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he erected a pole, and having- hoisted the union jack, named the
place Queen Charlotte's Sound, in honour of her majesty. Coins
and spike-nails were given to the Indian spectators ; and after
drinking- the queen's health in wine, the empty bottle was
bestowed upon the man who had carried it when full, with which
he was much delig-hted.

On the 5th February he quitted this part of New Zealand,
and proceeded to explore three or four islands in that locality,
giving names to capes, headlands, rocks, &c. But this was not
accomplished without considerable peril, on account of the
streng-th of the currents. To one place he gave the name of
Admiralty Bay, where he took in wood and filled his water-casks,
and sailed again on the 31st March, intending: to return home
by way of the East Indies. On the 19th April they came in
sig-ht of New Holland (or New South "Wales, as it is now called),
and anchored in Botany Bay on the 28th, where they landed ;
but contrary to the will of two or three Indians, who attacked
the English with their lances, but on the firing- of muskets, fled.
The voyag-ers left beads and trinkets in the huts of the natives,
and during the time they remained at that place they were
untouched. The inhabitants seemed utterly reg-ardless of the
ship, though they could never have seen such a spectacle before.
Here they caught a fish called a string - ray, v.hich, after the
entrails were taken out, weighed 336 pounds.

Mr Cook prosecuted his discoveries in New South Wales with

4 9



LIFE OF CAPTAIN COOK.

zeal and energy over a track of 1300 miles ; but on the 10th
June, near Trinity Bay, tlie Endeavour struck on a reef of coral
rocks, and was compelled to start her water, throw her guns-
overboard, and use every mode to lighten the vessel ; but with
four jDumps at work, they could not keep her free ; and every soul,
though strug-gling hard for life, yet prepared for that death
w^hich now appeared to be inevitable. Upon these rocks the ship
remained for nearly forty-eight hours, her sheathing' ripped off,
and the very timbers nearly rubbed through : by great exertion,
however, she was got afloat at high tide, and it was found that she
made no more water than when aground ; and the men, by work-
ing incessantly at the pumps, kept her afloat. At the suggestion
of Mr Monkhouse, a sail w^as fothered (that is, j)ieces of oakum
and other light materials were slightly stitched to it), and being
hauled under the ship's bottom, the loose pieces were sucked into
the leaks, and in a great measure stopped the holes, so that they
were enabled to keep the water in the hold under with only one
pump. On the morning of the 17th, after running aground
twice, they got into a convenient harbour for repairing their
damages ; and here, when the vessel was hove down, they found
a large piece of rock in the ship's bottom, firmly jammed in the
hole it had made, so as to exclude the sea, and which, if it had
fallen out, must have proved fatal to all.

About this time the scurvy broke out amongst them, and at-
tacked indiscriminately both officers and men ; but the quantity
of fish that was caught, allowing each man two pounds and a-half
per day, together with turtle and herbs, somewhat checked its
progress. Three of the turtle caught weighed together 791 pounds.
The natives took but little notice of the voyagers at first, but after-
wards became familiar ; and on one occasion, when refused some-
thing' which they wanted, one of them seized a firebrand, and
going to windward of the place where the armourer was at work,
set fire to the high grass, so that every part of the smith's forge
that would burn was destroyed. A musket ball was fired at
them, and. they ran away. The fire was repeated in the woods
shortly afterwards, but without injury, as the stores and powder
that had been landed were already on board. The hills all round
burned fiercely for several nights.

It must here be mentioned, that the injuries sustained by the
vessel proved destructive to many valuable sj)ecimens that had
been collected by Mr Banks, which had been jDut for security in
the bread-room, but the salt-water saturating a great portion, they
were utterly spoiled. The place where they refitted was named
by Mr Cook Endeavour Elver. Its entrance for many miles was
surrounded with shoals, and the channels between them were
very intricate. On the 4th August they quitted their anchorage,
and it was not till the 24th that they got clear of the reefs and
sandbanks. After another narrow escape from being' wrecked,
they made Nev/ Guinea on the 3d September, where they an-

10



LIFE OF CAPTAIN COOK.

