William Carey.

An Enquiry into the Obligations of Christians to Use Means for the Conversion of the Heathens In Which the Religious State of the Different Nations of the World, the Success of Former Undertakings, an online

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- - Naxia 100 in compass. 8,000 Greeks and Papists.
- - Scio, or Chios 112 in compass. Greek Christians,
Papists, & Mahomet.
- - Nio 40 in compass. 1,000 Ditto.
- - Scyros 60 in compass. 1,000 Ditto.
- - Mycone 36 in compass. 3,000 Ditto.
- - Samos 30 15 12,000 Mahometans.
- - Nicaria 70 in compass. 3,000 Greek Christians
- - Andros 120 in compass. 4,000 Ditto.
- - Cyclades, 700 Ditto.
Delos the Chief.
- - Zia 40 in compass. 8,000 Ditto.
- - Cerigo or 50 in compass. 1,000 Ditto.
Cytheraea
- - Santorin 36 in compass. 10,000 Ditto, and Papists.
- - Policandra 8 in compass. 400 Ditto.
- - Patmos 18 in compass. 600 Ditto.
- - Sephanto 36 in compass. 5,000 Greeks.
- - Claros 40 in compass. 1,700 Mahometans.
- - Amorgo 36 in compass. 4,000 Greek Christians.
- - Leros 18 in compass. 800 Christians and
Mahometans.
- - Therima 40 in compass. 6,000 Greek Christians.
- - Stampalia 50 in compass. 3,000 Ditto.
- - Salamis 50 in compass. 1,000 Ditto.
- - Scarpanta 20 in compass. 2,000 Ditto.
- - Cephalonia 130 in compass. 50,000 Ditto.
- - Zant 50 in compass. 30,000 Greek Christians.
- - Milo 60 in compass. 40,000 Ditto.
- - Corfu 120 in compass. 60,000 Ditto.
- - Candia, or Crete 200 60 400,000 Ditto, and Mahometans.
- - Coos, 70 in compass. 12,800 Mahometans and
or Stanchia Christians.
- - Rhodes 60 25 120,000 Ditto.
- - Cyprus 150 70 300,000 Mahometans.

[Footnote 4: The rest of Prussian dominions being scattered about
in several countries, are counted to those countries where they lie.]


_ASIA._

EXTENT.
Countries. Length Breadth Number of Religion.
Miles. Miles. Inhabitants.

TURKEY IN ASIA 1000 800 20,000,000 Mahometanism is most
contains Anatolia, prevalent, but there
Syria, Palestine, are many Greek, Latin,
Diabekr, Tutcomania Eutychian, and
and Georgia Armenian Christians.
Arabia 1300 1200 16,000,000 Mahometans.
Persia 1280 1140 20,000,000 Ditto, of the Sect
of Ali.
Great Tartary 4000 1200 40,000,000 Mahometans and Pagans.
Siberia 2800 960 7,500,000 Greek Christians
and Pagans.
Samojedia 2000 370 1,900,000 Pagans.
Kamtschatcha 540 236 900,000 Ditto.
Nova Zembla Undiscovered.thinly inhabit.Ditto.
China 1400 1260 60,000,000 Ditto.
JAPAN contains 900 360 10,000,000 Ditto.
Niphon Isl.
Isle of Ximo 210 200 3,000,000 Pagans.
- - Xicoco 117 104 1,800,000 Ditto.
- - Tsussima 39 34 40,000 Ditto.
- - Iki 20 17 6,000 Ditto.
- - Kubitessima 30 26 8,000 Ditto.
- - Matounsa 54 26 50,000 Ditto.
- - Fastistia 36 34 30,000 Ditto.
- - Firando 30 28 10,000 Ditto.
- - Amacusa 27 24 6,000 Ditto.
- - Awasi 30 18 5,000 Ditto.
India 2000 1000 50,000,000 Mahometans and Pagans.
beyond the Ganges
Indostan 2000 1500 110,000,000 Ditto.
Tibet 1200 480 10,000,000 Pagans.
Isle of Ceylon 250 200 2,000,000 Pagans, except the
Dutch Christians.
- - Maldives 1000 in number. 100,000 Mahometans.
- - Sumatra 1000 100 2,100,000 Ditto, and Pagans.
- - Java 580 100 2,700,000 Ditto.
- - Timor 2400 54 300,000 Ditto, and a
few Christians.
- - Borneo 800 700 8,000,000 Ditto.
- - Celebes 510 240 2,000,000 Ditto.
- - Boutam 75 30 80,000 Mahometans.
- - Carpentyn 30 3 2,000 Christian Protestants.
- - Ourature 18 6 3,000 Pagans.
- - Pullo Lout 60 36 10,000 Ditto.

