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a distinction between the one-handed and the two-handed clubs.
Thus the smallest haft is found on a billet which by reason of its length
requires both hands to wield it. In the other direction we find but
two of the short clubs (2492 and 3100 b) which have a haft of 5 inches.
In the case of the two-handed clubs the size of haft within such limits

Tabids 2.



Length




(inches) .


Piece No.


3-75


3780 e


4


3177. 3100 a, 3147


4 25


2265


4-5


3780 c


4-75


3184, 3144


5


3147 a, 2267. 2492, 3186




3100 b, 3780 d, 3780, 3780 a


5 25


3143, 2493


5 -5


3185, 2491, 2490


7


2488


7-5


2489



as are here observed counts for nothing, for the employment of both
hands establishes a firm hold on any dimension which it might be in
other respects convenient to employ. When the security of the club
in the swinging and still more in the shock of impact depends upon the
clutch of a single hand, the extent is distinctly limited by the distance
at which the thumb may be apart from the opposing lingers and yet
exert an effective clutch.

Not limited by the physics of the fingers, the measurements of the
butt are conditioned by two factors which we may not wholly dis-
tinguish, yet which will be recognized as effective. One factor is the
adjustment of the weight essential to the impact force of the weapon
at such a point as to bring the center of gravity effectively far from the
grip, the other is to adjust this physical constant to the cosmetic
instinct of producing not only an effective club, but a handsome one.



TYPES OF THE CLUBS.



19



These two elements are presented for record in table 3, not only the
butt measurement, but the difference in circumference between the
butt and the haft being given.

Table 3.







Difference






Difference






Difference


Piece


Girth
of butt


between
butt and


Piece

No.


Girth
of butt


between
butt and


Piece
No.


Girth
of butt


between
butt and


No.


(inches) .


haft


(inches.)


haft


(inches).


haft






(inches) .






(inches).






(inches) .


3184


7 25


2.5


2491


6.5


1-5


3147


5


I


3147 a


7 25


2 .25


2488


8


I


3780 c


5-5


I


2267


9


4


2490


7


1-5


3780 d


6.5


I


3144


6


I 25


2489


8. .5


I


3780 e


6.25


2.5


2265


725


3


3186


7


2


2493


6.75


1.5


3177


5


I


3143


10


4-75


3780


6.5


15


2492


6.5


1-5


3100 b


6


I


3780 a


5 25


0.25


3185


10


4-5


3100 a


5


r









A part of these records is rearranged in table 4, so far as relates to
the circumference of the butt.



Table 4.



Girth of




Girth of




butt


Piece No.


butt


Piece No.


(inches) .




(inches) .




5


3177, 3100 a, 3147


7


2490, 3186


5 25


3780 a


7-25


3184, 3147 a, 2265


5-5


3780 c


8


2488


6


3144, 3100 b


8.5


2489


6.25


3780 e


9


2267


6.5


2492, 2491, 3780 d, 3780


ID


3185. 3143


6.75


2493







Here we find 5 clubs having a butt circumference of 5 inches and its
fractions, 8 in the sixth inch and its fractions, 5 for the seventh inch,
2 for the eighth, i for the ninth, and 2 at 10 inches. This fixes the
average in the sixth inch.

Table 5.



Difference
between




Difference
between




girth of
butt and

haft
(inches) .


Piece No.


girth of
butt and

haft
(inches) .


Piece No.


0.25

I


3780 a

3177, 2491, 2488, 2489, 3100 b,
3100 a, 3147. 3780 c, 3780 d


2.25

2-5

3


3147 a
3184. 3780 c
2265


1.25
1.5

2


3144

2492, 2490, 2493, 3780

3186


4

45

4-75


2267
3185
3143



20 CLUB TYPES OF NUCLEAR POLYNESIA.

The difference between the circumference of the butt and of the haft,
which is to be understood in an additive sense in reference to haft
measurement, should be instructive in regard of the general shape of
this type of club. These figures are given in table 5.

From table 5 it appears that 14 pieces show an increase of between
I and 2 inches, 4 of between 2 and 3 inches, i of 3 inches, 3 of between
4 and 5 inches. The single piece (3780 a) which exhibits the negli-
gible difference of a quarter inch might quite as properly be classed
with the staves.