chored, and went on sliore ; Lut the hostility of the natives, who
resembled those of New South Wales, iirevented intercourse.
The latter used a sort of combustible material that ignited, with-
out any report. The land looked rich and luxurious in vegeta-
tion, and the cocoa-nut, the bread-fruit, and the plantain trees,
flourished in the highest perfection. Mr Cook made sail to the
westward, contrary to the wish of his people, who wanted to cut
down the trees to get their fruit, but which, through humanity
to the natives, he would not permit. In pursuing theii; voyage,
they fell in with islands which were not upon the charts, and
passed Timor and others, intending to run for Java : on the
17th they saw a beautiful island, and found Dutch residents,
with cattle and sheep. The crew of the Endeavour had suffered
many privations and hardships, and the scurvy was making
havoc among- them, so that they complained of their commander
not having put in at Timor ; but now they obtained nine buf-
faloes, six sheep, three hogs, thirty dozen of fowls, &c. with
several hundred g'allons of palm syrup. This was the island
Savu, and the natives are spoken of as highly pure in their
morals and integrity, and their land a perfect paradise.

On the 21st Mr Cook again sailed, and on the 1st October
came within sig'ht of Java, and on the 9th brought ujd in Batavia
Roads, where they found the Harcourt East Indiaman, and once
more enjoyed the jDleasure of communicating with their country-
men, and obtaining" news from home. As it was deemed neces-
sary to re-examine the Endeavour's bottom, preparations were
made for that purpose, Tapia and his boy Tayoeta were almost
mad with delight on viewing the display of European manners
on shore ; but sickness assailed all who resided in the city, and
the two Indians became its victims. In about six weeks there
were buried Mr Spearing, assistant to Mr Banks, JMr Parkinson,
artist, Mr Green, astronomer, the boatswain, the carpenter and
his mate, Mr Monkhouse and another midshipman, the sailmaker
and his assistant, the ship's cook, the corporal of marines, and
eleven seamen.

On the 27th December the Endeavour, being" completed, stood
out to sea, and on the 5th January 1771 anchored at Prince's
Island, but sailed ag'ain on the 15th for the Cape of Good Hope,
where they arrived on the loth March. On the 14th April Mr
Cook resumed his* voyage home, touched at St Helena (1st jMay
to 4th), made the Lizard on the 10th June, and anchored the next
_ day in the Downs, where Mr Cook left her.

The arrival of Mr Cook, and the publication of sketches of his
voyage, produced earnest desires to ascertain the full extent of
his discoveries. Unknown parts had been explored ; vast addi-
tions were made to geographical and scientific knowledge ; the
productions of various countries, together with the manners,
habits, and customs of the natives, excited universal curiosity
and deep interest; so that, when Dr Hawkesworth's account of the

11



LIFE OF CAPTAIN COOK.

vojag-e, from the papers of Mr Cook and Mr Banks, was pub-
lished, it was eag-erly bought up at a larg-e price. The astrono-
mical observations threw much information on the theory of the
heavenly bodies ; navigation had eminently proved its vast capa-
bilities : it had been in a great measure determined that no
southern continent existed, or at least that neither New Zealand
nor New South A¥ales were parts of such a continent ; and most
interesting accounts were given of the jDlaces visited and the
perils encountered.

Mr Cook was promoted to the rank of commander ; the Royal
Society honoured him with especial favour and notice ; and his
society was courted by men of talent and research, eager for in-
formation. His worthy patrons, Sir Charles Saunders and Sir
Hug-h Palliser, were gratified to find their recommendations had
been so well supported ; the Earl of Sandwich, then at the head
of the Admiralty Board, paid him considerable attention ; and
his majesty George III. treated him with more than ordinary
consideration. Captain Cook enjoyed sufficient to make him
proud ; but he was too humble in mind, too modest in disposi-
tion, and too diffident in manners, to cherish one atom of unbe-
coming self-estimation.

SECOND VOYAGE ROUND THE AVORLD.

The idea of the existence of a southern continent, or, as the
learned called it, Terra Aiistralis Incognita, had existed for more
than two centuries ; and though Cook had sailed over many
parts where it was said to be situated, without seeing land, yet
his first voyage did not altogether destroy the expectation that it
might yet befound. Besides, his discoveries in the South Seas
had whetted the public appetite for still further knowledge on
the subject. The king, well pleased with what had been done,
wished more to be accomplished ; and accordingly, two stout
ships built at Hull were purchased — the Resolution, of 462
tons, commanded by Captain Cook, with a complement of 112
persons ; and the Adventure, of 336 tons, commanded by Tobias
Furneaux, with a crew, including officers, of 81 souls. These
appointments took place on 28th November 1771, and the most
active exertions were immediately called into operation to fit
them for the undertaking. Experience had taught Captain
Cook what was most essential and requisite for such a voyage ;
not only for the comforts and preservation of his people from
scurvy, not only for commerce with the natives, but cattle and
seeds "of various kinds, and numerous thing's which philanthropy
suggested, were shipped for the purpose of spreading the advan-
tages of propagation and fertility amongst the South Sea islands;
the benefits of which have since been experienced by other
voyagers in an eminent degree. The Admiralty engaged Mr
W. Hodges as landscape painter; Mr J. li. Forster and son
were appointed to collect specimens of natural history ; and Mr