Besides the little Islands of Manaar, Aripen, Caradivia, Pengandiva,
Analativa, Nainandiva, and Nindundiva, which are inhabited by
Christian Protestants.

And Banca, Madura, Bally, Lambeck, Flores, Solor, Leolana, Panterra,
Miscomby, and several others, inhabited by Pagans and Mahometans.

The MOLUCCAS are,
- - Banda 20 10 6,000 Pagans and Mahometans.
- - Buro 25 10 7,000 Ditto.
- - Amboyna 25 10 7,500 Christians; - the Dutch
have 25 Ch.
- - Ceram 210 45 250,000 Pagans and Mahometans.
- - Gillola 190 110 650,000 Ditto.

And Pully-way, Pullo-rin, Nera, Guamanapi, Guilliaien, Ternate, Motir,
Machian, and Bachian, which are inhabited by Pagans and Mahometans.

The PHILIPPINE ISLANDS are supposed to be about 11,000; - some of the
chief are,

Isle of Mindanao 60 40 18,000 Pagans and Mahometans.
- - Bahol 24 12 6,000 Ditto.
- - Layta 48 27 10,000 Ditto.
- - Parragon 240 60 100,000 Ditto.
The CALAMINES are Sebu 60 24 10,000 Papists.
- - Mindora 60 36 12,000 Pagans and Mahometans.
- - Philippina 185 120 104,000 Ditto.
- - Negroes Isle 150 60 80,000 Papists.
- - Manilla 31,000 Ditto, and Pagans.

The Ladrone Islands are inhabited by most uncivilized Pagans.

New Holland 2500 2000 12,000,000 Pagans; - 1 or 2
Ministers are there.
New Zealand[5] 960 180 1,120,000 Ditto.
New Guinea 1000 360 1,900,000 Ditto.
New Britain 180 120 900,000 Ditto.
New Ireland 180 60 700,000 Ditto.
Onrong Java A Cluster of Isles. Ditto.
New Caledonia 260 30 170,000 Ditto.
New Hebrides Ditto.
Friendly Isles 20 in number. Ditto.
Sandwich Isles 7 in number. 400,000 Ditto.
Society Isles 6 in number. 800,000 Ditto.
Kurile Isles 45 in number. 50,000 Ditto.
Pelew Isles Pagans.
Oonalashka Isle 40 20 3,000 Ditto.
The other South-Sea Islands. Ditto.

[Footnote 5: Two Islands.]


_AFRICA._

EXTENT.
Countries. Length Breadth Number of Religion.
Miles. Miles. Inhabitants.

Egypt 600 250 2,200,000 Mahometans and Jews.
Nubia 940 600 3,000,000 Ditto.
Barbary 1800 500 3,500,000 Mahometans, Jews,
and Christians.
Biledulgerid 2500 350 3,500,000 Mahometans, Christians,
and Jews.
Zaara, or the Desart 3400 660 800,000 Ditto.
Abyssinia 900 800 5,800,000 Armenian Christians.
Abex 540 130 1,600,000 Christians and Pagans.
Negroland 2200 840 18,000,000 Pagans.
Loango 410 300 1,500,000 Ditto.
Congo 540 220 2,000,000 Ditto.
Angola 360 250 1,400,000 Ditto.
Benguela 430 180 1,600,000 Ditto.
Mataman 450 240 1,500,000 Ditto.
Ajan 900 300 2,500,000 Ditto.
Zanguebar 1400 350 3,000,000 Ditto.
Monoemugi 900 660 2,000,000 Ditto.
Sofala 480 300 1,000,000 Pagans.
Terra de Natal 600 350 2,000,000 Ditto.
Caffraria, or the 708 660 2,000,000 Ditto, and a few
Hottentots Country Christians at the Cape.
Isle of Madagascar 1000 220 2,000,000 Pagans and Mahometans.
- - St. Mary 54 9 5,000 French Papists.
- - Mascarin 39 30 17,000 Ditto.
- - St. Helena 21 in compass. 1,000 English and French
Christians.
- - Annabon 16 14 4,000 Portuguese Papists.
- - St. Thomas 25 23 9,000 Pagans.
- - Zocotora 80 54 10,000 Mahometans.
- - Comora Isles 5 in number. 5,000 Ditto.
- - Mauritius 150 in compass. 10,000 French Papists.
- - Bourbon 90 in compass. 15,000 French Papists.
- - Madeiras 3 in number. 10,000 Papists.
- - Cape Verd Isles 10 in number. 20,000 Ditto.
- - Canaries 12 in number. 30,000 Ditto.
- - Azores 9 in number. 100,000 Ditto.
- - Maltha 15 8 1,200 Ditto.


