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WILLIAM .VND ROBERT CHAMBERS



CONTENTS OF VOLUME I.

No. Page
The Life of Louis -Philippe, King of the French, - - 1
A Tale op Norfolk Island, - - - 2

Story of Colbert, - - - - 3

Happy Families of Anibla.ls, - - - 314

The Employer and Employed, - - - 4

Time Knough : an Irish Tale. By Mrs S. C. Hall, - 5

My Native Bay : a Poeji, 5 16

]Manage3ient op Infants, - - - - 6

Picciola, or the Prison-Flower, - - - . - 7

Life in the Bush, - - 8

William Tell and Switzerland, - - - 9

The Two Beggar Boys, - - - - 10

The "Widow's Son, -10 10

Select Poems of the Domestic Affections —
The Cotter's Saturday Niqht, &o. - - - - 11 ]



EDINBURGH :
PRINTED BY W. AND R. CHAMBERS.

1847.




OUIS-PHILIPPE, the late king- of the
French, and one of the most remarkable
men in Europe, was born in Paris, October
6, 1773. He is the eldest son of Louis-
Philippe-JoseiDh, Duke of Orleans — better
known under his revolutionary title of
Philippe Egalite — and of Marie, only daugh-
ter and heiress of the wealthy Duke of Penthievi'e. The Orleans
branch of the Bourbon family, of which Louis-Philippe is now
the head, originated in Philippe, a younger son of Louis XIII.,
created Due d'Orleans by his elder brother Louis XIV., and of
whom Louis Philippe is the grandson's great-grandson. Phi-
lippe, the first Duke of Orleans, was twice married ; his second
wife being Elizabeth Charlotte of Bohemia, granddaughter of
James I. of England. From this lady the Orleans family are
No. 1. I



THE LIFE OF LOUIS-PHILIPPE,

descended, and throug-h her trace a direct relationship to the line of
Stuart, and the present royal family of England. IVhile a child,
Louis-Philippe was entitled Duke of Valois ; but on his father
succeeding to the title of Duke of Orleans in 1785, he became
Duke of Chartres, which title for a number of years he retained.
AVliatever were the personal and political faults of Citizen Ega-
lite, he was a kind father, and beloved by his children, five in
number, one of whom, however, a daughter, died young. Desir-
ous of imparting to his family a sound education, in which he
himself had had the misfortune to be deficient, he committed them
to the superintendence of Madame de Sillery — better known by
her later adopted title of Countess de Genlis. Notwithstanding
the subsequent errors of this lady, she was eminently qualified,
by her talents and dispositions, to be an instructress of youth.
The principles on which she based her plans of education were
considerably in advance of the age, and such as are only now
beginning to be generally understood. She considered that it
was of the first importance to surround children almost from
their cradle with happy and cheering influences, to the exclu-
sion of everything likely to contaminate their minds or feel-
ings. It was necessary, above all things, to implant in them
a universal spirit of love — a love of God and his works, the
consciousness that all was from the hand of an Almighty Creator
and Preserver, who willed the happiness of his creatures. To
excite this feeling in her young charge, she took every oppor-
tunity of arousing the sentiment of wonder with respect to
natural phenomena, and then of explaining the seeming marvels
on principles which an awakening intelligence could be led to
comprehend. The other means adopted to form the character
of her young pupils — the Duke of Valois, Duke of Montpensier,
the Count Beaujolais, and their sister the Princess Adelaide —
were equally to be admired. While receiving instructions in
difierent branches of polite learning, and in the Christian doc-
trines and graces, from properly qualified tutors, they learned,
without labour or pain, to speak English, German, and Italian,
by being attended by domestics who respectively conversed in
these languages. Nor was their physical education neglected.
The boys were trained to endure all kinds of bodily fatigue, and
taught a variety of useful and amusing industrial exercises. At
St Leu, a pleasant country residence near Paris, where the
family resided under the charge of Madame de Genlis, the
young princes cultivated a small garden under the direction of
a German gardener, while they were instructed in botany and
the practice of medicine by a medical gentleman, who was the
companion of their rambles. They had also ateliers, or work-
shops, in which they were taught turning, basket-making, weav-
ing, and carpentry. The young Duke of Valois took pleasure
in these pursuits — as what boy would not, under proper direc-
tion, and if allowed scope for his ingenuity? He excelled in



KING OF THE FRENCH.

cabinet-making" ; and, assisted only by his brother, the Duke of
Montpensier, made a handsome cupboard, and a table with
drawers, for a poor woman in the village of St Leu.

