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that the type with retroverted cusp carries serration, while the other is
of plain and blunt edges. Kramer's piece 216 6 has serration on both
edges, quite as if the retroverted cusp had been a fanciful development
upon the common talavalu club, but in all other specimens the edge
which carries the cusp is blunt and plain.

Kramer discusses the nifo'oti name. Generally, in connection with
the unilateral form, he says in discussing the theme under the designa-
tion talavalu, yet also sometimes with the bilateral form, there is
noticed on the smooth upper side a hook which serves the purpose of
dragging out from the throng an enemy who has fallen in conflict in
order to haggle his head off with the saw-teeth and the assistance of
a stone axe. Such trophy heads have played a large part in Samoan
warfare, even as recently as the war of the TanumafiU succession in
1899, when two officers of the United States Navy fell in battle and
lost their heads. This hook is provided in the new bush-knives which
the industry of the white men has supplied and has the awe-inspiring
name of nijooti or tooth of death; yet on closer examination this
resolves itself into nifo'oti or goat's horn, with which in its modern form
it has considerable likeness.

Upon the two items of the explanation of the name and the modern
steel knife I find myself under the necessity of traversing Kramer's
decision. The Samoan uses oti in the death sense only in reference to
mankind; for animals he employs mate. Nevertheless, the composite
word nifo-oti, tooth-death, would signify to the Samoan the tooth which
dies rather than the tooth which kills; it is essentially intransitive
rather than transitive, as would be requisite to carry such an implica-
tion as we see in the tooth of death. Accordingly we lay this inter-
pretation aside and adopt the shghtly variant form nifo-'oti. Kramer
interprets this as goat's horn and quite accurately as a mere matter of
linguistics. But the goat was made known to Samoa by its early mis-
sionaries, and after its first introduction acquired so scant a hold in the
islands that I can not now recall having seen in many years a single
specimen. There is reason for this in the appetite of the Samoans:
the flesh of the sheep is singularly repugnant to them; that of the goat
must be even more disgusting. Furthermore, this interpretation of
the name implies either that this type of club is very modern or, if
ancient, that it went nameless until Samoans caught a passing glimpse
of a domestic animal which they did not care to adopt into their own
domesticity. Adopting the form nifo-'oti, I find its derivation from



TYPES OF THE CLUBS. 79

the transitive verb 'oii to cut; therefore the teeth that cut, as applying
to the saw-teeth with which one edge is armed rather than to the
retroverted cusp. The use of that cusp is not exactly what is suggested
by our authority. After the head had been sawn off this spine was
hooked into the jagged tissues of the neck and the trophy was therewith
carried homeward in triumph. The modern knife, of which Kramer
presents a picture on page lo, is simply the blubber-knife of the
whalers.

Length, 27.25 inches, of which blade is 16.75 inches.

Shaft: At 7 inches, circumference 5 inches, flanging to 7.5 inches at the very



roughly whittled end, flanging again to 6.5 inches at the .^^p
blade; median angle prominent along blade, but absent in ^^^4.
rounded haft ; lower side of shaft ends toward blade in a point. Samoa



Blade: End, 6 inches high; fiat surface on upper edge, 3.5 Dr. Reginald
inches; rearward spike, 1.25 inches; upper edge smooth and ^£?^''' ^^r^^r^yy
rounded ; lower edge, serration of 1 8 teeth, each cut clear from 25, 28,V9, 30! 32!
the others with a strongly angled median line extending back ^^| ^^
to the median angle of the blade ; on lower edge of blade inter-
val between teeth 0.5 inch, teeth grading from 2 inches next haft to 3.5
inches next end.

Ornament: Filled with chunam; faces not correlated in pattern but in
arrangement; designs in 3 groups, one at each end of blade and one inter-
mediate, all on upper half of blade.

Shaft, 1 1.5 inches; circumference, 5.5 inches at haft, decreasing to 4.5 inches
next blade; lug semicircular, in plane of blade, perforated.

Blade: 18.5 inches on median line; end next shaft cut in arc i ANSP.
inch high to width of 3.5 inches on blade; maximum width at end g^^^^
of blade, 1.75 inches from median line to lower edge; 3 inches AUen Irwin,
from median line to upper edge, at a point 2.5 inches from Plate IV, 7.
median line, the inner upward curve lies i inch toward the han-
dle; no hook, but possibly broken off and trimmed over; edges round and
smoothed, no serration.

Ornament: Zigzag in transverse bands, dentelles in minor lines; faces not
correlated; chunam filling; on right face curves at both ends marked with
dentelles, on left face with zigzag.

