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record in each case is brief; the slim vocabularies which we possess
from the languages of the region are the work of missionaries who
found Httle to interest them, probably something to disquiet them, in
the weapons which might be used in opposition to the introduction of
the new culture. So infrequent has been the attempt to describe the
clubs that it has been found advisable in this record to set by themselves
such words as are defined by our authorities merely with the words
"a club."



THE ARTS OF THE CLUB.



SAMOA.



aigotie
'ailao

'aitnamS

'anava

'ele'eleuli



fa'aagagaina
fa'alagata



fa'anunuta

fa'apou
fa'atuetue

faivaaulima

fanene

fefulitua

fenavunavua'

feta'i
la'au

lagapalo

lapalapa

lauulumafa'i

malae'ese



malofie
manene

matafatu



matamalae
nafa

nifo'oti



a clubbing match,
to brandish a club ; cud-
gel play ; club fencing,
to be severely beaten
with clubs or fists.

the club of a great war-
rior handed down as
an heirloom.

complimentary term
used of a skilled club-
fighter.

to brandish a club.

to give a blow in order
to commence a club
match.

to give a number of
blows in a club match.

a large-headed club.

to call out tue when one
falls in a club match.

blows of a club struck at
random.

to fall slowly when
struck by a club.

to turn back to back at
the beginning of a
club match.
iina to be beaten all over the
body with a club.

to fight with clubs.

generic term for clubs,
literally wood.

to fight a second time
with one's conqueror.

a coconut leaf-stalk used
as a club.

easily knocked down in
a club match.

to be fighting on the side
of the town green,
where it was not usual
to contend in club
matches.

a club match.

to fall slowly from the
blow of a club.

of one who takes a blow
without wincing, lit-
erally stone-face.

defiant gaze when going
into battle.

to appoint, as to be with
one of the opposite
party in a club match.

a flat club toothed on
one edge and bearing
a horn on the oppo-
site edge of the head
retroverted.



oli


to brandish the club in




challenge to combat.


•olo


a short knobbed club




carried by young men.


pau


a tree from which clubs




are made.


pomalae


not to know a friend, but




only to desire to win




in club matches.


sa'e


to elevate one leg, as




when falling in a club




match.


saitamu


a tree used for clubs on




Tutuila.


saulu


to cut ofT the end of a




coconut stalk for a




club.


sema


to engage with another




to be his antagonist




in a match.


si'ita


to raise the arms to




strike a blow with a




club.


sosoni


a cutting blow with a




club.


ta


to strike with a club or




any weapon.


talita


a club used as a shield to




ward off spears.


tapoto


to strike cleverly with




the club.


tasele


to strike in the belly




with a club.


tatavale


an indecisive blow with




a club.


taualuga


to raise the hands in




holding a club.


taufeta'i


to engage in a club fight.


taulalo


to lower the hands when




conquered in a club




match.


tolopa'a


to give way in a club




encounter.


to'oto'o


a staff.


toulu


to take a blow on the




head from a club.


tuulu


to cut off the end of a




coconut stalk for a




club.


ulu


the head of a club.


ulupale


the head of a club cut




out of a coconut stalk.


vaefua


to separate in a club




match without deci-




sion.


vilivili


to brandish a club.



CLUB NAMES.



fa'amauga


pautoa


tapa'e


to'oalo


fa'amo'e


povai


tapu


uatogi


mo'e


talavalu


tina'ava





lO



CLUB TYPES OF NUCLEAR POLYNESIA.



FUTUNA.



apaapai
fakakai



fakalago

fetaaki

kailao



to hold a stick horizon-
tally in both hands.

to go through the mo-
tions of striking a
blow.

to parry a blow.

to exchange club blows.

to challenge to a combat
with clubs.



kanava i laakau

malomu

saaki

ta

tokotoko

tui



TONGA.



abaabai


a coconut-stalk club.


fetaaki


akau


generic term for clubs.


fetalatagataaki


babahu


to strike each other with


hahabo




clubs.


hahau


ene


to display the club in






challenge to combat.


kolu


fakaboi


to fence with clubs.




fehaunamuaki


to fence, to practise the
use of weapons.


taene


fehokaaki


to strike with the end of
the weapon.


tokotoko




CLUB NAMES.


bakibaki


bukibuki


jikota


bovai


gaji


kata




NIUE.


akau


a weapon.


punuti


fututu


a felling-axe.




katoua


generic term for clubs.




kaupapa


to ward off a club blow


tokotoko




from the chest.