At this period of his youth, as well as in more advanced years,
the subject of our memoir g-ave many tokens of a benevolent and
noble disposition, sacrificing- on many occasions his pocket-money
to relieve distress, and exerting" himself to succour the oppressed.
Speaking" of his progress and character under her tuition, the
Countess de Genlis observes : " The Duke of Chartres has greatly
improved in disposition during the past year ; he was born with
good inclinations, and is now become intelligent and virtuous.
Possessing none of the frivolities of the age, he disdains the
puerilities which occupy the thoughts of so many young men of
rank — such as fashions, dress, trinkets, follies of all kinds, and
the desire for novelties. He has no passion for money; he is
disinterested; despises glare; and is consequently truly noble.
Finally, he has an excellent heart, which is common to his
brothers and sister, and which, joined to reflection, is capable of
producing all other good qualities."

A favourite method of instruction pursued by Madame de
Genlis consisted in taking her young pupils on a variety of
holiday excursions. Interesting rural scenes, spots consecrated
by historical transactions, cabinets of curiosities, manufacturing
estabhshments, &c. were thus visited, and made the subject of
useful observation. In the summer of 1787, the Duchess of
Orleans and her children, accompanied by theu* superintendent,
visited Spa, the health of the duchess requiring aid from the
mineral waters of that celebrated place of resort. A pleasing
anecdote is related of the Orleans family on the occasion of this
visit. The health of the duchess having* been much improved
by the waters of the Sauveniere — a spring a few miles from the
town in the midst of pleasing scenery — the Duke of Chartres
and his brothers and sister, prompted by their instructress, re-
solved on giving a gay and commemorative fete. Round the
spring they formed a beautiful walk, removed the stones and
rocks which were in the way, and caused it to be ornamented
with seats, with small bridges placed over the torrents, and
covered the sui'rounding woods with charming shrubs in flower.
At the end of the walk conducting to the spring whose waters
had been so efficacious, was a kind of little wood, which had an
opening looking out upon a precipice remarkable for its height,
and for being covered with majestic piles of rock and trees.
Beyond it was a landscape of great extent and beauty. In the
wood was raised by the duke and his brothers and sister an
altar to " Gratitude," of white marble, on which was the
following inscription : — " The waters of the Sauveniere having*
restored the health of the Duchess of Orleans, her children have
embellished the neighbourhood of its springs, and have them,
selves traced the walks and cleared the woods with more assi-
se



THE LIFE OF LOUIS-PHILIPPE



cluity than the workmen who lahoured under their orders," On
the fete day in question, the young- Duke of Chartres expressed
witii g-race and effect his filial sentiments of devotedness and
love, but suddenly left the side of his mother, and appeared with
his brothers and sister, a few seconds afterwards, at the foot of
the altar, himself holding a chisel in his hand, and appearing" to
be writing in it the word " Gratitude." The effect was mag-ical ;
all present were at once charmed and touched ; and many a
cheek was bedewed with pleasurable tears,*

The same authority from whom we have the above anecdote,
relates some interesting* particulars of a journey which the family
made about this period to Eu, in Normandy, whence they pro-
ceeded westward by Havre to the bay of Avranches. Here they
visited the rocky fortress of St Michael, which, standing within
the margin of the sea, is a conspicuous object for a distance
of many miles around. Long" celebrated for its shrine of St
Michael, the convent in this island -fort had for ages been
visited by thousands of devotees, and probably this species of
celebrity, as well as the natural features of the place, and its
historical associations, induced the young princes of Orleans to
view it with some degree of interest. Till this period, its
dungeons had been employed as a state-prison ; and these were
viewed with melancholy feelings hj the young visitors. While
conducted over these gloomy recesses by the monks, to whose
charg'e the prison had been committed, the Duke of Chartres
made some inquiries relative to an i7V?i cage, which had been
used for the close confinement of prisoners. The monks, in
reply, told him that the cage was not of iron, but of wood,
framed of enormous logs, between which were interstices of the
width of three and four finger -breadths. It was then about
fifteen years since any prisoners had been wholly confined
therein, but any who were violent were subject to the punish-
ment for tAventy-four hours. The Duke of Chartres expressed
his surprise that so cruel a measure, in so damp a place, should
be permitted. The prior replied, that it was his intention, at
some time or other, to destroy this monument of cruelty, since
the Count d'Artois (afterwards Charles X.) had visited Mount
St Michael a few months previous, and had positively commanded
its demolition. " In that case," said the Duke of Chartres, " there
can be no reason why we should not all be present at its destruc-
tion, for that will delio-ht us," The next morning was fixed by
the prior for the good work of demolition, and the Duke of
Chartres, with the most touching expression, and with a force
really beyond his years, gave the first blow with his axe to the
cage, amidst the transports, acclamations, and applauses of the
prisoners. The Swiss who was appointed to show this monster
cage, alone looked grave and disappointed, for he made money