SICKLE TYPE (ULUHELU).

Plate VIII, /. Provenience: Niue.

As has already been noted, ethnica from Niue are comparatively
rare in the museums. Here we have a single specimen of great beauty
and very typical of the art of war in Savage Island. If this type has
arisen in Niue we find no difficulty in comprehending the utility of its
distinctive form. We know that Niue fought bitterly against the
coming of any stranger whatsoever. There is but one spot in its pre-
cipitous circuit where a landing may be effected— a tortuous passage
between rocks. In such a constricted landing the defenders upon the
rocks would find themselves distinctly advantaged by a long and light
weapon with cutting edges. We recall, however, weapons of somewhat
the same character from the most remote Melanesia. In Wuvulu and



8o CLUB TYPES OF NUCLEAR POLYNESIA,

Aua of the Admiralty Islands Parkinson collected (Dreissig Jahre, 421,
figs. 3 and 4) long clubs with sharp edges, but without the curve charac-
teristic of Niue. In the Louisiades we have seen long sword-clubs
with highly specialized curved and angled heads which seem to bear a
general family resemblance to the one under present examination.

Length: End, 9 inches; conical; tip, 0.25 inch diameter; circumference at
base of cone, 4 inches, flanging to raised ring 5.5 inches circumference.

Grip: Length, 12 inches; cylindrical; circumference, 3.5 inches.

Blade : Quadrangular in section vertical to plane of flattened J^j°|4-
end; median angles continuous to tip, each face i inch wide along Pepper- Voy.
shaft; length, 39 inches, of which final 10 inches He at angle of
20° from shaft; at point of divergence each face 1.5 inches wide; thickness
1.5 inches.

Ornament: End covered with neat reticulation of double punctate lines;
grip, beginning of similar ornament; at point where grip cylinder merges into
quadrangular blade rough service of sennit to give strength where the wood
has checked in drying.

STAVES.

Platen,/- Provenience: Nuclear Polynesia.

Although all the pieces in the museum are attributed to Fiji, this
simple useful and ceremonial object occurs all through Nuclear Poly-
nesia, and no specific characters are recalled. They play a large part
in the public oratory on festive and diplomatic occasions upon the town
greens, when trained and hereditary speakers arise to address the pop-
ulace or to proffer honors or to present grievances to those who sit in
high estate. They are scarcely to be classed with the weapons of war,
yet in personal encounter they are not without their potency.

Length, 45 inches.

Circumference: At haft, 3.75 inches; at butt, 4.75 inches. p ^^^g^

Ornament: Grip, 9.5 inches; transverse straps of diamonds piji.

and triple border bands with picture of interlacing. Oldman.

Apparently Maori. Pl^t^^ ^"I' ^•
Haft, rounded; butt, domed.

Length, 38.5 inches.

Circumference: At haft, 3.5 inches; at butt, 4.5 mches. pjj|^ '

Haft, rounded; butt, domed. Voy.

Ornament: Grip, 8 inches; transverse straps of diamonds Plates VIII, c;

and triple border bands with picture of interlacing. XIII, 57.
Apparently Maori.

Length, 44.5 inches. v a a

Circumference: At haft, 4 inches; at butt, 4.5 inches. piji

Ornament: Complete ornamentation blocked out, but ciark-Oldman.
poorly and partially executed; at grip i unit fine band-and-
zigzag, 7 units band-and-zigzag much extended, all separated by straps of
double band-and-zigzag.



TYPES OF THE CLUBS. 8 1

Length, 41 inches.

Circumference: At haft, 5.5 inches, tapering to 1.25 inches at point.

Ornament; Complete ornamentation, except at end of haft.
At haft, strap of diamonds between bands; 8 inches longitu- p ,
dinal band-and-zigzag extended with i unit basketry and piji.
I in which zigzag degenerates into serration; 5.5 inches sinis- Oldman.
tral spiral of serrations and diamonds, with three interrup- PlatesII, f;X, 15.
tions of modified palm-leaf design; 5.5 inches longitudinal
band-and-zigzag interrupted by sinistral spiral of same interlaced; 5.75 inches
dextral spiral of same; 5.25 inches same; 4.25 inches same; all separated by
plain band.

Length, 59 inches. ^.?472.

Circumference: At haft, 4 inches; near tip, 3 inches. ri^*'ir OM

Ornament: Grip, 13 inches longitudinal band-and-zigzag,
ending in strap of same.