_AMERICA._

EXTENT.
Countries. Length Breadth Number of Religion.
Miles. Miles. Inhabitants.

Brazil 2900 900 14,000,000 Pagans and Papists.
Paraguay 1140 460 10,000,000 Pagans.
Chili 1200 500 2,000,000 Pagans and Papists.
Peru 1800 600 10,000,000 Pagans and Papists.
Country of the 1200 900 8,000,000 Pagans.
Amazons.
Terra Firma 1400 700 10,000,000 Pagans and Papists.
Guiana 780 480 2,000,000 Ditto.
Terra Magellanica 1400 460 9,000,000 Pagans.
Old Mexico 2220 600 13,500,000 Ditto, and Papists.
New Mexico 2000 1000 14,000,000 Ditto.
The States of America 1000 600 3,700,000 Christians, of various
denominations
Terra de Labrador, 1680 600 8,000,000 Christians, of various
Nova-Scotia, denominations, but
Louisiana, Canada, most of the North
and all the country American Indians are
inland from Mexico Pagans.
to Hudson's-Bay
California, and from 2820 1380 9,000,000 Pagans.
thence along the
degrees south
latitude, and so
far inland as to
meet the above
article
All to the north of unknown. Pagans.
70 degrees
Cape Breton 400 110 20,000 Christians.
- - Newfoundland 350 200 1,400 Protestants.
- - Cumberland's Isle 780 300 10,000 Pagans.
- - Madre de Dios 105 30 8,000 Ditto.
- - Terra del Fuego 120 36 5,000 Ditto.

All the Islands in the Vicinity of Cape Horn Pagans.

The Bermudas extend 16 5 20,000 Half English, and
Half Slaves.
The LITTLE ANTILLES
are Aruba 5 3 200 Dutch, and Pagan Negroes.
- - Curassoa 30 10 11,000 Ditto.
- - Bonaire 10 3 300 Ditto.
- - Margaritta 40 24 18,000 Spaniards, and Pagan
Negoes.
- - St Trinidad 90 60 100,000 Ditto.
The BAHAMAS are
- - Bahama 50 16 16,000 Pagans.
- - Providence 28 11 6,000 Ditto.

Besides Eluthera, Harbour, Lucayonegua, Andross, Cigateo, Guanaliana,
Yumeta, Samana, Yuma, Mayaguana, Ynagua, Caieos, and Triangula -
Pagans.

The ANTILLES are
- - Cuba 700 60 1,000,000 Papists.
- - Jamaica 140 60 400,000 English, and Pagan
Negroes.
- - St. Domingo 450 150 1,000,000 French, Spaniards, and
Negroes.
- - Porto Rico 100 49 300,000 Spaniards and Negroes.
- - Vache, or Cows I. 18 2 1,000 Ditto.

The VIRGIN ISLES are 12 in number, of which Danes Island is the
principal - Protestants.

The CARRIRBEES are
- - St. Cruz 30 10 13,500 Danish Protestants.
- - Anguilla 30 9 6,000 Protestants, and Negroes.
- - St. Martin 21 12 7,500 Ditto.
- - St. Bartholomew 6 4 720 Ditto.
- - Barbuda 20 12 7,500 Ditto.
- - Saba 5 4 1,500 Ditto.
- - Guardulope 45 38 50,000 Catholics, and Pagan
Negroes.
- - Marigalante 15 12 5,400 Ditto.
- - Tobago 32 9 3,400 Ditto.
- - Defiada 12 6 1,500 Ditto.
- - Granada 30 15 13,500 English, and Pagan
Negroes.
- - St. Lucia 23 12 5,000 Ditto, and Native Pagan
Caribbs.
Whites. Negroes.
- - St. Eustatia 6 4 5,000 15,000 Dutch, English, &c.
- - St.Christopher 20 7 6,000 36,000 English.
- - Nevis 6 4 5,000 10,000 Ditto.
- - Antigua 20 4 7,000 30,000 Ditto.
- - Montserrat 6 4 5,000 10,000 Ditto.
- - Martinico 6 4 20,000 50,000 French.
- - St. Vincent's 60 4 8,000 5,000 The 8,000 are
Native Caribbs.
- - Barbadoes 24 4 30,000 100,000 English.
- - Dominica 28 4 40,000 Ditto, 2,000 of them
Native Caribbs.
- - St. Thomas 15 in compass. 8,000 Danish Protestants.


