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wright.

TabIvE 16.





Girth


Girth




Girth


Girth


Piece No.


of head


of ring


Piece No.


of head


of ring




(inches).


(inches).




(inches).


(inches) .


3784


135


6.5


2462


12


6


3786


14-5


7-5


2461 a


9-5


6.75


2465


II


4


2466


ID


6


2460


16.25


7


3188 a


15


7-5


2463


14-25


7.5


2461


14


9


3784 a


13


6.5


3188


12-5


6.75



Length, 16 inches, of which shaft is 12.5 inches.

Head: Ball, circumference 12.5 inches; saucered at shaft; surface irreg-
ular, owing to defects in wood.

Haft : 3.25 inches circumference ; cupped ; remains of trans-
verse perforation.

Ornament: On grip, 3.25 inches longitudinal band-and-
zigzag.

Length, 15 inches, of which shaft is 12 inches.

Head: Ball, circumference 10 inches; saucered at shaft;
irregular surface, partly through defects in wood and partly ^ ^467
through use.

Haft: Circumference, 2.75 inches; cupped.

Ornament: Grip, 5 inches longitudinal band-and-zigzag.



P 2468.
Fiji.

Clark-Oldman.
Plate I c, V, 12.



Fiji.
Clark-Oldman.



Length, 16 inches, of which shaft is 13 inches.

Head: Ball, circumference 11.25 inches; saucered at shaft

Haft: Circumference, 3 inches.

Ornament : Turk's head of 8 parts of sennit applied at middle of haft



P 2469.

Fiji

Clark-Oldman.



3785 a.
Fiji.



Length, 15 inches, of which shaft is 12 inches.

Head : Ball, circumference 1 1 inches; finish interrupted by imper-
fections of the wood; saucered at shaft.

Haft: Circumference, 3 inches; end cupped; perforated transversely from
one hole at end to two on side.

Ornament: Grip, 5.25 inches longitudinal band-and-zigzag.



TYPES OF THE CIvUBS. 37

Length, i6 inches, of which shaft is 12 inches.
Head: Ball, circumference 12 inches; smooth finish; saucered at
shaft. ^]p-

Haft: Circumference, 3 inches; cupped; transverse perforation.
Ornament: Grip, 5.75 inches longitudinal band-and-zigzag.

Length, 17 inches, of which shaft is 13 inches.

Head: Wheel of 7 spokes, 13.5 inches circumference; cir- 3784-
cumference of ring and knob at end, 6.5 inches. yji;

Haft: Circumference, 3.75 inches flanging to 4 inches; end pi/t'e V, 8.
slightly depressed; transverse perforation.

Ornament: Grip, 5.75 inches longitudinal band-and-zizag; one human molar
inlaid in outer end of one spoke ; small human tooth inlaid in final knob.

Length: Haft, 13.5 inches; head, 2.5 inches; ring and knob, 0.75 inch.

Head: Circumference, 14.5 inches; diameter of ring, 2.5 inches; diameter
of knob, 1.75 inches. 3786.

Haft: Circumference, 3.25 inches, flanging to 4.5 inches; at Fiji,
head, 5.5 inches; end pierced transversely, and there is the Pepper-Voy.
beginning of a second lateral orifice.

Ornament: Grip, 5.75 inches longitudinal band-and-zigzag, with single
strap of the same at end and two straps of the same next shaft ; shaft above
grip treated in dextral spiral of coarse dots making three turns to near head,
then I inch longitudinally onward, thence returning in sinistral spiral to near
grip; lobes of head show^ traces top and bottom of treatment as in P 3188 a.

Length, 17 inches, of which shaft is 14 inches.

Head: Wheel of 6 spokes; circumference, 11 inches; circumference of knob
and ring, 4 inches.

Haft: Circumference, 2.75 inches; section circular for 10 P.2465.
inches, at which point it becomes hexagonal to a perimeter at ciark-Oldman
head of 4.5 inches, the flat hexagonal surfaces alternating with pi^te VIII, e. '
spokes of head.

Original MSS. label: "Club, New Guinea, S. H. J., 1890."

Length, 17 inches, of which shaft is 13 inches.

Head: Wheel of 12 spokes; circumference, 16.25 inches; circumference of
ring and knob, 7 inches.