A proper conclusion of this chapter is the presentation of a few
notes which tend to evaluate the sources of the museum pieces.

CD. Voy is the collector of a large number of the specimens. From
personal acquaintance with Voy and from watching him at his work of
collection in the vSouth Sea it is possible to vouch not only for his hon-
esty in the labels, but in addition for his accuracy in running down the
least suspicion of error in attribution. It is not sufficient that a speci-
men is procured in Levuka, whether from Fijian or from white trader,
to establish it as in itself Fijian. In the modern times there has been a
great drift of such objects out of their proper surroundings. Voy has
been observed to run down a suspicious object and to continue his
quest until he was absolutely certain as to its provenience. He had
some acquaintance with the language of Tahiti; in Nuclear Polynesia
he had to rely on the services of interpreters, who prove frequently a
poor dependence ; but it was his custom when prosecuting his research
into doubtful pieces to call in the assistance of the missionaries and thus
to make sure that he was accomplishing his end. His manner with the
islanders was truly a winning one ; he was able not only to bargain for
objects in sight, but to unearth some most cherished pieces and in the
end to add them to his collection. His assignments to source are so
certain that we are almost invariably to accept them as definite. Most
of the pieces of his collection in the museum are the gift of Dr. Pepper ;
a few are found with but the simple note that thev were gathered by
Voy.

Another considerable part of the specimens is credited to Clark
through Oldman, or to Oldman alone.

K. S. Clark, the collector, is judged here by his specimens. All that
I can recall of him is that there was a collector of that name in the
Pacific later than Voy, but going over the same ground ; there is there-
fore not the same opportunity to evaluate his accuracy from personal
observation. I consider him to rank under Voy, and in several pieces



82 CLUB TYPES OF NUCLEAR POLYNESIA.

I have felt justified in correcting his attributions. This is not to be
reckoned against his honesty in collecting and in labeling; it simply
means that he was not so keen as Voy in suspicion of an object and not
so zealous in estabhshing its provenience. The objects collected by
him were procured by purchase from Oldman, the London dealer in
ethnica.

Many pieces appear without further record than that they were
bought from Oldman, the collector's name not having been handed
down with the objects. Oldman had great experience, a clear judg-
ment in the affairs of the South Sea, and was notably particular in his
deaUngs. Of course the attributions which rest solely on the word
of any dealer are of less weight than those which carry the name of the
collector; yet of the objects in this collection which are designated
solely by the name of Oldman there is an interesting group in which
an added element of rehabiUty is found. It appears from several of
the labels that at some time not definitely indicated an exhibition was
held in London of material which might serve to illustrate the work
of missionaries among the heathen by the showing of articles famihar
in the Hfe of the peoples to whom they v/ere seeking to bring the hght.
Many of these Oldman objects were contributed for display in that
exhibition ; some few were accumulated by Oldman from that collection.
In each case it is fair to assume that they passed under review of mis-
sionaries who were familiar with the several countries and that wrong
attributions would thus be corrected.

Names of collectors less frequently appearing in the museum records
are L. Myers through Oldman, Huston, Donaldson, Rust, and James
Kingsbury. In the absence of information as to these individuals it
is impracticable to e\^aluate their trustworthiness. Donaldson is
responsible for the attribution to Ysobel in the Solomons of a pandanus
club of Fijian type; Clark is responsible for the attribution to New
Guinea of a wheel-headed missile club of Fijian type. Such cases will
form the theme of the concluding chapter. James Kingsbury appears
responsible for several pieces in this and other museum groups. It
seems probable that he picked up these objects as curios in ship-
chandlers' shops on the waterside, the junk of seafaring men; therefore
it is only through accident that their records of source are accurate. In
many of his labels he seems to regard AustraHa and the South Sea Islands
as synonyms, and there occur not only Polynesian pieces assigned
to AustraHa, but even so distinctive an object of Australian culture
as the womerah, throwing-stick, erroneously credited to Polynesia.

A few of the pieces were obtained from W. H. Miller by gift. He was
in possession of a small museum of unassorted curiosities in Media, the
shire-town of Delaware County, Pennsylvania. The objects were
devoid of the names of collectors, whereby the source might be checked



TYPES OF THE CLUBS. 83

up. The attributions appear in the main to be accurate, but they are
not to be employed in the settlement of moot points of provenience.

Of three pieces in the museum of the Academy of Natural vSciences of
Philadelphia, two were collected by Dr. Reginald vSpear, United States
Navy, one by Allen Irwin. The greatest trust may be reposed in both
these collectors.