The end of the haft offers several interesting points. The first
which strikes the eye is the presence of a flange ; this may be seen in
Plate III m upon a club of another type. A flange is understood to
be an enlargement of the extreme end of the haft on the proximal side
of the grip, a sudden swelling within approximately the last inch.
When the smallest diameter of the haft is at some distance from the
end and the increase is gentle it has seemed better to describe it as a
flare rather than as a flange, as has been done in P 3186. The flange
is found in 7 clubs of this group— 3184, 3147 a, 2267, 3144, 3185,
3186, and 3143.

The second point to be noted of the haft end is the shape, three
forms being distinctly observed. The form which exhibits the least
artifice is where the end of the haft is merely cut square across the
shaft, found in 2265, 3177, 2492, 3147, 3780 d, and 3780 e. A specific
variety in this form is distinguished by a shallow cupping of the end,
as in 3184, 3144, 3185, 3186, 3143, 2491, 2488, 2489, and 2490. Some
relation appears to subsist with reference to the element of flanging ;
all but two of the flanged clubs have the cupping, while only 3 out of
15 unflanged clubs possess this detail and 2 of these are cupped in a
most unusual form. A further relation has to do with the other end
of the club, for of the cupped clubs but i (3184) is associated with the
square-cut butt, while the remaining 6 show the domed butt.

The third point noted of the haft end is the perforation. Two
devices are found for the formation of the orifice through which may
be passed the becket of sennit for the suspension of the weapon at
home. The simplest form is a hole drilled diagonally from the head
near the edge to the haft near the head, and in this collection are
several cases in which the remaining septum of wood has worn through,
destroying the usefulness of this type of perforation. A variety of
the diagonal perforation showing one orifice on the head and two on
the haft will present itself for consideration in a group later to come
under examination. Somewhat more of artistry characterizes the
second form of perforation. This is found on the end without any
holing of the haft, two perforations drilled at such an angle as to meet,
in some cases forming a distinct angle beneath the surface, in others
ounded by the use of a file made of a strip of the skin of the ray. The



TYPES OF THE CLUBS. 21

drilling is effected by the use of the pump-drill (vili, the whole instru-
ment in Samoan ; vilipd, the driUing-point of a stone flake or tip of
shark-tooth) . These two forms appear in these records as the diagonal
and V perforation. Each form is found twice among the billet clubs,
once each in the cupped and flanged pieces, once each in the unflanged
and uncupped. These specimens are respectively, V-perf oration, 3184
and 3780 J; diagonal, 3144 and 3780 ^.

A fourth point noted of the haft end is the lug used for suspension.
This consists of a portion of the end carved into one of several forms
and either pierced or imperforate, in the latter case serving as a peg
upon which to wrap the sennit becket. This lug is commonly of a
thickness of an eighth to a quarter of an inch; it may occupy but a
small part of the center of the head, or it may extend from edge to
edge; it may lie in the plane of the blade or vertical thereto, the latter
mark not being discernible in the billet type, owing to the absence of a
blade. The lugs in the billet group are three; 3147 a and 3100 a have
five-sided lugs upon domed ends of haft, 31006 an inverted cone
imperforate upon a dome.

The section of the shaft is generally circular, and this applies, with a
few interesting exceptions, to all of the clubs. Two of the billets,
3184 and 2488, exhibit a well-molded ovoid section.

The butts are either cut square or more or less domed. Of the
square-cut we note 3184 accompanying a cupped haft and flange,
3147 and 37806" accompanying a square-cut and unflanged haft. Of
the domed butts we note 2265, 3177, 2492, and 3780 £» accompanying
a square-cut and unflanged haft; 3147 a and 2267 accompanying a
domed and flanged haft; 3100a, 31006, 3780c, 3780, and 3780a
accompanying a domed and unflanged haft; 3144, 3185, 3186, and
3143 accompanying flanged and cupped haft; 2491, 2489, 2488, and
2490 accompanying an unflanged and cupped haft.

In the following notes is a detailed record of the close inspection of
the several pieces. The numerical order of accession has no perti-
nence, except for purposes of identification and preser\'ation of the
classificatory notes; the order of presentation represents the order of
superficial resemblances of the pieces when laid out for comprehensive
view.