This, as nearly as I can obtain information, is the state of the
world; though in many countries, as Turkey, Arabia, Great Tartary,
Africa, and America, except the United States, and most of the Asiatic
Islands, we have no accounts of the number of inhabitants, that can be
relied on. I have therefore only calculated the extent, and counted a
certain number on an average upon a square mile; in some countries
more, and in others less, according as circumstances determine. A few
general remarks upon it will conclude this section.

FIRST, the inhabitants of the world according to this calculation,
amount to about seven hundred and thirty-one millions; four hundred
and twenty millions of whom are still in pagan darkness; an hundred
and thirty millions the followers of Mahomet; an hundred millions
catholics; forty-four millions protestants; thirty millions of the
greek and armenian churches, and perhaps seven millions of jews. It
must undoubtedly strike every considerate mind, what a vast proportion
of the sons of Adam there are, who yet remain in the most deplorable
state of heathen darkness, without any means of knowing the true God,
except what are afforded them by the works of nature; and utterly
destitute of the knowledge of the gospel of Christ, or of any means of
obtaining it. In many of these countries they have no written
language, consequently no Bible, and are only led by the most childish
customs and traditions. Such, for instance, are all the middle and
back parts of North America, the inland parts of South America, the
South-Sea Islands, New Holland, New Zealand, New Guinea; and I may add
Great Tartary, Siberia, Samojedia, and the other parts of Asia
contiguous to the frozen sea; the greatest part of Africa, the island
of Madagascar, and many places beside. In many of these parts also
they are cannibals, feeding upon the flesh of their slain enemies,
with the greatest brutality and eagerness. The truth of this was
ascertained, beyond a doubt, by the late eminent navigator, Cooke, of
the New Zealanders, and some of the inhabitants of the western coast
of America. Human sacrifices are also very frequently offered, so that
scarce a week elapses without instances of this kind. They are in
general poor, barbarous, naked pagans, as destitute of civilization,
as they are of true religion.

SECONDLY, barbarous as these poor heathens are, they appear to be as
capable of knowledge as we are; and in many places, at least, have
discovered uncommon genius and tractableness; and I greatly question
whether most of the barbarities practiced by them, have not originated
in some real or supposed affront, and are therefore, more properly,
acts of self-defence, than proofs of inhuman and blood-thirsty
dispositions.

THIRDLY, in other parts, where they have a written language, as in the
East-Indies, China, Japan, &c. they know nothing of the gospel. The
jesuits indeed once made many converts to popery among the Chinese;
but their highest aim seemed to be to obtain their good opinion; for
though the converts professed themselves Christians, yet they were
allowed to honour the image of CONFUCIUS their great law-giver; and at
length their ambitious intrigues brought upon them the displeasure of
government, which terminated in the suppression of the mission, and
almost, if not entirely, of the Christian name. It is also a
melancholy fact, that the vices of Europeans have been communicated
wherever they themselves have been; so that the religious state of
even heathens has been rendered worse by intercourse with them!

FOURTHLY, a very great proportion of Asia and Africa, with some part
of Europe, are _Mahometans_; and those in Persia, who are of the sect
of _Hali_, are the most inveterate enemies to the Turks; and they in
return abhor the Persians. The Africans are some of the most ignorant
of all the mahometans; especially the Arabs, who are scattered through
all the northern parts of Africa, and live upon the depredations which
they are continually making upon their neighbours.