Haft : Circumference, 3.5 inches ; end deeply cupped ; trans- pj?j'*
verse perforation. Clark-Oldman.

Ornament: Grip, 6 inches longitudinal band-and-zigzag.

Length, 17 inches, of which shaft is 13 inches.

Head: Wheel of 10 spokes; circumference, 14.25 inches; circumference of
ring and knob, 7.5 inches.

Haft: Circumference, 3 inches, flanging to 3.5 inches; end P?463-
cupped; two transverse perforations, of which one is broken ciark-Oldman.
through. Plate I, a; V, 10.

Ornament: Grip, 5.5 inches band-and-zigzag, poorly exe-
cuted; two longitudinal Hues of punctuation, which encircle shaft near head.

Length, 16 inches, of which shaft is 13 inches.

Head: Wheel of 9 spokes; circumference, 13 inches; circumference of ring
and knob, 6.5 inches; saucered.

Haft: Circumference, 3.5 inches; deeply cupped. ^f'^ *•

Ornament : Grip, 6 inches ; two panels of strongly extended band- voy.
and-zigzag; shaft punctuate next head.



38 CLUB TYPES OF NUCLEAR POLYNESL'^.

Length: Haft, 12.75 inches; head, 2.5 inches; ring and knob, i inch.

Head: Circumference, 12 inches; diameter of ring, 2 inches, of knob, 0.75
inch; subdivision of flanges as in P 3188 c. pa

Haft: Circumference, 2.75 inches, flanging to 3.5 inches; at pj^ ^*
head, 5.5 inches, swelling to plate with diameter of 2.75 inches. ciark-Oldman.

Ornament: None.

Club undoubtedly modern, as shown by marks of steel blade.

Length: Haft, 13.5 inches; head, 2 inches; ring and knob, i inch.

Head: Circumference, 9.5 inches; diameter of ring, 2.25 inches, of knob
2 inches.

Haft: Circumference, 2.75 inches; at head, 4 inches; p-ij ^ **
swells to plate next head with diameter of 2.25 inches; end ciark-Oldman.
slightly domed ; pierced diametrically i inch from end, prob-
ably modern addition.

Ornament: Grip, 5.5 inches longitudinal band-and-zigzag, ending in strap
of the same in 3 units.

Length: Haft, 13 inches; head, 2.5 inches; ring and knob, 1.25 inches.

Head: Section roughly oval; circumference, 10 inches; diameter of ring,
2 inches, of knob 1.75 inches.

Haft: Circumference, 3 inches, flanging to 3.5 inches, at pjji'*
head 3.5 inches; cupped; three transverse perforations, each ciark-Oldman.
broken through.

Ornament: Grip, 5.7 inches longitudinal band-and-zigzag, ending one
strap of same.

Length: Haft, 14 inches; head, 2.25 inches; ring and knob, i inch.

Head: Circumference, 15 inches; diameter of ring, 2.5 inches, of knob,
2 inches.

Haft: Circumference, 3.75 inches, flanging to 4 inches, at pj^^^ **
head 5.25 inches, swelling into first unit of head; cupped. piitel b-VIII c.

Ornament: Grip, 6 inches longitudinal band-and-zigzag,
ending in strap of double-line pecked ornament; lobes of head scored by two
longitudinal lines into triple segments, of similar treatment with P 2462.

Very handsome specimen.

Length: Haft, 13 inches; head, 2.25 inches; ring and knob, 1.25 inches.

Head: Circumference, 14 inches; diameter of ring, 3 inches; of knob, 2.5
inches.

Haft: Circumference, 3.12 inches, swelling to head, 5 p-.^^oi.
inches; cupped. Ciark-Oldman.

Ornament: Grip, 5 inches longitudinal band-and-zigzag,
ending in single strap, shaft above grip punctate with dextral spiral of dots
evenly spaced through five turns.

Length: Haft, 14 inches; head, 1.75 inches; knob, i inch.

Head: Circumference, 12.5 inches; diameter of ring, 2.25
inches; of knob, 1.75 inches. ^.3i^^-

Haft: Swelling to head, circumference 3.25 inches, flanging I^J^^ Miller eift
to 3.5 inches; at head, 5.25 inches; cupped. Plate V, 7.

Ornament: Grip, 5.25 inches of coarse band-and-zigzag,
much worn.