Shaft: Length, 42 inches; circumference, haft 4.75 inches, flanging to
6.75 inches, butt 7.25 inches; ovoid section at haft, major axis 2.67 inches,
minor axis 1.67 inches; ends, haft deeply cupped, V-perf oration,
butt cut square. p. .3 ^^4-

Ornament: Band-and-zigzag throughout; on flange of haft 4 o^dinan.
transverse straps; remainder longitudinal bands with 2 single and
I double strap at 2.5 and 5.5 inches and at end of ornament; ties of pandanus
leaf.



22 CLUB TYPES OF NUCLEAR POLYNESIA.

Shaft: Length, 40.5 inches; circumference, haft 5 inches, flanging to 6
inches, butt 7.25 inches; ends, haft shghtly domed, lug pentagonal, per-
forated, butt highly domed.

Ornament : 2 units, (i) 24 inches transverse band-and-zigzag, P.3i47 a-
(11) 1 6 inches longitudinal band-and-zigzag, second unit marked oilman
by straps of basketry at ends and middle. These bands piate xill, 58;
slightly differ ; that nearest haft shows 3 transverse elements XIV, 60, 61 ; XVI,
bordered by zigzag and highly marked band 0.25 inch wide; 13I) 13^; XVII,
central strap 4 transverse elements ; strap nearest butt 5 trans- ■'33> i34> i35. i37-
verse elements, these bordered by plain zigzag. Haft end : Beginning i inch
from end at point where flange ceases, sinistral spiral zigzag bordered by
distinct bands of 4 complete turns in 1 7 inches to transverse strap of 2 broad
zigzags; beginning at this strap same spiral continues for a half turn in 3
inches to a similar strap, and this is paralleled by a similar spiral diametri-
cally opposite ; above second strap 2 dextral spirals making a half turn in 3
inches and not articulating with former spirals. All of these spirals show
leaves attached right and left at intervals of about 4 inches, which suggest
application of a vine. Longitudinal stripes consisting of single diagonal with
strongly marked outer bands recur at irregular intervals. The haft unit of
decoration is crowded with human and animal figures which interrupt the
conventional designs. The two animal figures are clearly turtles. Of the
human figures, 2 are grouped, 5 appear independently; all are drawn with their
feet toward the haft of the club, except in a single instance; in every case the
arms are represented extended from the body at the elbows.

Shaft: Length, 41 inches; circumference, haft 5 inches, flanging to 5.5
inches, butt 9 inches; ends, haft slightly domed, butt highly domed.

Ornament: 7 units, (i) in 1.5 inches transverse strap of 3 band-
and-zigzag at haft; (11) in 8.25 inches longitudinal band-and-zigzag; S ^^"7'
(hi) as unit (i) , 12 stripes in 5 inches ; (iv) sinistral spiral of same in oidman.
8 elements 3 inches wide making 3 turns in 13 inches, this alternating
with 2 inches wide similar spiral; (v) as unit (in), 4.75 inches, 10 stripes; (vi) 2
panels 1.5 inches wide sinistral band-and-zigzag, i panel dextral of the same,
separated by 3 bands 0.75 inch wide of same longitudinal in 3 elements;
(vii) as unit (i) extended over dome and showing little trace of wear.

Shaft: Length, 42 inches; circumference, haft 4.75 inches, flanging to 5.25
inches, butt 6 inches; ends, haft cupped, transverse perforation, butt domed.

Ornament: Applied in a dextral spiral 2.5 inches wide
making 18 turns and carried out upon the dome at butt. De- P 3i44-
sign: Beginning at a longitudinal stripe of 2 band-and-zigzag Ju^^7)
a I -inch panel divided transversely by a single band-and-zig- oidman.
zag into trapezoids, of which one is filled with sinistral diago- Plate X, 12.
nal band-and-zigzag, the other the same element longitudi-
nally. This pattern repeated four times, then succeeded by a unit of same
element sinistral diagonal, this by an equal unit dextral diagonal of the same,
the two separated by a single band.