12



LIFE OF CAPTAIN COOK.

Wales in the Resolution, and Mr Bayley in the Adventure, were
sent by the Board of Longitude to superintend astronomical
observations, for which they were furnished with admirable
instruments and four excellent time-pieces.

The instructions g-iven to Captain Cook were — "To circum-
navigate the whole giobe in high southern latitudes, making-
traverses from time to time into every part of the Pacific Ocean
that had not undergone previous investigation, and to use his
best endeavours to resolve the much agitated question of the
existence of a southern continent."

On the 13th July 1772 the two vessels quitted Plymouth, and
after touching at Madeira for wine, and at the Cape de Verds for
water, crossed the line with a brisk south-west wind, and anchored
in Table Bay, Cape of Good Hope, on the 30th October. Here
Captain Cook ascertained that the French were prosecuting dis-
coveries in the South Seas, and that, about eight months before,
two French ships had sailed about forty miles along land in the
latitude of 48 deg'rees, but had been driven off by a gale of wind.
He also learned that two others had recently left the Mauritius
for a similar purpose. On the 22d November Captain Cook
took leave of Table Bay, and pursued his voyage for Cape Cir-
cumcision, but encountered very severe gales, which destroyed
much of the live stock, and the people experienced great incon-
venience from the intensity of the cold. The judicious manage-
ment of the commander, however, prevented any fatal result.
Warm clothing was given to the men ; the decks below were
kept well dried and ventilated, as well as warmed ; and an addi-
tion was made to the issue of grog. On the 10th December
they fell in with immense iceberg's, some two miles in circuit at
the edge of the water, and about sixty feet in height, over which
the sea was breaking* with tremendous violence. On the 14th
the ships were stopped by a field of low ice, to which no end
could be seen, either east, west, or south. On the 18th they
got clear of this obstruction, but continued amongst the fields
and bergs, with heavy gales of wind, till the 1st January 1773,
when it was clear enough to see the moon, which they had only
done once before since quitting the Cape. The fogs had been so
impenetrable as to obscure the heavens. Various indications
had induced a belief that land was not far distant, and Captain
Cook had as near as possible pursued a course for the supposed
Cape Circumcision. By the 17th January they had reached the
latitude of 67 degrees 15 minutes south, where they found the
ice closely packed fi'om east to west-south-west, and further pro-
gress debarred, unless by running' the hazard of getting blocked
up, as the summer in this part of the world was rapidly passing
away. The captain therefore desisted from penetrating further
to the south, and returned northerly, to look for the asserted
'recently-discovered land of the French. On the 1st February
they were in latitude 48 degrees 30 minutes south; and longitude

13



LIFE OF CAPTAIN COOK.

58 degrees 7 minutes east, wliere it was stated to have been seen ;
but nothing- of the kind presented itself to view. He traversed
this part of the ocean with similar results ; and during- a dense
fog, parted company Avith the Adventure. On the 23d they were
in latitude 61 degrees 52 minutes south, and longitude 95 degrees
2 minutes east ; the weather thick and stormy, and the ship
surrounded by drifting ice. Captain Cook therefore stood to
the north in a hard gale with a heavy sea, which broke up the
mountains of ice, and rendered them, by their numbers, still
more dangerous, especially in the long dark nights. On the 13th
and 14th March the astronomers got observations which showed
the latitude to be 58 degrees 22 minutes south, and the longitude
136 degrees 22 minutes east, whilst the watches showed the latter
to be 134 degrees 42 minutes east. Captain Cook had become
convinced he had left no continent south of him, and conse-
quently sh-aped a course for New Zealand, to refresh his men,
refit his ship, and look for the Adventure. He made the land,
and anchored in Dusky Bay on the 26th March, after having
been 117 days at sea, and traversed 3660 leagues without
seeing any land; whilst during the whole time, through the
arrang-ements and supplies of Captain Cook, scarcely a single
case of scurvy occurred. From Dusky Bay they removed to
another anchorage, where fish were plentifully caught, and the
woods abounded with wild fowl ; timber and fire-wood were
close at hand, and a fine stream of fresh water within a hundred
yards of the ship's stern. This place was named Pickersgill
Harbour, in honour of the lieutenant who discovered it. The
workmen erected tents for the forge, the carpenters, the sail-
makers, coopers, and others, and a spot was selected for an ob-
servatory. Some tolerably g-ood beer was manufactured from
the branches and leaves of a tree resembling the American black
spruce, mixed with the inspissated juice of wort and molasses.