TYPES OF THE CLUBS. 39

PANDANUS TYPE (TOTOKIA).

Plates 11, d; VI, d, e, f. Provenience: Fiji.

Thus far the study has been addressed upon club types for the most
part worked out from the saphng and the roots nearest to its base. In
the next three types there is a group of clubs marked by a curve more
or less sharp. Personal observation confirms in this case the theoreti-
cal conclusion toward which inspection of museum specimens must
direct one ; the timber source of all these clubs is that in which the curve
can be found ready to hand, namely, the Hmb of the tree at the crotch,
together with so much of the trunk as may be needed for the head.
Accordingly, the angle of the curve is largely conditioned by the habit
of growth of the tree. It must be held in mind that the work of the
clubwright is no easy task with his poor apphances ; he is alert to recog-
nize any assistance which nature may give him, and by taking advan-
tage of every such Httle help to save himself the rough work of getting
out his timber and blocking out his pattern.

Commonly in books upon the Fijian Archipelago and in reports upon
museum collections there is applied to this club a misnomer, the pine-
apple club. There is no reason in the least to imagine a change in the
types of clubs since the discovery of the islands ; in fact, the very first
acquisition from the whalers and adventurers of the South Sea was to
place the musket in the hands of the Fijian, and with the coming of
fire-arms the day of the wooden arm went into its twihght. This
knobbed and spiked club undoubtedly long antedates the voyage of
Abel Jansen Tasman, who discovered the archipelago; yet the pine-
apple is not indigenous to the islands, it owes its introduction to the
missionaries no earlier than the latter half of the nineteenth century.
The resemblance of the knob to the fruit of the pine is very slight; it is
much greater to the dried fruit-cluster of the pandanus, and by the
name of that fruit (ntbalawa) the knob is commonly described by the
Fijians. Assimilation to the pineapple would be meaningless to the
Fijian, yet he would and did find a pleasing character in its association
^vith the pandanus. In at least three grave-cairns I have found this
club buried with the body and accompanied by a tooth of the cachalot
{tambua) tied about the wrist. Upon the Fijian road to his hereafter
in Burotu the soul makes perilous passage through the misty moun-
tains of Na Kauvandra. To win from death to the pleasures of undy-
ing life his soul must fight numberless enemies. His pandanus club
has also a fighting soul and enables him perchance to overcome the
shadowy foe by reason of the mana which the pandanus confers. After
all this fighting his greatest trial Ues at a gorge crossed by a single
pendulous liana, over which he must walk while all the spirits of evil
gibber and yell to destroy his courage while they shake the cord to pre-
vent his crossing. At the further Up of the gorge stands a pandanus



40 CLUB TYPES OF NUCLEAR POLYNESIA.

tree ; there is the sympathy of magic between the tree and the carved
head of his club ; the weapon by reason of that mana seeks to fly across
the gap to rejoin its parent tree, and if his hand can keep its clutch
upon the shaft of the club the soul will follow. At this gorge perilous
he throws his tamhua; if it hit the pandanus the spirits of evil quit their
howHng and their assaults upon his slender foothold and let him pass
onward toward whatever trials may await him on the road to bliss.
Parts of this account have been preserved by Calvert and WilUams and
by Basil Thomson; the more intimate explanation I owe to the careful
exposition given me by Ratu Lala in Taviuni, a chief of great position,
who was devoted to the knowledge of the past of his people.

The Fijian name of the club, totokia, is explicative of the manner of
its use, for tokia is used to describe the pecking action of a bird. In
Fiji the spoils of war were the spoiled warrior. When one's foe went
down in battle he became known under the new designation of mbokola,
together with a rich vocabulary descriptive of his further treatment.
Without undertaking the recension of this vocabulary with notes criti-
cal and exegetical, it will suffice to say that the immediate value of the
mbokola when lugged back by his conqueror was entirely in the com-
missariat service. When the victor's wives set about their task of
preparing the mbokola so that he might be his own funeral baked meat,
they were the objects of the envy of other women whose own heroes had
not had the fortune or the courage to replenish the larder. There are
conventions to be observed in such matters, not mere victory and the
resultant piece de resistance, really of ineffectual resistance, will prove
wholly satisfactory. Certain fashions rule with a most rigid force;
there are crowns to be broke, but it must be in a certain way, else the
jeers of the other women will cause shame to mantle upon the cheeks
of the women preparing the body for the oven. The crown must be
pierced exactly with the spike of this deadly weapon, but the skull must
not otherwhere be split; it calls for extreme nicety in delivering the
winning blow to be able to check the impact in the exact moment of
success in order that the weight and sharp spikes of the pandanus head
may not mar a perfect work.