uluhelu


papa


a club.




patali


to ward off or parry
blows.


uluolu



ulupuku



FIJI.



remains of a flat club,
a small round club,
sound of a blow,
to strike,
a long stick,
a club.



a club fight.

to challenge one another,
to strike with a club,
to strike brandishing

over the head,
a club split or broken in

war.
to work the club in

challenge,
a walking-stick.



kolo
mata



a guard in fighting when
the club is held hori-
zontally over the head

a staff.

a long club curved at
one end.

a tree from which clubs
are made.

a short club used in one
hand.



mbatinisSsfe


a club.


koroi


a new name of honor


mbolembole


a challenge by brand-




given in the consecra-




ishing clubs.




tion of a man who has


mbowai


a club.




killed his enemy with a


mbure


ten clubs.




a club.


dhimbidhimbi


a club made from the


kosokoso


a club.




tree of that name


lamba


to strike a blow.




( ? Parinarium lauri-


langa


to be lifted up, of a club




num) .




ready to strike.


dhuladhula


a club.


lali i Degei


a club.


ndoko


a staff.


lake


the shaft of a club.


ndui


a club.


longga


a club.


ndulaka


to lift up the club with


manda


a club made from the




one hand in challenge.




tree of that name.


ngandro


a club that has killed


malumu


a club (cf. Futuna:




men ; it is ceremonially




malomii) .




bathed.


matalava


a club.


ngandi


a club.


meke ni wau


a club dance.


kauloa


a club, of the longer bil-


moku


to strike dead with a




let type.




club.


kiakavo


a club.


muaivi


a club.


kinikini


a broad kind of club.


nggata


a club.



THE ARTS OF THE CLUB.



II



nggunggu


a club.


timitimi


a club.


rumberumbe


a becket rove through


totokia


pandanus club (Fiji:




holes in a club for




tokia to peck).




suspension.


tumbetumbe


the grip of a club.


sambaya


to ward off a blow, gen-


tundonu


a club.




erally by holding up


tuki


to hit with a club.




the club with a hand


ula


a short missile club.




at each end.


ulaka


to throw the ula.


sakita


to challenge.


utoninokonoko


a club.


sakuta


to knock on the head.


vavanggumi


war custom of taking


sail


a club.




the club of one who


samuta


to beat with a heavy




has killed.




club or bludgeon.


waka


a club, rootstock type.


sau malumu


to cut clubs.


wau


generic term for clubs.


silikaya


a club.


wesi


a dance with a spear in


taimba


a club.




the right hand, a club


taiedha


a club.




in the left.


tatuki


wounded or beaten with


yadrayadra


weapons of one on guard




a club.


yarangi


generic terra for all weap-


tembelaka


to lift up a club.




ons, inclusive of spears


teivakatoga


a club.




and clubs.



In the foregoing record there is an abundance of terms which set
out in suggestive detail the match at cudgel play. It is easy to see in
this hst that, if clubbing matches so engaged the attention of the people
as to give rise to a special vocabulary, the use of the club for its ap-
pointed lethal end must have been improved by the amateur practice
and the discovery of operative methods of attack and defense. The
introduction of fire-arms operated largely to discourage the school of
the club ; that interesting arm lost its value in the field and was caught
in the tangle of commerce which has eventually brought it into museum
custody. Yet in the eighties of the nineteenth century, club contests
still survived in Samoa and Tonga, and in the mountains of Viti Leva
the ancient art of the club floiuished with little diminution of its
interest to the appreciative spectators and undoubtedly with much of
the old-time skill on the part of the contestants. Even to the present
day the dramatic dances of the club hand down in rhythmic show much
of the fencer's art, these being particularly interesting in Fiji, where
the meke ni wau is a most dramatic spectacle under the soft rays of
the full m,oon, and in Uvea, where a highly speciahzed art of the club
is shown in the dance. The following notes on club fencing are com-
pacted from the spectacle of club matches, from the dances of the club,
and from the vocabulary material here assembled.

The art of this weapon is conditioned by the weight of the implement
and the musculature of the fighter. Many of these weapons weigh as
high as 12 or 13 pounds. Two factors engage with this matter of
weight: part of it arises from the need of securing such strength in
the shaft as to avoid the chance of breakage in combat (Tonga: kolu),
part massed in the head in order to add to the force of impact in the
common smashing blow. In the general recension of these ethnica
the attention is immediately challenged by observing the fact that while
the Polynesians uniformly employ clubs of extremely heavy type,



12 CLUB TYPES OF NUCLEAR POLYNESIA.

there is a marked difference when we pass westward into Melanesia
and find that the clubs scarcely exceed 5 pounds at the maximum, and
even in that case the weight is not structural, but is obtained by the
addition of stone heads. This difference in club weight closely paral-
lels a corresponding somatic difference in the peoples.