* Reminiscences of Men and Tilings— a series of interesting papers in Fraser'a
Magazine : 1843.
4



KIXG OF THE FKENCH.

ty conducting" strangers to view it. When the Duke of Chartres
was informed of this circumstance, he presented the Swiss with
ten louis, and with much wit and g'ood humour observed, " Do
now, my good Swiss, in future, instead of showing the cage to
travellers, point out to them the place where it once stood ; and
surely to hear of its destruction will afford to them all more plea-
sure than to have seen it."

One of the means by which Madame de Genlis endeavoured to
teach her pupils to examine and regulate their own minds and
conduct, was the keeping of a journal, in which they were
enjoined to enter every occurrence, great and small, in which they
were personally concerned. The journal kept by the Duke of
Chartres, in consequence of this recommendation, has latterly
been given to the public, and makes us acquainted with some
interesting particulars of his early life, as well as wuth the senti-
ments which he then entertained. The latter are such as might
have been expected from a lad reared within the all-prevailing
influence of revolutionary doctrines. Of the political move-
ments of 1789, Madame de Genlis and her husband were warm
adherents ; and they failed not, with the concurrence of the Duke
of Orleans, to impress their sentiments on the susceptible mind
of their charge. Introduced, and entered a member of the Jacobin
Club, the young' Duke of Chartres appears from his journal to
have been in almost daily attendance on the sittings of this
tumultuary body, as well as the National Assembly. What was
much more creditable to his judgment, he seems to have been
equally assiduous in acquiring a knowledge of surgery by his
visits to the Hotel-Dieu, or great public hospital of Paris. A few
entries in his journal on these and other points, illustrative of his-
youthful character and pursuits, may here be introduced.

" Nov. 2 (1790). — I was yesterday admitted a member of the-
Jacobins, and much applauded. I returned thanks for the kind
reception which they were so good as to give me, and I assured
them that I should never deviate from the sacred duties of a
good patriot and a good citizen.

Nov. 26. — I went this morning to the Hotel-Dieu. The next
time I shall dress the patients myself. * *

Dec. 2. — I went yesterday morning to the Hotel-Dieu. I
dressed two patients, and gave one six, and the other three
livres. '^ *

Dec. 25. — I went yesterday morning to confession. I dined
at the Palais Royal, and then went to the Philanthropic Society,
whence I could not get away till eight o'clock. * * I went
to the midnight mass at St Eustache, returned at two in the
morning, and got to bed at half-past two. I perfonned my
devotions at this mass [Christmas].

Jan. 7 (1791). — I went this morning to the Hotel-Dieu in a
hackney-coach, as my carriage was not come, and it rained hard.
I dressed the patients, and bled three women. * *



THE LIFE OF LOUIS-PHILIPPE,

Jan. 8. — In tlie morning to the Assembly ; at six in the even-
ing to the Jacobins. M. de Noailles presented a work on the
Revolution, by Mr Joseph Towers, in answer to Mr Burke. He
praised it highly, and proposed that I should be appointed to
translate it. This proposition was adopted with great applause,
and I foolishly consented, but expressing my fear that I should
not fullil their expectations. I returned home at a quarter
past seven. At night, my father told me that he did not approve
of it, and I must excuse myself to the Jacobins on Sunday. [We
are afterwards informed that he executed the translation, but
that it was arrang-ed for the press by his sub-governor or tutor,
M. Pieyre, whose name was prefixed to it.]