Shaft: Length, 34.5 inches; circumference, haft 4.25 inches, butt 7.25
inches; ends, haft cut square, butt domed.

Ornament : vSpiral stripes of band-and-zigzag set in alter- p 2265.
nating panels dextral and sinistral through full circumfer- Tonga,
ence of club ; these panels crossed longitudinally by 2 diamet- Oidman.
rically opposite stripes of 3 band units, the whole crossed PlateIX,8; X, n.
spirally by 2 sets of 3 band units dextral and sinistral respec-
tively, making 6 complete turns in haft ornament, which extends 12.5 inches,



TYPES OF THE CLUBS. 23

and 5 turns in butt ornament, which extends for 1 2 inches ; the middle space of
9.5 inches corresponding to right-hand grip filled by 2 members longitudinal
band-and-zigzag ; this unit of the design is set off by 3 straps, initial, medial,
and final, of 3 band elements ; in this subdivision the element nearer haft has
zigzag with band and is further distinguished by a panel i inch square of 3
elements of band-and-zigzag set transversely; element nearer butt has zigzag
without bands. A knothole in one of the grip-ornament elements could have
been discovered only after the labor of shaping the club — evidence that even a
shaped bit of iron wood would be very highly regarded.

Shaft: Length, 31.5 inches; circumference, haft 4 inches, butt 5 inches;
ends, haft cut square, butt slightly domed.

Ornament: 26 panels, each about i inch long, divided by P 3i77-
straps of band-and-zigzag after fourth, tenth, sixteenth, and n?""^?^
twenty-first panels; each panel consists of longitudinal and oidman.
transverse band-and-zigzag elements; in each panel the 3 Plate IX, 9,
longitudinal stripes toward haft end commonly consist of 2
groups of 3 zigzag bands and i of 2 of the same ; at butt end 3 bands in each
group ; in each panel one unit consists of 4 band-and-zigzag diagonally and two
transverse; each of the latter has one element, that nearer haft, suggesting
basketry and consisting of 2 units of 3 or 4 transverse bands separated by 2
longitudinal ; the butt seems to have been treated throughout with stripes of
band-and-zigzag which are apparent throughout, except upon worn summit of
dome.

Shaft: Length, 37 inches; circumference, haft 5 inches, butt 6.5 inches;
ends, haft cut square, butt lightly domed.

Ornament : 8 inches at haft clumsily executed ; 4 transverse P 2492.
straps each with 4 rows of squared knobs; i strap of uncer- ^i^**, q,^
tain design; 3 straps each carrying 4 lines of transverse zig-
zag.

Shaft: Length, 44 inches; circumference, haft 5.5 inches, flanging to 8 inches,
butt ID inches; ends, haft cupped, butt highly domed.

Ornament: In grip of 13 inches; on flange band-and-zigzag P. 3185.
in 10 panels ; 3 straps of same ; 5-inch unit, longitudinal broken ^y^*
line, panel of transverse band-and-zigzag, i longitudinal band- piate n*a- IX 5.
and-zigzag, panel of transverse same, i longitudinal broken
line, panel transverse band-and-zigzag; 6 longitudinal same; 2 panels trans-
verse same; 3 straps same; 8 panels same; 3 straps same.

Shaft: Length, 43.5 inches; circumference, haft 5.5 inches, P. 2491-
butt 6.5 inches; ends, haft slightly cupped, butt slightly ^^\ „
domed. ^^**^ ^' ''^•

Ornament: Grip of 9.5 inches in crude suggestion of coconut-leaf basketry.

Shaft: Length, 45 inches; circumference, haft 7 inches, butt 8 inches; ends,
oval section, at haft major axis 2.25 inches and minor 2 inches, end of haft
has carefully cut depression 0.12 inch deep surrounded by rim
0.12 inch thick, butt domed. ^.?.488.

Ornament: On grip of 8.5 inches a panel of longitudinal ciark-Oldman.
band-and-zigzag finished at outer end by strap of same, un-
finished next shaft.