It is not now so very long that museum direction has become a sci-
ence, with its systems of record and display. Formerly a museum was a
mere collection of curiosities in cases for idle visitors to gaze upon.
Dating from that not very remote epoch, some of these specimens
carry yet the evidence that they had been varnished to look well.
Many others are in the museum merely because they came into the
museum ; no record was preserved of their source or collector. It is a
great thing that they have been preserved at all. In the present study
their provenience has been carefully examined.



»



CHAPTER III.
DIMENSIONS AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS.

We think in terms of feet and inches; some of us have acquired the
greater decimal faciUty of the meter and its parts ; but we postulate in
all the acts of our life a standard of measurement which we regard as
absolute; at least it is fixed for all of our practical purposes. But in
these studies of the artifacts of Nuclear Polynesia we are to find a
tangle of problems in establishing the units of measurement. We may
be sure that there is a certain general agreement of measurement; to
those of us who have shared the life of these primitives in culture there
may be a certain rough and ready familiarity with the principles of
metrology which obtain among folk to whom the inch and the foot and
the yard and the fathom yet function in the personal measurement, and
at the same time there is no definite standard preserved, as at Green-
wich or at Washington, but every man is a standard unto himself.

The method which we find it incumbent to pursue in dissecting out
from the dimensions of these many clubs the system of measurement
employed by the clubwrights may be arid in its earlier stages ; mere col-
umns of figures are somewhat wearisome, yet we can not proceed in
safety to the derivation of any conclusion until the data are properly
ordered for examination. We shall begin, therefore, with that first
dimension which appears almost absolute — the length of the pieces.
It is, of course, not quite accurate to speak of this dimension as abso-
lute ; it is really conditioned by the purpose of the weapon ; the missile
clubs and certain of the maces are normally short, and several of the
larger types are reproduced in smaller form for single-handed use. Yet
within the Umits of convenience of their deadly purpose this dimension
of the clubs is fairly enough to be described as absolute ; it establishes
the basic measurement, and the other dimensions of width of blade and
the Hke are functions thereof still more remotely differenced by consid-
erations of grace in the art sense and of weight in the practical sense
of utility, the latter functions being largely out of our investigation.
An element of uncertainty engages with this prime dimension of length
over all ; our comparison would be far more accurate if we could estab-
lish it upon a base of effective length, that is to say, upon the length
from the end of the shaft to the point which strikes the object. This
we are not able to determine, for there is great variety. For the billets
we may properly assume that eft'ective length equates with length over
all. Because of a specific trick of fence the same holds true of the
pandanus club, yet that dimension must be measured as approximately
the chord of an irregular arc. In the rootstock clubs it is apparent that
effective length is less than total length, yet the difference is not imme-
diately apparent and is not to be measured. In the lipped clubs we

85



86



CLUB TYPES OI? NUCLEAR POLYNESIA.



take the length along the lower curve from haft to head and disregard
the length from haft to lip, which sometimes agrees and sometimes
varies. Recognizing this element of uncertainty, we now assemble
in table 36 the length over all for the pieces which have been exhaus-
tively studied in this work. In the first column we note the length to
the nearest quarter inch ; in the second column we sum the number of
pieces for each inch and the fractions thereof; in the third we note the
pieces from which the measurements derive.

Table 36.



145

15

16

16.25

16.5

16.75

17

1725

22.5

23

2425

255

27

27.25

28

28.25

29

30

31

315

33

34

34

35

35

36

36

37

37

38

38

39

40



;z;'S.



Piece No.



3792 b

2467, 3785 a

3785, 2469, 2468, 3784 a

2462

2461 a, 2461

2466, 3188, 3786

2465, 2463, 2460, 3784

3188 a

3788 a

2495

2263

3792 a

3100 b, A 15743

A 15744

3099

3789

2497

A 14522

2280, 3100 o
3788,3177
3780

2268, 2500, 2275
2265

2281, 3791 a, 3178
3178 a

2498, 2478, 2487, 3186 c

3791 c

3359. 2492. 3787. 2270

3362

3791 b

2483, 3186 d, 3781, 3186 a

3147, 2274, 3174 a, 2474, 3186 b

2476



1— 1 -^


u


40.5


9


41




415


14


42




42.25




42.5


21


43




43-5




43-75


12


44




44-25




44-5


10


45




45-25




45-5


10


46




46-5


6


47


4


48


1


49




49-5


4


50


2


52


2


53


1


59


I



Piece No.