Jan. 28. — [Describes how he caught cold, and became unwell.]
"Went to Bellechasse [the residence of Madame de Genlis], where,
notwithstanding my headache, and though I had much fever, I
wished to remain; but my friend [Madame de G.] sent me
away, reminding me that I was to be at the Hotel-Dieu in the
morning." * ""

The Duke of Chartres appears from his journal to have been
attached in an extraordinary degree to Madame de Genlis, whose
admonitions he always regarded as those of a mother. Referring
to his kind instructress, under the date May 22, he proceeds : —
" O, my mother, how I bless you for having preserved me from
all those vices and misfortunes (too often incident to youth), by
inspiring me with that sense of religion which has been my
whole support."

Some years previous to this period, the duke had been ap-
pointed to the honorary office of colonel in the 14th regiment of
dragoons. Such offices being now abolished, it became necessary
for him to assume in his own person the command of his regi-
ment, and for this purpose he proceeded to Vendome in June
1791, accompanied by M. Pieyre. At this time considerable
commotion took place in many parts of France, in consequence
of the refusal of a numerous body of clergy to take an oath pre-
scribed by the constitution. The nonjuring clergymen were
everywhere ejected from their livings, and in some places treated
with indignity. Wliile the Duke of Chartres was in Vendome,
a popular ferment took place, in which two of these unfortunate
men would have been murdered by the mob, but for his humane
interference. The occurrence is described as follows in his
journal : —

" June 27. — [Mentions his attendance with his regiment on a
religious procession led by a clergyman who had taken the
appointed oath.] At noon I had brought back the regiment, but
with orders not to unboot or unsaddle. I asked Messrs Dubois,
d'Albis, Jacquemin, and Phillippe, to dinner. They brought us
word that the people had collected in a mob, and were about to
hang two priests. I ran immediately to the place, followed by
Pieyre, Dubois, and d'Albis. I came to the door of a tavern,
e



KING OF THE FRENCH.

where I found ten or twelve national guards, the mayor, the town-
clerk, and a considerable number of people, crying", ' They have
broken the law ; they must be hanged — to the lamp-post !' I asked
the mayor what all this meant, and what it was all about. He
replied, ' It is a nonjuring priest and his father, who have escaped
into this house; the people allege that they have insulted M.
Buisson, a priest, who has taken the civic oath, and who was
carrying* the holy sacrament, and I can no longer restrain them.
I have sent for a voiture to convey them away. Have the
goodness to send for two dragoons to escort them.' I did so
immediately. The mayor stood motionless before the door,
not opening his mouth. I therefore addressed some of the most
violent of the mob, and endeavoured to explain ' how wrong it
would be to hang men without trial ; that, moreover, they would
be doing the work of the executioner, which they considered
infamous ; that there were judges whose duty it was to deal with
these men.' The mob answered that the judges were aristocrats,
and that they did not punish the guilty. I rephed, ' That's your
own fault, as they are elected by yourselves ; but you must not
take the law into your own hands.' There was now much
confusion ; at last one voice cried — ' We will spare them for the
sake of M. de Chartres.' '■ Yes, yes, yes,' cried the people ; ' he
is a good patriot ; he edified us all this morning. Bring them
out ; we shall do them no harm.' I went up to the room where
the unhappy men were, and asked them if they would trust
themselves to me ; they said yes. I preceded them down stairs,
and exhorted the people not to forget what they had promised.
They cried out again, ' Be easy ; they shall receive no harm.' I
called to the driver to bring up the carriage ; upon which the
crowd cried out, 'No voiture — on foot, on foot, that we may
have the satisfaction of hooting them, and expelling them igno-
miniously from the town.' ' Well,' I said, ' on foot ; be it so ;
'tis the same thing to me, for you are too honest to forfeit your
word.' We set out amidst hisses and a torrent of abuse ; I gave
my arm to one of the men, and the mayor was on the other
side. The priest walked between Messrs Dubois and d'Albis. Not
thinking at the moment, I unluckily took the direction towards
Paris. The mayor asked one of the men where he would wish to
go ; he answered, ' To Blois.' It was directly the contrary way
from that which we were taking. The mayor wished to return,
and to pass across the whole town. I opposed this, and we
changed our direction, but without going back through the
streets. We passed a little wooden bridge of a few planks without
rails ; there the mob cried to throw them into the river, and
endeavoured, by putting sticks across, to make them fall into the
water. I again reminded them of their promise, and they became
quiet. When we were about a mile out of the town, some of
the country people came running down the hill, and threw them-
selves upon us, calling out, ' Hang or drown the two rascals ! '