On the 28th some of the natives visited them, and though at
first shy, a friendly intercourse was subsequently established.
Captain Cook surveyed Dusky Bay, where, in retired spots, he
planted seeds, and left several geese. They also caught a num-
ber of seals, from which they procured a supply of oil. On
the 11th May they quitted this place for Queen Charlotte's
Sound, and on the 17th it fell perfectly calm, and they had an
opportunity of seeing no less than six waterspouts, one of which
passed within fifty yards of the Resolution. The next day they
made the Sound, where the Adventure had already arrived, and
great was the joy at meeting. On the 4th June they celebrated
the birthday of George III., and a chief and his family, consist-
ing of ninety persons, were shown the gardens which had been
made, which they promised to continue in cultivation. A male
and female goat were put on shore on the east side of the Sound,
and a boar and two sows near Cannibal Cove, which it was*
hoped would not be molested.

• 14



LIFE OP CAPTAIN COOK.

On the 17tli June the ships sailed, and on the 29th July the
crew of the Adventure manifested rather alarming" symptoms of
a sickly state. The cook died, and about twenty of her best men
were incapable of duty throug-h scurvy and flux ; whilst at this
period only three men were sick in the Resolution, and but one
of these with the scurvy. The difference was attributed to the
people of the former ship not having* fed much upon celery,
scurvy - g-rass, and other greens, whilst at Queen Charlotte's
Sound. On the 1st Aug-ust they were in the supposed position
of Pitcairn's Island, laid down by Captain Carteret in 1767 ; but
as its long-itude was incorrectly stated, they did not see it, but
must have passed it about 15 leag'ues to the westward. On the
6th of Aug'ust the ships g"ot the advantag-e of the trade-winds
at south-east, being* at that time in latitude 19 degrees 36 minutes
south, and longitude 131 degrees 32 minutes west. The captain
directed his course west-north-west, passed a number of islands
and rocks, which he named the Dangerous Archipelago, and on
the 15th August came in sight of Osnaburg-h Island, or Maitea,
which had been discovered by Captain Wallis, and sail was imme-
diately made for Otaheite, which they saw the same evening.

On the 17th the ships anchored in Oaiti-piha Bay, and the
natives immediately crowded on board with fruits and roots,
which were exchanged for nails and beads ; and presents of shirts,
axes, &c. were made to several who called themselves chiefs.
Their thieving propensities, however, could not be restrained;
and some articles of value having* been stolen, CajDtain Cook
turned the whole of them out of the ship, and then fired mus-
ketry over their heads, to show them the hazard v/hich they ran.
It is worthy of remark, that though Tupia was well known to
the islanders, yet very few mquired what had become of him ;
and those who did, on being informed that he was dead, expressed
neither sorrow, suspicion, nor surprise ; but every one anxiously
asked for Mr Banks and others who had accompanied Captain
Cook in his former voyage. With respect to the Otaheitans,
considerable changes had occurred. Toutaha, the regent of the
great peninsula of that island, had been slain in battle about
five months before the Resolution's arrival, and Otoo was now
the reigning chief. Several others friendly to the Eng'lish had
fallen ; but Otoo manifested much friendship for them. A few
days subsequent to their anchoring in the bay, a marine died ;
the rest of the men, who had laboured under sickness and scor-
butic weakness, very soon recovered, through the supplies of
fresh meat and vegetables.

