or
copper with a slight alloy of tin.

The brazen mirrors, referred to in Exod. xxxviii. 8,
as the gift of the women who assembled at the door of
the Tabernacle, were not included in the above offering.
As the "Laver" was made of these, it is probable that
the metal was of a very superior quality. Some are of
opinion that Moses took possession of the mirrors by
force, but this is extremely unlikely, as the Tabernacle
and its sacred furniture were to be made only of mater-
ials which had been freely given. The giving of the
golden ornaments and also of these brazen mirrors
showed not a little self-denial on the part of the donors.



LINEN.

Men gave flax and women gave yarn, or rather the



GIFTS OF MATERIALS. 25

flax which men brought (Exod. xxxv. 23) was also
brought by women after they had spun it into yarn
(ver. 25). The Hebrew word " shesh " is rendered fine
linen in our version of the Scriptures, and evidently
stands for both flax and yarn.



BLUE AND PURPLE AND SCARLET.

It was the same with the dyed as with the undyed
stuff. The dyed flax which had been brought by the
men (Exod. xxxv. 23) was also brought by the women
after they had spun it into yarn (ver. 25). Josephus,
Dr Kalisch, and other able writers, assert that wool is
the substance called by the above colours. Scarlet wool
is without doubt the material called scarlet in Lev. xiv. 4.
Heb. ix. 19 proves this. Since, however, scarlet wool
was called by the name of the colour it bore, so in all
probability would flax and linen yarn. If the " blue "
and the " purple " and the " scarlet " were wool, it must
follow that the garments of the high priest (Exod. xxxix.
1-26), and the girdle of the common priest (Exod. xxxix.
29), were made of cloth containing a mixture of wool
and linen, a thing strictly forbidden in the Scriptures
(Lev. xix. 19; Deut. xxii. 11). Josephus makes very
short work of this formidable objection to his view, by
remarking that the reason why the people were forbidden
to wear garments of this sort was that they were worn
by the priests only; but few persons who read Lev.
xix. 19; Deut. xxii. 11; and Ezek. xliv. 17, will agree
with him.

Dr Kalisch, in support of wool, speaks of " its peculiar



26 THE TABERNACLE.

susceptibility for these shining colours." But flax, ac-
cording to the mode of dyeing in Egypt at the time we
are referring to, was sufficiently susceptible for the pur-
pose required. The ancient Egyptians appear to have
been at no loss in dyeing flax or linen yarn bright
colours, as numerous specimens in the British Museum,
in the East India House, and in the possession of Mr
AVilkinson and others, abundantly prove. There is no
necessity, then, either on Scriptural or scientific grounds
for importing wool into the text. See Wilkinson's
"Ancient Egyptians," vol. iii., pp. 113-128; Lang's
"Egypt," vol. ii., pp. 188-196.

goats' hair.

Goats' hair formed part of the free-will offerings of
the Israelites (Exod. xxxv. 23). Many of the goats of
the East have black hair, of which cloth is made for
tent coverings, but there are some species of goats which
have fine white silky hair, among which is the Angora
goat, and not a few writers are of opinion that it was
hair of this sort with which the tent of the Tabernacle
was made.

rams' skins.

The Israelites, being rich in flocks and herds, would
have no difficulty in supplying rams' skins. Those
brought by the Israelites (Exod. xxxv. 23) were dyed,
and probably tanned. " Leather of this very description
is still sold in Syrian towns. Erom time out of mind
the southern part of Syria and Palestine has been sup-



GIFTS OF MATERIALS. 27

plied with mutton from the great plains and deserts in
the north, east, and south ; and the shepherds do not
ordinarily bring the females to market. The vast flocks
which annually come from Armenia and northern Syria
are nearly all males; The leather, therefore, is literally
'rams' skins dyed red.'" — Land and Booh, p. 97.



BADGERS SKINS.

The Hebrews brought badgers' (tachash) as well as
rams' sldns. It is generally admitted that " badger " is
a wrong interpretation of the Hebrew word " tachash,"
but the learned are not agreed as to what animal is
intended. Some are of opinion that it was a fish, and
others that it was a quadruped ; but whether it swam
the ocean or ranged the forest, it was likely a large and
powerful creature, since its skin was used for the sacred
tent's outer covering, which doubtless required to be of
a tough and strong nature. This would not, however,
prevent the skins from being made suitable for orna-
mental purposes. Sandals formed of these skins appear
to have been worn by ladies when dressed in the most
costly and splendid attire, and decked with the most
precious ornaments; "I have shod thee with badgers'
skins" (Ezek. xvi. 10); so there can be little doubt
that the outer covering or roof of the Tabernacle
was not only strong, but also beautiful and ornamental.
It is not improbable that the shoes or sandals of the
Israelites were also made of this material; and if they
were, it was as effectual in defending their feet as it was
in preserving the Tabernacle from those influences that



28 THE TABERNACLE.

might have "been hurtful to it : " Thy foot did not swell
these forty years."



SHITTIM WOOD.

"Every man with whom was found shittim wood,
for any work of the service, brought it " (Exod. xxxv.
24). It is generally believed that this was the wood
of the acacia tree, which is common in the desert of
Sinai, and of which there are several species. Mr
Livingstone thinks that the acacia giraffe (camel thorn)
is the shittah of Scripture. He describes it as a
tree of slow growth, extremely hard, and attaining
to a good old age. "It is probable," he says, "that
this is the tree of which the Tabernacle was constructed,
as it is reported to be found where the Israelites were
at the time it was made. It is an imperishable wood,
while that usually pointed out as the shittim soon
decays, and wants beauty." — Livingstone's Travels in
South Africa, pp. 112, 113.


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