FIFTHLY, in respect to those who bear the Christian name, a very great
degree of ignorance and immorality abounds amongst them. There are
Christians, so called, of the greek and armenian churches, in all the
mahometan countries; but they are, if possible, more ignorant and
vicious than the mahometans themselves. The Georgian Christians, who
are near the Caspian Sea, maintain themselves by selling their
neighbours, relations, and children, for slaves to the Turks and
Persians. And it is remarked, that if any of the greeks of Anatolia
turn mussulmen, the Turks never set any store by them, on account of
their being so much noted for dissimulation and hypocrisy. It is well
known that most of the members of the greek church are very ignorant.
Papists also are in general ignorant of divine things, and very
vicious. Nor do the bulk of the church of England much exceed them,
either in knowledge or holiness; and many errors, and much looseness
of conduct, are to be found amongst dissenters of all denominations.
The lutherans in Denmark, are much on a par with the ecclesiastics in
England; and the face of most Christian countries presents a dreadful
scene of ignorance, hypocrisy, and profligacy. Various baneful, and
pernicious errors appear to gain ground, in almost every part of
Christendom; the truths of the gospel, and even the gospel itself, are
attacked, and every method that the enemy can invent is employed to
undermine the kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ.

All these things are loud calls to Christians, and especially to
ministers, to exert themselves to the utmost in their several spheres
of action, and to try to enlarge them as much as possible.




SECT. IV.


_The Practicability of something being done, more than
what is done, for the Conversion of the Heathen._


The impediments in the way of carrying the gospel among the heathen
must arise, I think, from one or other of the following things;
- either their distance from us, their barbarous and savage manner of
living, the danger of being killed by them, the difficulty of
procuring the necessaries of life, or the unintelligibleness of their
languages.

FIRST, as to their distance from us, whatever objections might have
been made on that account before the invention of the mariner's
compass, nothing can be alledged for it, with any colour of
plausibility in the present age. Men can now sail with as much
certainty through the Great South Sea, as they can through the
Mediterranean, or any lesser Sea. Yea, and providence seems in a
manner to invite us to the trial, as there are to our knowledge
trading companies, whose commerce lies in many of the places where,
these barbarians dwell. At one time or other ships are sent to visit
places of more recent discovery, and to explore parts the most
unknown; and every fresh account of their ignorance, or cruelty,
should call forth our pity, and excite us to concur with providence in
seeking their eternal good. Scripture likewise seems to point out this
method, _Surely the Isles shall wait for me; the ships of Tarshish
first, to bring my sons from far, their silver, and their gold with
them, unto the name of the Lord, thy God._ Isai. lx. 9. This seems to
imply that in the time of the glorious increase of the church, in the
latter days, (of which the whole chapter is undoubtedly a prophecy,)
commerce shall subserve the spread of the gospel. The ships of
Tarshish were trading vessels, which made voyages for traffic to
various parts; thus much therefore must be meant by it, that
_navigation_, especially that which is _commercial_, shall be one
great mean of carrying on the work of God; and perhaps it may imply
that there shall be a very considerable appropriation of wealth to
that purpose.

SECONDLY, as to their uncivilized, and barbarous way of living, this
can be no objection to any, except those whose love of ease renders
them unwilling to expose themselves to inconveniencies for the good of
others.

It was no objection to the apostles and their successors, who went
among the barbarous _Germans_ and _Gauls_, and still more barbarous
_Britons_! They did not wait for the ancient inhabitants of these
countries, to be civilized, before they could be christianized, but
went simply with the doctrine of the cross; and TERTULLIAN could boast
that "those parts of Britain which were proof against the Roman
armies, were conquered by the gospel of Christ" - It was no objection
to an ELLIOT, or a BRAINERD, in later times. They went forth, and
encountered every difficulty of the kind, and found that a cordial
reception of the gospel produced those happy effects which the longest
intercourse with Europeans, without it could never accomplish. It _is_
no objection to commercial men. It only requires that we should have
as much love to the souls of our fellow-creatures, and fellow sinners,
as they have for the profits arising from a few otter-skins, and all
these difficulties would be easily surmounted.

After all, the uncivilized state of the heathen, instead of affording
an objection _against_ preaching the gospel to them, ought to furnish
an argument _for_ it. Can we as men, or as christians, hear that a
great part of our fellow creatures, whose souls are as immortal as
ours, and who are as capable as ourselves, of adorning the gospel, and
contributing by their preaching, writings, or practices to the glory
of our Redeemer's name, and the good of his church, are inveloped in


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Online LibraryWilliam CareyAn Enquiry into the Obligations of Christians to Use Means for the Conversion of the Heathens In Which the Religious State of the Different Nations of the World, the Success of Former Undertakings, an → online text (page 3 of 4)