One is conscious, in the study of the Nuclear Polynesian clubs, of a
certain correlation roughly subsisting between weight, length, and the
character of the wound sought to be inflicted. The wounds are some-
what sharply distinguished between contusions and incisions ; the club-
head varies correspondingly. On Plate I, clubs d, e, f, and h have
cutting-edges sufficiently sharp to deliver a wound of incision. (Samoa :
tasele; ta to strike a blow with a weapon, sele to cut, to slash; the
vocabulary definition to strike in the belly arises out of the fact that
such a blow would be most effective when appHed to the soft parts of
the body.) Club g on the same plate partakes of the form of the cut-
ting club, but is effective by reason of the points of its cusps. On
Plate II club e falls into the same class; club i has an edge, but is
properly to be classed with the impact clubs. On Plate III, clubs
j, k, I, and m are cutting clubs, with which in the case of clubs k and /
is associated another school of fence. With the exception of the two
monsters, clubs d and/ on Plate I, this type of club is thin and light in
relation to its length; in clubs ;, k, and / of Plate III it is unmistakable
that the excessive length is expressly designed to secure greater force
in the delivery of the blow with a light weapon and thus to obtain the
stunning effect which in impact clubs is accomphshed by greater weight
with a shorter shaft.

Of the clubs which are effective through contusion rather than inci-
sion, we have on Plate II excellent examples in clubs a, b, c, g, h, and i;
club d, requiring a distinct art which will be considered in the detailed
consideration of that type, is not to be classed with the impact clubs
with which superficially it might be grouped. On Plate III several
mixed types occur. Clubs h and i with cutting-edges, as in /, k,
and I, have weight by reason of the greater thickness of the head;
therefore they acquire the same effectiveness with considerably shorter
shaft; in other words, they add impact to incision. Clubs a and g,
beset with sharp points, combine in the elements of length and weight
the impact value with the tearing of the flesh which is the purpose of
the teeth, and in a sHghtly less degree the same is true of club /. In
clubs h, c, d, and e the chief value Hes in the provision for flesh lacera-
tion, and therefore the type is characterized by marked diminution in
length, to which is added in club b impact value by reason of its weight.
Yet the tiny but most effective club c with very acute teeth and the
scarcely larger club d depend for their value solely upon the punctura-
tion of the flesh which their teeth can effect and in use are subsidiary
clubs employed to give the coup de grace.



THE ARTS OF THE CLUB. 1 3

The rules of the club match hold with little change upon the stricken
field. Of course, in the general mellay blows are given and taken as
best they may, but when the champions of opposing armies have
issued the challenge Polynesian formal dignity may be relied upon to
see that the combat proceeds in order.

First comes the challenge (Samoan: oli, to brandish the club, to
wave it to and fro with the head upward, or vilivili, to advance the
weapon toward the enemy with the head slightly declined and to cause
it to rotate by striking light downward blows through a few inches
upon the left hand, which at the moment of impact is sharply dragged
over the middle of the shaft ; Futuna : kailao, to brandish in wide sweeps
of the weapon; Tonga: ene and taene, to dart the club toward the foe
in quick and short movements; Fiji: mbolembole, to smash the head
of the club heavily upon the ground of battle, and sakita, to swing the club
in long downward sweeps over the soil, as in act of brushing away
irregularities of the ground of other obstruction as having no value) ,
The challenge thus delivered is similarly accepted (Samoa: semd).
Next comes the parade at arms as the contestants stride gravely to the
clear space between their respective war parties (Samoa: matamalae,
to eye the fighting green, the look of defiance, the fighting face ; pomalae,
a still more gloomy glower, Uterally darkness upon the fighting green).
Next the seconds take their place (Samoa: nafa), each to the left
of and shghtly to the rear of his principal's opponent; their purpose is
obscure; by reason of their position they can not engage in a secondary
contest after the earUer French and Italian escrime; they can not well
participate in the principal combat, for as soon as they come within
the sphere of action they expose themselves to the end of any blow
dehvered at their respective principals.