24 CLUB TYPES OF NUCLEAR POLYNESIA.

Shaft: Length, 49 inches; circumference, haft 5.5 inches, butt 7 inches;
ends, butt domed, haft shallow circular depression i inch diameter, sur-
rounded by incised design in 3 parts separated by radial inci-
sions. Each unit of design consists of 3 concentric arcs pj^j"^^"'
closed at each end by radial line, outside closed design an clark-Oldman.
additional concentric arc ; depth and position of depressed Plate XIII, 46.
circle suggests applied ornament as in P 3147.

Ornament: Grip covered with a service of 3 -part sennit alternately brown
and black.

Shaft: Length, 40.5 inches; circumference, haft 7.5 inches, P 2489.
tapering to 6.5 inches at 4 inches, butt 8.5 inches; ends, haft ciark-Oldman
lightly cupped, butt lightly domed.

Ornament: Grip covered with ties of pandanus leaf.

Shaft: Length, 45 inches; circumference, haft 5 inches, P.3186.
flaring to 6.25 inches, butt 7 inches; ends, haft cupped, butt ^J^^ Miller gift
lightly domed.

Ornament: None.

Shaft: Length, 42.5 inches; circumference, haft 5.25 inches, P 3143-
flaring to 7 inches, butt 10 inches; ends, haft lightly cupped, butt Tonga,
highly domed.

Ornament: Slight radial incisions on flange; surface strongly marked by
traces of applied design.

Shaft: Length, 27 inches; circumference, haft 5 inches, butt 6 inches; ends,
haft lightly domed with lug inverted cone 0.25 inch high unperf orated, butt
highly domed.

Ornament: 3 straps i inch wide at 7, 16, and 24.5 inches of ^..3^°° ''•
same type as P 3100 a, except 4 panels left blank in center of piate XI, 31.
design at equal intervals; 3 straps at 3, 12, and 21 inches con-
sisting of narrow band slightly incised carrying design of 3 triangular notches
set in form of triangle.

Shaft : Length, 3 1 inches ; circumference, haft 4 inches, butt 5 inches ; ends,
haft slightly domed with pentagonal narrow pierced lug, butt domed.

Ornament: Strap i inch wide at haft, 0.5 inch wide at 6.5 p ^^^ ^
inches, i inch wide at 13, 19, and 24.5 inches and at butt; pijj cf.Kramer,
pattern double diamond with band and notched border, Samoa, band H,
notches filled with chunam ; band at haft 2 zigzag straps in- bild- 74 h, Po^^.
closing strap of longitudinal lines interrupted by 3 panels ^*^^- ' '
left blank. Lug 0.5 inch wide, 0.25 inch thick, 0.5 inch high, ' ^ '

irregularly 5-sided. Some natural imperfections left in wood.

Shaft: Length, 39 inches; circumference, haft 4 inches, butt 5 inches; ends,
cut square, in haft inlaid star of 1 1 points of cachalot ivory.

Ornament : Longitudinal band-and-zigzag, degenerating in many pj?j^'*'^'
places to series of parallel lines instead of zigzag; marked off in oidinan.
panels by transverse twin straps band-and-zigzag at 5, 9, 18, 25, 30,
and 35 inches, except that band at 5 inches is plain zigzag without band;
panels 3 and 4 marked by sinistral spiral of plain zigzag making 7}^ turns.

Shaft : Length, 46 inches ; circumference, haft 4.5 inches, butt 5.5 3780 c.
inches; ends, haft lightly cupped, butt lightly domed. *^*^**

Ornament: None.



TYPES OF THE CIvUBS. 25

Shaft : Length, 42 inches ; circumference, haft 5 inches, butt 3780 d.
6.5 inches; ends, haft square cut, V-perf oration, 3-part sennit Qark-Oldman
becket, butt lightly domed.

Ornament: Grip of 10 inches longitudinal band-and-zigzag, with straps of
same at each end.

Shaft: Length, 41.5 inches; circumference, haft 3.75 inches, butt 6.25
inches; ends, haft cut square, diagonal perforation, butt cut
square. ^.-^ ®'

Ornament: Transverse straps of zigzag at intervals of 2.5 ciark-Oldman.
and 3 inches, spiral zigzag in panel 7, coconut-leaf design in
panel 12, coarse mat design in second panel from butt.

Shaft: Length, 43.75 inches; circumference, haft 5.25 inches, butt 6.75
inches; ends, haft cut square, butt slightly cupped.