In this group we find 8 pieces ; all are based upon the same general
plan. The haft is finished in a sHghtly domed knob with a bounding
edge, except 3183. The spike issues out of the knob from a circular
plate molded at its circumference to a bounding ring through a shallow
guttered channel, except that in 3182, 3182 a, and 2487 this plate lacks
the channel and ring, and in 3183 the ring is present but the plate
absent. In two cases we find perforation — inverted V in 2487 at the
edge of the knob, V-perf oration at the summit of the knob in 2252.
To this type of club the same remark appHes in the matter of suspen-
sion as in the case of the rootstocks.



TYPES OF the; clubs.



41



The length measurements of these clubs have been taken on the
outer edge of the curve in two records — from the bend as nearly as it
may be determined in one direction to the end of the shaft and in the
other to the end of the spike. They are recorded in table 17.

Table 17.





Length


Length




Length


Length


Piece No.


to end of


to end of




to end of


to end of




shaft


spike




shaft


spike




(inches) .


(inches) .




(inches) .


(inches.)


3787


27


10


3182 a


34


8


2487


29


7


3183


36.5


7-5


3182 b


31


II


2252


37


10


2486


33


9


3182


39


13



There appears no regularity in the relation of these two parts of the
weapon ; the head from the bend onward may be as little as one-fifth of
the shaft (3183) or as much as one-third (3182).

Table 18.





Girth


Height




Girth


Height


Piece No.


of knob


of spike


Piece No.


of knob


of spike




(inches) .


(inches) .




(inches) .


(inches) .


3183


9


2-5


2486


15


3


2487


10


3


2252


15


4


3182 a


12


4


3787


18


4-5


3182


12


7-5


3182 b


19


4



The head measurements, circumference of the knob, and height of
the spike appear in table 18.

It is quite clear that no relation of proportion exists in these two
measurements. The tallest spike (3182) is associated with a very
moderate knob; the largest knob (3182 b) has a spike such as occurs
with one of the smallest knobs.

Table 19.



Piece
No.


Girth
at haft
(inches) .


Girth
at bend
(inches) .


Girth
at head
(inches) .


Piece

No.


Girth
at haft
(inches) .


Girth
at bend
(inches) .


Girth
at head
(inches) .


2487
3182 a
3182
2486


4-25
4-5
4-5
5


5-5
5-5
6.5
6


5

6.5
6.5
6


3183
2252
3787
3182 b


5

5 25
5 25
6


6
6.5

7
7


6.75
7-5
8
8



The circumference of the shaft has been taken at three points, the
haft, the bend, and the point of articulation with the head. They are
presented in table 19.



42 CLUB TYPES OF NUCLEAR POLYNESIA.

The haft measurements are deferred for general consideration of the
hand-grip. The increment between haft and bend in this series is
stated as follows: i inch, 3182 a, 2486, 3183, 3182 h; 1.25 inches, 2487,
2252; 1.75 inches, 3787; 2 inches, 3182. The increment between bend
and head is various; in 2487 there is a decrease of 0.5 inch; in 3182 and
2486 there is no change of dimension; in 3183 the increase is 0.75 inch;
an increase of i inch appears in 2252, 3787, 3182 a, and 3182 h; and in
the last two pieces the increment from haft to bend and from bend to
head is the same.

Length of shaft to bend, 36.5 inches; from bend to end of spike, 7.5 inches.
Circumference of haft, 5 inches; at bend 6 inches; at knob 6.75 inches.

Knob: 5 rows of points; circumference 9 inches, spike 2.5
inches, long, bluntly conical, and at base occupying full space ^..3^^3-
normally devoted to plate, which is thus reduced to a mere piate VI e
ring, and at shaft end of knob the points lack the radial edges.

Ornament : Grip, 8 inches, divided midway by single band ; element nearest
haft longitudinal band-and-zigzag, with one unit double zigzag without band ;
second element band-and-zigzag, in which the zigzag is loosely extended, one
unit of double zigzag without band.