On the 24th the ships got under weigh, and the next evening
anchored in Matavai Bay, where the decks became excessively
crowded by natives, who had visited them the voyage previous.
On the following day Captain Cook went to Oparre to see Otoo,
whom he describes as a fine well-made m.an, six feet high, and,
about thirty years of age. He was not, however, very coura-

15



LIFE OF CAPTAIN COOK.

g-eous, for he declined accompanying- the captain on board the
Resolution, as he was " afraid of the guns." The observatory-
was fitted up, the sick were landed, as well as a guard of ma-
rines, and the natives brought hogs and fruits to barter. Some
disturbance that took place through two or three marines behav-
ing rudely to the women, caused at the time considerable alarm ;
but the men were seized and punished, and tranquillity restored.

Everything being ready for sea, on the 1st September the ships
quitted Matavai Bay, and visited the other islands. At Owharre,
the chief brought the presents he had received from Captain
Cook on the previous voyage, to show that he had treasured
them. He also behaved very generously, in sending the best
fruits and vegetables that could be procured for the captain's
table. The intercourse with the natives was proceeding very
quietly, when, on the 6th, without any provocation, a man assailed
Captain Cook with a club at the landing-place ; and Mr Sparr-
man, who had gone into the woods to botanise, w^as stripped
and beaten. The Indians expressed great contrition for this
outrage ; and the king, on being- informed of it, not only wept
aloud, but placed himself under the entire control of the English^
and went with them in search of the stolen articles. His subjects
endeavoured to prevent this, but his sister encouraged him ;
and not meeting with success, Oree insisted on being taken on
board the Resolution to remain as a hostage. He dined with.
Captain Cook, and was afterwards landed by that officer, to the
great joy of the people, who brought in hog's and fruits, and
soon filled two boats. The only thing recovered belonging to
Mr Sparrman was his hanger. The next day the ships unmoored^
and put to sea for Huaheine, where they remained a short time,
and received on board a native named Omai, who afterwards
figured much in England.

The inhabitants of the Society Islands generally manifested
great timidity ; on some occasions they ofPered human sacrifices
to a supreme being. The voyagers quitted this part of the world
on the 17th, and sailed to the westward, and gave the name of
Harvey's Island to land they discovered on the 23d. It was im
19 degrees 18 minutes south, and 158 degrees 4 minutes west..
By October 1st they reached Middleburg, and were welcomed
with loud acclamations by the natives. Barter commenced ; but
the people ashore seemed more desirous to give than to receive,
and threw into the boats whole bales of clotli, without asking or-
waiting for anything in return. After leaving some garden
seeds, and other useful things, the ships proceeded to Amsterdam,
w'here they met a similar reception ; but Captain Cook putting
a stop to the purchase of curiosities and cloth, the natives brought
off pigs, fowls, and fruits in abundance, which they exchanged
for spike nails. The island was extensively cultivated; there
appeared to be not an inch of waste ground ; and the fertility of
the soil was excellent. Captain Cook paid a visit to the head
18



LIFE OF CAPTAIN COOK.

chief, who was seated, and seemed to be in a sort of idiotic stupor^
nor did he take the slightest notice of the captain or any one
else. The inhabitants of these islands are described as being; of
good shape, regular features, brisk and lively ; particularly the
women, who were constantly merry and cheerful. Most of the
people had lost one or both of their little lingers, but no reason
could be gathered as to the cause of amputation.

The voyage was renewed on the 7th October, and on the 21st
they came in sight of New Zealand, eight or ten leagues from
Table Cape, when Captain Cook presented the chief with two boars,
two sows, four hens, two cocks, and a great variety of seeds —
wheat, peas, beans, cabbage, turnips, onions, &c., and a spike nail
about ten inches in length, Avith which latter he seemed to be
more delighted than with all the rest put together. After beat-
ing about the coast in a variety of tempestuous weather, the
Resolution anchored in Ship Cove, Queen Charlotte's Sound, on
the 3d November; but the Adventure was separated from thens
in a heavy g*ale, and was never seen or heard of during the
remainder of the voyage. In this place they made the best use
of the means they possessed to repair the damage they had sus-
tained, but, on examining the stock of bread, ascertained that
4992 pounds were totally unfit for use, and other 3000 pounds in
such a state of decay that none but persons situated as our
voyagers were could have eaten it. On inquiry after the animals
left on the island by Captain Cook, most of them were pre-
served in good condition, with the exception of two g'oats that a
native had destroyed. The articles planted in the gardens were
in a flourishing condition. To his former gifts the captain now
added many others, and placed them in such situations that they



Online LibraryWilliam ChambersChambers's miscellany of useful and entertaining tracts (Volume v.5-6) → online text (page 2 of 59)