Ornament: Entirely band-and-zigzag; grip of 9.5 inches pj:^j'^^^'
longitudinal stripes, of which one is zigzag without band, one ciark-Oldman.
band without zigzag; alternating panels of longitudinal and
transverse elements.



Shaft: Length, 33 inches; circumference, haft 5 inches 3780.
tapering to 6 inches, butt 6.5 inches ; ends, haft lightly domed, Fiji- _.
butt highly domed. l,J^«^ ^^s-

Ornament: Grip, 5.25 inches coarse band-and-zigzag longi-
tudinal and transverse.

Shaft : Length, 46 inches ; circumference, haft 5 inches, butt 5.25
inches; ends, haft lightly domed, butt lightly domed. Fiji ^'

Ornament: Grip, 9.25 inches longitudinal band-and-zigzag, end- Rust.
ing in strap of same; at haft end 1.25 inches service of sennitt.

ROOTSTOCK TYPE.

Plate II, b, c. Provenience: Fiji, Tonga.

The same simplicity of interpretation of the source as characterizes
the billet clubs is manifest on inspection of the 16 pieces here grouped.
In the former class we find the convenient branch reduced to a seemly
shape. Here we have the convenient sapling wrested from the soil
when need of assault arises. The humus of these islands of recent
vulcanism is found most substantially in depressions of the rock and is
frequently mixed with rock fragments. The growing sapling throws
out its roots in every direction immediately below the surface and thus
secures immediate support and sustenance, while the tap-root is push-
ing downward through the humus-bed and possibly into interstices of
the underlying rock-stratum. Conditioned by the same factor of ter-
rain, certain trees spread at the surface of the ground into flanges
around the stem and at maturity are surrounded by radiant buttresses
many feet in extent around the base — enormous natural planks. This
tendency is manifest early in the growth of the tree. These two
forms are present in these clubs. Plate V 4 exhibits the type of imme-
diate root-growth, 5 and 6 the flanges of the stem. In 4 the roots have
been trimmed so as more effectively to add to the weapon value of the



26



CLUB TYPES OF NUCLEAR POLYNESIA.



club, and even the finger- thick rootlets shown in the picture are quite
as effective as the larger roots, for the density of the wood of the
Casuarina is extreme. In the same plate, figure 3 exhibits somewhat
more of the perception of the possibility of utilizing the natural form
of the rootstock in the shaping of a head. In the specimens we see the
recognition of the tap-root as distinctly a part of the design, as also
in figures 5 and 6. In figure 2, however, the tap-root motive has dis-
appeared entirely; despite this loss it is most clear that the domed
head with its regularly cut bosses is a conventionalizing of the treat-
ment of the head which meets the eye in figure 3. The club illustrated
in figure i is grouped here for convenience, and a recension of a greater
number of pieces in other museum possession may suggest a new

Table 6.



Length




Length




over all


Piece No.


over all


Piece No.


(inches) .




(inches) .




38.5


2483


43


2481, 3783, 2480, 2479


40.5


3782 a


43 • 75


3782


41


2485


44-5


3782 c


415


3782 b, 3100


45


1974. 3303 a


42.25


3175, 2482


46


2484



source. In figure 2 there is a dome somewhat more than hemispher-
ical, studded with bosses regularly spaced, the dome rather sharply
marked off from the swelhng of the shaft by a plane space with a little
suggestion of guttering. In figure i is found a plain dome considerably
less than a hemisphere; the single row of extremely formal bosses is not
upon the dome at all, but rather on the swelUng of the shaft ; the inter-
spaces between the bosses show no suggestion of sharp demarcation
between shaft swelling and head dome. Noting these diversities, this
piece is admitted to the classification only temporarily.

The record of the measurements of these pieces, beginning with the
length over all, is found in table 6.

In comparison of the similar measurements of the billet type of club
a slight adjustment is needed. Among the billets are 6 pieces less than
37 inches long. The rootstocks exhibit none of the short clubs; there-
fore we compare with the longer billets, 17 in number, and this is suffi-


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Online LibraryWilliam ChurchillClub types of nuclear Polynesia → online text (page 3 of 21)