This club is poorly executed and is the only instance in the collection in
which the spike is blunt and in which the haft lacks knob at end.

Length of shaft to bend, 27 inches; from bend to end of
spike, 10 inches.

Circumference of haft, 5.25 inches; at bend, 7 inches; at ^?.^^'
head, 8 inches. Y^y

Head: 7 rows of points; circumference, 18 inches; spike, Plate VI, f; XI, 24.
4.5 inches long.

Ornament: None.

Length of shaft to bend, 29 inches; from bend to end of spike, 7 inches.

Circumference of haft, 4.25 inches; at bend, 5.5 inches; at head, 5 inches.

Head: 5 rows of points; circumference, 10 inches; spike, 3
inches long, without molded ring. ^..^487-

Ornament: Grip, 7.5 inches long, longitudinal band-and- ciark-Oldman.
zigzag much extended, ending in small band-and-zigzag strap ;
from grip to bend of shaft, service of coir sennit.

Haft pierced transversely, one hole on end forking into two on the shaft
side.

Length of shaft to bend, 34 inches ; from bend to end of spike, 8 inches.
Circumference of haft, 4.5 inches; at bend, 5.5 inches; at head, 6.5 inches.
Head : 6 rows of points ; circumference, 1 2 inches ; spike, 4 inches
long. ^..3^^2 a.

Ornament: Partly executed plan of complete decoration. oVdman

Grip: 3 band-and-zigzag straps, i inch; longitudinal band-and-
zigzag, 3 inches; 3 band-and-zigzag straps, i inch; longitudinal band-and-
zigzag, 3 inches;* 3 band-and-zigzag straps, i inch. In the longitudinal ele-
ments the bands are indicated as double by rude scoring.

Shaft: In 14.75 inches beginning of dextral spiral of zigzag without band
making three turns; after spiral double band-and-zigzag strap 0.75 inch;
panel 2.5 inches of two band-and-zigzag units, one dextral spiral and longitudi-



TYPES OF THE CLUBS. 43

nal, the other longitudinal and dextral spiral, separated by unit of basketry;
strap of double band-and-zigzag; panel 2.5 inches longitudinal band-and-
zigzag; strap 0.75 inch double band-and-zigzag; panel 3.25 inches dextral
spiral double band-and-zigzag; strap 0.75 inch double band-and-zigzag; longi-
tudinal band-and-zigzag to head, unllnished at inner side of bend.
Spike: 4 radial band-and-zigzag on plate; 3 straps of same.

Length of shaft to bend, 39 inches; from bend to end of spike, 13 inches.

Circumference of haft, 4.5 inches; at bend, 6.5 inches; at head, 6.5 inches.

Head: 6 rows of points, workmanship poor; circumference,
12 inches; spike, 7.5 inches. ^.3^^^-

Ornament: Grip, 11 inches; band-and-zigzag strap at haft; qj^J^^
5-inch unit longitudinal band-and-zigzag with one element piate IX, 7.
of compound dentelle plates pointing toward handle, the first
four plates of 3 teeth, the fourth of 4, fifth and sixth of 3, thence onward of 4;
5-inch unit of longitudinal band-and-zigzag in lightly sinistral spiral.

Length of shaft to bend, 37 inches; from bend to end of spike, 10 inches.

Circumference of haft, 5.25 inches; at bend, 6.5 inches; at head, 7.5 inches.

Head: 8 rows of points; circumference, 15 inches; spike, 4
inches ; on plate shallow pits one on each side of spike as for P 2252.
inlay, as is present in P 2486. DonaWson.

Ornament: Gnp, 9.25 mches, endmg m band-and-zigzag pj^te VIII, d;
strap ; 4 double stripes band-and-zigzag, a fifth in which double IX, 2, 3.
band-and-zigzag has addition of i stripe double zigzag without
inner band, and where this tends to produce diamonds the union of points is
corrected by thin incised fine; alternately 5 stripes of longitudinal extended
zigzag.

Perforation on knob, V-type.



Length of shaft to bend, 31 inches; from bend to end of
Dike, II inches.