7



THE LIFE OF LOUIS-PHILIPPE,

One of them seized one of the poor wretches by the coat, and the
crowd rushing" in, forced away the mayor and M. d'Albis. I
remained alone with M. Dubois, and we endeavoured to make
the peasant loose his hold. I held one of the men by one hand,
and by the other endeavoured to free the coat. At last one of
the national g'uard arrived to our assistance, and by force cleared
the man. The crowd was still increasing*. It is but justice to
the people of Vendome to say that they kept their word, and
tried to induce the peasants to do no violence to the men.
Seeing, however, that if I continued my march, some misfor-
tune must inevitably occur, I cried we must take them to prison,
and then all the people cried, '■ To prison ! to prison ! ' Some
voices cried, ' They must ask pardon of God, and thank M. de
Chartres for their lives.' That was soon done, and we set out for
the prison. As we went along*, one man came forward with a
gun, and said to us, ' Stand out of the way while I lire on them.'
Believing that he was really about to fire, I rushed forward in
front of my two men, saying', ' You shall kill me first.' As the
man was well dressed, M. Pieyre said to him, ' But how can you
act so?' 'I was only joking,' says the man; 'my gun is not
charged.' We again continued our way, and the two men were
lodged in the prison."

The unfortunate priests were afterwards, to the satisfaction of
the populace, left to be dealt with in terms of law. On the 1st of
July we find the following entry : — " Several of those who the
day before had been the most savage, came with tears to ask my
pardon, and to thank me for having saved them from the com-
mission of a crime." The feelings of the duke must have been
enviable at this moment, but not less so on the following occa-
sion.

" August 3. — Happy day ! I have saved a man's life, or rather
have contributed to save it. This evening, after having read a
little of Pope, Metastasio, and Emile, I went to bathe. Edward
and I were dressing ourselves, when I heard cries of ' Help, help,
I am drowning ! ' I ran immediately to the cry, as did Edward,
who was farther. I came first, and could only see the tops of
the person's fing'ers. I laid hold of that hand, which seized mine
with indescribable strength, and by the way in which he held
me, would have drowned me, if Edward had not come up and
seized one of his legs, which deprived him of the power of jump-
ing on me. We then got him ashore. He could scarcely speak,
but he nevertheless expressed great gratitude to me as well as to
Edward. I think with pleasure on the effect this will produce at
Bellechasse. I am born under a happy star ! Opportunities offer
themselves in every way : I have only to avail myself of them !
The man we saved is one M. Siret, an inhabitant of Vendome,
sub-engineer in the office of roads and bridges. I go to bed
happy !

August 11. — Another happy day. I had been invited yester-
a.



KING OF THE FRENCH.

day to attend at the Town-House with some non-commissioned
officers and privates. I went to-day, and was received with an
address ; there was then read a letter from M. Siret, who pro-
posed that the municipal body should decree that a civic crown
should be given to any citizen who should save the life of a
fellow-creature, and that, in course, one should be presented to
me. The municipal body adopted the proposition, and I received
a crown amidst the applause of a numerous assembly of spectators.
I was very much ashamed. I nevertheless expressed my grati-
tude as well as I could."

Besides the numerous entries in the journal referring' to his
military avocations and his epistolary correspondence, he occa-
sionally speaks of the studies in which he was engaged. One
extract will suffice to show his dilig'ence in this respect.

" Yesterday morning at exercise. On returning, I undressed,
and read some of Renault, Julius Csesar, Sternheim, and Mably.
Dined, and after dinner read some of Ipsipyle, Metastasio,
Heloise, and Po]3e. At tive, to the riding-house ; and afterwards
read Emile."

In noticing" the journal from which we have culled these few
extracts, a writer in an Engiish periodical, not usually favourable
to Louis-Philippe (the Quarterly Review), sums up his criticism in
the following candid manner. " There are in it many j)uerile pas-
sages, and a few which, even under all extenuating circumstances,
may be called blameable. * * But we think it must be agreed
that, on the whole, it is creditable to his [the duke's] good sense,



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