3792, 2279, 2283, 3792 c, 2473,

3184, 3782 a, 2489

3174, 2278, 2284, 3361, 2267,
2485, 3176

3780^,3358, 226i,3790&, 37826,

3 181, 3100
2276, 3790 a, 2266, 2269, 2264,

2257 a, 3182 a, 3144- 3184.

3176 a, 3780 d, 2486, 3179-

2475, 3180, 3182 b

3175. 2482

3172 b, 3173. 3143

2287, 3360, 2481, 3783, 2480,

2479
3099 a, 3357. 2491, 2262

2493. 3782

2273, 2285, 2271, 3145, 3183,

3185, 3791
2277

2494, 3782 c

3303 a, 3148, 3355, 3356, 2496,

3186, 1974, 2488

2499

2272

3146, 3780 c, 3780 a, 2484, 3790

2286

2259, 2291, 3187, 2252

2258

3172, 1975, 2490

2690

3172 a, 2260

2257, 3182

2256

2472



For purposes of summation I have grouped these figures by hand-
breadths. This is not wholly empirical, for I have observed in Samoa
and in Rotuma, and probably elsewhere, although my recollection of
the incident is not so clear, men measuring off a stick of timber by
successive hand-grasps. The method is still practiced by the savages
of our own culture, as will be apparent to any one who will take the
pains to observe boys in the next vacant lot clutching a baseball-bat



DIMENSIONS AND STRUCTURAIv DETAILS.



87



to determine who first shall pick his first player — an interesting per-
sistence of the primitive. This summation now appears in table 37
with a showing of the club types for each handbreadth.

This conspectus immediately declares the standard lengths of the
dift'erent types of club. The missile ula lies altogether within a single
handbreadth. The lipped clubs are standardized in the three hand-
breadths from 36 to 44 inches, and one of the pieces which lies outside
the standard is short by no more than a single inch ; the other with a
length of 23 inches is an unusual toy. The billets show a standard
length within 3 handbreadths just one unit longer — 39 to 47 inches —

Table 37.



Handbreadths.



u

■5.
d


5




3

13
>


•a

0.
a

3




S


u






Pi


3
C

•a
c
tu


i
<


a
a

H-t


Plh


l-c


a



3


c




•6
a




I

17



2
2

6

5

9

15

28

43

20

7

4



I


17


I








































18 20








































I




























I


























I
2
2

I
5
7
4

I








I
I

3

I
2
6

2




I


2


I
I














I

4
6
4


I
I
















I
I

4
8

4
3
2






^6 'kS






I

4
8

3


2

4

I


2
I


I
I

2
3

I
I






I
I
I

I


2
2
3






2






45 47
















I


































































I



































and the rootstocks have the same standard measurement; 6 of the
billets are under standard with a range of a foot; only i of the root-
stocks falls below and that by no more than a half inch ; the one billet
which exceeds standard does so by but 2 inches. The lapalapa do
not standardize so accurately; in fact, there seem to be two charac-
teristic lengths — one just under our yard, the other some 9 inches
longer. The paddle clubs correspond to the billet and the rootstock
in standard length, but while the billet falls short of its standard
more commonly than overpasses it and the rootstock has the same
character, the paddles exceed standard far more frequently than they
come short.

To comprehend these several standards for this type or for that in
the clubs, we must comprehend the system of measurement employed
by the clubwrights. Chance is rigid in the affairs of men; we may
seem to see a fortuitous collection of feet and inches in the use of men
who know not the foot or its duodecimal portion, who know not its



88



CLUB TYPES OF NUCLEAR POLYNESIA.



multiples as they have arisen out of our convenience. Yet we may
feel perfectly well assured that the clubwrights have not wholly for-
tuitously come into agreement upon 14 handbreadths as the standard
of length for their hpped clubs and upon 15 for the billets, the root-
stocks, the pandanus, the lapalapa, and the paddles. It is now incum-
bent upon us to estabhsh the system of such measure as has been found
within the power of these primitives.

Every man is his own tape-measure before the estabhshment of a
bureau of standards. Our own speech is filled with reminders of such
a primitive stage as we are to find uncorrected in the South Sea; we
have the foot, the span, the handbreadth, the fathom; the French give
us in pouce the thumb measurement of the inch, which we obtain
by duodecimal division of the foot. Less need has arisen in Poly-
nesian Hf e for units of measurement ; no need at all has arisen for corre-
lation of such units as have come into being. From the Samoan we
derive the following Hst of vocables which designate measurements:



aga

laui'a

vaefatafata



the span. ngafa

finger tip to wrist. fatulogonoa


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