Circumference of haft, 6 inches; at bend, 7 inches; at head,
8 inches. 9J^^-



8 inches. Pit tt'h-vth

Head: 7 rows of points; circumference, 19 inches; spike, 4 ^^^^® 11, d, vi,d.

inr>ViPC



spike, II inches. P 3182 b.

Circumference of haft, 6 inches; at bend, 7 inches; at head, Fiji.

inche'' Oldman.

Hea(
inches.

Length of shaft to bend, 33 inches; from bend to end of spike, 9 inches.

Circumference of haft, 5 inches; at bend, 6 inches; at head,
6 inches. ^ifi^ '

Head: 7 rows of points; circumference, 15 inches; spike, ciark-Oldman.
3 inches and splintered at point by uncertain amount ; human
tooth inlaid on plate.

AXE-BIT TYPE.

Plates II, e; IV, i, 2, 3. Provenience: Fiji.

In the museum are 3 specimens of an excessively rare and most inter-
esting type, one so infrequently met with in museum keeping as to prove
that their occurrence in Fiji was rare. In default of the Fijian name,
which does not appear of record, and in anticipation of conclusions
which I hope to establish, I have chosen to designate this the axe-bit
type. In Fiji it was apparently never a littoral type; the only one
which I ever saw in its home was among the Ka4 Colo mountaineers



44



CLUB TYPES OF NUCLEAR POLYNESIA.



of Viti Levu near the upper waters of the Sigatoka River, and I have
the authority of Ratu Lala for the statement that this form of club was
restricted to these mountain folk, the most thoroughly Melanesian of
all the inhabitants of the archipelago. As compared with the other
clubs it is light, its shaft is oval in section and so small as to be com-
pletely encircled by the clutch of fingers; it is crowded with features
which appear in no other club. Because of the many complexities
which it presents, the detail of measurements has been made very com-
plete. Those measurements which are principally comparable have
been amassed in a tabular view (table 20) covering all three specimens
in one conspectus.

Table 20.



Piece No.

3362.



Piece No.

3361.



Piece No.

2478.



Shaft:

Angle with head degrees

Length over all inches

Shaft proper do.

Circumference, haft do.

At head do .

Flange at head do .

Socket:

Width:

At shaft do.

Distal do.

Thickness do .

Blade:

Width:

At socket do .

At edge do .

Length:

From paired knobs do .

From socket do .

Thickness :

At edge do .

At center do .



20

37-

29

4

5.

6.



3

4-5



6

4-75



1-5



5
41
31

4-75

6

o



2.75

4-5

1.5



4
3-5



■25
• 75



• 5
■ 75



20

36

28
4-25
5-5
6.75



2.5
4-5



3
5-5

6.75
4.87

• 75

1-25



We shall have to subject these three pieces to such intensive exami-
nation in another relation that it scarcely seems advisable to do more
at this point than to supplement this tabular view with the record of
each of the specimens.

Shaft: Straight; angle with head 20°; length over all 37.5 inches, of shaft
proper 29 inches; oval section; circumference at haft 4 inches, at head 5.25
inches, flanging sharply to 6.5 inches; without ornament.

Socket: 3 inches wide at shaft, 4.5 inches distal; thickness
2 inches at distal knobs ; faces uniform ; edges unornamented.
First unit : i .5 inches longitudinally to transverse band ; at up-
per side rectangular rib 1.25 inches transverse, i inch longitu-
dinal to flange of shaft ; in panel thus formed 9 transverse lines ; perforation next
flange. Central element: palm-leaf ornament 0.75 inch wide at shaft, i inch
at transverse band. Lower element: shallow depression to transverse band



P 3362.

Fiji.

Oldman.

Platen, e; IV, 2.



TYPES OF THE CLUBS. 45

carrying conical knob 0.25 inch high, 0.5-inch base; on lower side this depres-
sion merges into rib 0.5 inch wide, 0.37 inch thick, 3 inches long from shaft,
transverse band decoration continuing throughout, but not on edge or finish.
Second unit: Plain transverse band; strap i inch wide from upper edge to
sharp angle with lower ridge; 2 elements in band, 0.67 inch basketry, 2 band-
and-zigzag; at upper edge grades gently into ridge of same dimensions as lower
ridge extending to distal end of socket and in next unit is similarly marked by
transverse bands. Third unit: 1.5 inches long; central element 2 inches wide


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