Next follows the placing of the principals (Samoa : fefulitua) back to
back, each facing his own party to receive the salute of clubs raised in
air (Fiji: ndulaka), after which they whirl suddenly, leap back to
position, and the fight is on.

Details of the combat may readily be extracted from the vocabulary
material, but for simpHcity of statement it is better to record such art
of the game as has been observed.

With such heavy, to us extremely unwieldy, weapons the stance is
of the utmost importance, and the object of each fighter as soon as he
comes within reach of his opponent is to dig footholds, the left foot
forward, and much of the chance of success in the combat rests in the
fortune of being able to establish oneself firmly. The skilled fencer
will not leave his foothold, if satisfactory at the beginning, until his
adversary is disabled or gives ground (Samoa: tolopa'a).

Extreme simplicity characterizes the art of the club ; a blow is deliv-
ered and with luck is parried ; there is no coup de Jarnac, no boUe de
j^suite, whereby to take advantage of the contestant whose guard is



14 CLUB TYPES OF NUCLEAR POLYNESIA.

down. Accordingly we may readily consider the art of club fencing
under the successive headings of the blow, the parry, and the result.

In the play of the heavier clubs there can be but two positions from
which the stroke can be deUvered — overhead and over the right shoul-
der — and in the case of the larger edged clubs the latter alone is feasi-
ble. To deliver the stroke is expressed in Samoan and in the other
Polynesian languages of this region by the verb ta, which refers to a
stroke from above downward and outward ; in the Fijian tuki implies
the general impact of the club and lamba suggests a blow with a broad
surface. In Tongan only do we find a particular designation of the
blow as regards the point from which it is dehvered in hahau as the
stroke from over the head. The preparation for this type of stroke
is variously indicated in the several languages. The following words
denote the raising of the hands and the club to the position in which
the stroke m.ay begin: Samoa, si'ita and iaualiiga; Fiji, langa and
tembelaka. In Samoan the first blow of the contest is fa'alangata;
strokes at random are faivaduUma; a general rally of several inter-
changed blows fa'anwmtd; strokes that are ill-directed and miss the
foe are spoken of as tatavale, in contradistinction to tapoto, which signi-
fies fencing with good address and skiU. It will, of course, be under-
stood that with these heavy clubs it is necessary to use both hands.

Against these heavy blows the opposite party opposes either guard
or parry, the general term being: Samoa, talitd; Nine, patali; the
signification in each case being to receive the stroke upon the opposing
club. In several of the languages a specific term exists for the guard
against the downward cut directed upon the head: Futuna, apaapai;
Fiji, sambaya; Nine, punuti; the sense in each being to hold the club
horizontally above the head and on it in this position to receive the
blow. The shift in position is made with remarkable facility from the
stroke poise, in which the hands are already elevated ; the left hand is
diverted to the left and sharply upward, clutching the haft and drawing
the club through the relaxed right hand, which again clutches the shaft
near the head and is itself in turn sharply raised, the maintenance of
the horizontal position of the club being essential in order that the
hands may not be disabled by a glancing blow. In Nine, without
further description of manner, akau punuti and akau papa are noted as
guards of the head and chest respectively. Considerable dexterity is
manifested in evading blows by shifts of body-position (Polynesian,
kalo; Fiji, leve), either by bending away from the coming stroke or
stooping so that it may pass harmlessly over. In the club dances the
performers escape cuts at the legs by leaping in the air, but in actual
combat it is quite impossible that any such practice is resorted to,
since the importance of the stance is paramount.

The paddle clubs exhibit some advance in the science of arms. They
may be employed in cutting blows and also for the value of the thrust



THE ARTS OF THE CLUB. 1 5

(Tonga, fehokaaki, to strike with the end of the weapon) . Very con-
siderable skill is exhibited in the handling of this weapon ; by reason of
lightness the stance is less important and change of position is frequent.
In fact, it is this weapon alone which would engage any attention from
the North Devon cudgel-player; the ordinary wielder of the heavy
club would find himself soundly trounced by a man skilled in cudgel-
play or the quarter-staff and could interpose no defense to the rain of
blows. The thrust is not found in Fiji; it is a Polynesian art and
reaches its best development in Futuna and Uvea.

The vocabularies afford various pictures of the events in a club con-
test. In the Samoan matajatu (visage of rock) there is the contestant
who stands up unmoved under the blow; lauuhimaja'i (hair mussed)
is used of one who goes down easily under a blow ; fanene and manene,
to sink to the ground when the knees give way through the shock;
sa'e, to be quite capsized and throw the leg in the air in the fall. In
the Samoan, sosoni and tasele describe the cutting stroke of the edged
club, and Fiji samuta the stroke of the heaviest clubs. In the Fijian,
sakuta is to land a blow on the head ; vSamoa, toiilu to receive one there.
The tale of wounds is in the following terms : Fiji, iatuki, beaten with
clubs; Samoa, aimama, severely beaten; fenavvmavua'iina, beaten
all over, quite as the lime dressing for the hair (navu) is dusted all over
the head ; Fiji, niokn, to strike dead ; Samoa, taulalo, to lower the hands
in sign of defeat and thereby to give up the game. Last scene of all,
battle over, the victor tosses his club in air and dances as best he may;
his war party in Samoa, Ja'atuetuc, raise the triumphant shout of tiie,
with the final vowel immensely prolonged.

Quite as simple is the play of the single-handed clubs, except in one
particular, where the lighter facility of the weapon conditions some
slight change in method. With this quickly manipulated type of
weapon stance ceases to be of importance; the contest is rather of
agility than of endurance, and each fighter hits and dodges in unin-
termitting advance and retreat until the chance of a well-directed
blow gets home. Here again the competent fencer could hold himself
perfectly safe; one skilled with the cutlass would find no difficulty in
guarding every possible blow which the club-player could address.



1



CHAPTER II.

TYPES OF THE CLUBS.

Having presented the preliminary notes in the foregoing chapter,
the examination of the several pieces in the collection assembled in
groups of the particular types may follow. A beginning is made with
the simplest form, that which comes closest to the mere branch torn
from the tree, which it has been somewhat considerably, but perhaps
quite as inconsiderately, the fashion to postulate as the earliest advan-
tage which the possession of reason gave to the man-brute over the

other brute.

BILLET TYPE.

Plate II A. Provenience: Fiji, Tonga, Samoa.

The museum has no specimen definitely ascribed to Samoa, but in
Kramer's Samoa, II, 210 {d,f, h, k), 213 (78 e), and 218 c are excellent
illustrations of the type accredited to Samoa ; all in Stuttgart, except
yS e, which is in Berlin. The speech record is confirmatory: Samoa,

Table 1.



Length
(inches) .


Piece No.


Length
(inches).


Piece No.


Length
(inches) .


Piece No.


27


3100 b


39


3147


43-5


2491


31


3100 a


40.5


3147 a, 2489


43-75


2493


31-5


3177


41


2267


44


3185


33


3780


415


3780 e


45


2488, 3186


34-5


2265


42


3184. 3144,
3780 d


46


3780 c. 3780 a


37


2492


42-5


3143


49


2490



povai; Tonga, bovai; Fiji, mhowai. Though it is not requisite, I add
the support of my own observation. Specimen P3100 a appears in
the collection with no note whatever of provenience, but interroga-
tively accredited to Fiji. Inasmuch as it is of a form very familiar to
me in Samoa, carries the lug at the end of the haft, which, though not
exclusively, characterizes Samoan types, and has the ornament picked
out with chunam, which is even more distinctive of Samoan art — by
reason of the cumulation of these reasons I do not hesitate to assign
this club to Samoa and in all likelihood to Tutuila.

Until success has been attained in establishing the metrology of the
Pacific islanders, toward which this paper is in part to serve as an intro-
ductory essay, it will be necessary to tabulate measurements with
considerable minuteness. Table i groups the length over all, stated
in inches, of the 23 pieces which fall within this type.

It is not yet clear whether the differences in length are minutely
significant, yet at some point in the scale it is likely that we shall find

17



i8



CLUB TYPES OF NUCLEAR POLYNESIA.



a general division between the shorter clubs intended for use with one
hand and the great two-handed weapons. The material in hand may-
be grouped as follows: 27 inches long, i; 31 to 34.5 inches, 4; 37
inches, i; 39 to 42.5 inches, 9; 43.5 to 46 inches, 7; 49 inches, i.
Upon measurements to be derived from other series elsewhere
preserved we should expect to find the line dividing the long from the
short at 39 inches; in this group we sum 6 pieces shorter than that,
17 longer. The measurements of the hafts afford table 2.

Here three haft sizes are apparent: 3.75 inches to 4.25 inches with
5 pieces; 4.5 to 5.5 inches, 16; 7 to 7.5 inches, 2. In general, the
lesser haft corresponds with the lesser length of the weapon, yet the
haft size is governed by the grasp of the fingers. It is possible to find


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