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the type, it sufifices to show in table 25 only the critical measurements
and to leave their consideration to a more general treatment later in
the work. (See Kramer, Samoa, II, 210 n, o, p, 214 d.)

Length, 40.5 inches, of which head 19 inches. Circumference of haft,
4.5 inches, spreading to 6 inches. Length of haft, 2 1 .5 inches, becoming square
in section at 1.5 inches from square plate 0.5-inch thick and ^.^gj f.
2.25 inches square. Samoa,

Head: Square in section, with reentrant angles middle of Pepper-Voy.
each face. At angles row of deeply cut serrations tapering P^**® m» S-
toward end from 2.25 to 3.5 inches; 22 teeth in row. In median reentrant
angles rows of smaller teeth, 33 in row. End of haft coarsely domed ; end of
head cupped.

Poor workmanship, undoubtedly anterior to introduction of metals.

Length, 40.5 inches, of which head 18 inches. Circumference of haft, 4.25
inches, spreading to 5.5 inches. Lug broken, remains as an inverted conical
irregular knob. Shaft circular in section to 19.5 inches, then
for 3 inches square, 1.25 to 1.5 inches wide, to triangular 3792.

plate o.s-inch thick, 2.s inches wide; on each face a pro- ^^™°^ - .
\ ^. ^ ' -J ' ^ Pepper-Voy.

jection. Plate m, a.

Head: Triangular section with reentrant angles on each
face, 2.75 inches wide next shaft, 4 inches at end. At each angle row of 19


strongly carved teeth; in reentrant angles serrations of smaller teeth, 23, 25,
and 23 teeth in rows. End of head cupped.

Ornament: Plain zigzag outHned throughout shaft, but not completely-
executed; 2 units of design indicate spirals dextral and sinistral respectively;
3 dentelles cut in edge of plate.

Length, 25.5 inches. Circumference of haft, 4.75 inches; length of haft,
15 inches, at which point circumference 4.5 inches. Head 10.5 inches long,
in first inch sharpl)^ sloped from haft on a face i .5 inches longi-
tudinally ; circumference of head next haft, 12.5 inches ; at last 3792 a.
row of teeth, 10 inches; finished with cone 1.75 inches high, p^*^e^'_voy
2.5 inches on face; 23 longitudinal rows of teeth, 19 teeth in piate III, b.'
each row.

Ornament : Roughly carved zigzag on most of shaft ; i element sinistral spiral.

Length, 14.5 inches. Circumference of haft, 4 inches, flanging to 5 inches.
Lug flat, triangular, full width of haft, perforation broken through. Handle,
9.25 inches long to 4 rows of conical teeth 0.12-inch high, set
in dextral spiral; then plate 0.25-inch thick, 4.75 inches cir- 3792 b.
cumference; 7 rows of teeth 0.5-inch high, set in sinistral p^°e^*_voy
spiral; end capped by hghtly domed plate 0.12 inch thick, piate III, c.
1.5 inches diameter.

Kjiife-cuts show this to be of modern manufacture, but the model is
undoubtedly antique.


Plates III, d, e, f; Kramer, II, 213-78 b, 216 a. Provenience: Samoa.

Upon Samoan authority Dr. Kramer translates the name of this club
as from tala spike or thorn and valu eight, the eight-spiked. One has
sedulously to set himself on guard against Samoan interpretations of
Samoan apparently composite words. Intellectually the folk are at
a stage when explanation has a peculiar charm for them; they are
consistently providing explanations, all as much entitled to considera-
tion as those of a child. There are in this collection five talavalu pieces
and the least number of spikes is 10 (2275). The derivation is un-
doubtedly from another valu, which in its verb employment signifies
to scrape, to rasp, to shred.

This club series is set apart from the maces by the fact that in it the
spikes are set on but two opposite edges of the blade and not more or
less generally around it. In all the haft is flanged and has a lug; three
of them have a distinct shoulder in which the shaft ends just before
the beginning of the serration of the edges; four of them top off the
head with a well-formed pyramidion. The exception in the matter of
the pyramidion (2275) may not be classed as a talavalu; it lacks the
distinctive shoulder, and instead of the characteristic finial it is topped
off with a crutch-head. This type of finish is characteristic of the
coconut-stalk clubs and in that association is explicable structurally;
the objection to such ascription rests upon the absence of serrate edges
from that type; yet it might prove possible to discover intermediates
which would connect the sparse teeth of this piece with an overdevelop-



ment of the bands in such a club as 1 1 1 /. The critical measurements
of these pieces are given in table 26 in inches.

Length, 34 inches; circumference of haft, 4.5 inches, flanging to 6.5 inches.

Lug keystone type, i inch high, i inch wide, 0.5 inch thick, diagonal to
plane of blade, perforated. p ^^ye

Serrations arise from shaft without distinguishing shoulder, Samoa'(?).
4 pairs 2.5, 3, 3.5, and 4 inches in width respectively, separated by Oldman.
intervals along stem of 0.5, i, and 0.75 inch. Plate III, f.

Head: Crutch finish, 4.5 inches wide, 2 inches thick, cusps finished in tri-
angles beveled 1.5 inches along edge of head and i inch at corners; along
median line triangles 0.75 inch along edge of head.

Table 26

Piece No.


(inches) .

Piece No.

3788 a

(inches) .

Piece No.

(inches) .

Piece No.
3099 a

(inches) .

Piece No.

(inches) .













Haft, circumference. . .

Length, 22.5 inches; circumference of haft, 3.75 inches, flanging to 4.75
inches. Lug triangular, vertical to plane of blade, perforated. Median
angles continued from head 2 inches down shaft. ,-88 g^

Handle 9.75 inches long, expanding to circumference of 4 Samoa,
inches, sharply shouldered toward blade. Pepper-Voy.

Blade: 12.75 inches long, diamond section, each face taper- P^**® ^ ^•
ing from width of i inch near shaft to 2 inches next final pyramidion ; strongly
serrated on two edges, teeth grading from 0.5 to 1.25 inches long, leaving plain
surfaces next median angle; intervals of teeth approximately 1.5 inches deep,
20 teeth in each row.

Pyramidion strongly angled; width, 4 inches; height, 1.75 inches, thick-
ness, 2 inches.

Of modern manufacture, but sufficiently long in use to present scrawls of
letters indicative of ownership. On one face appears HUT, which is the
familiar Samoan name Tuii in mirror writing. On the other face of four
scrawls only N and I are recognizable.

Length, 45.5 inches; circumference of haft, 4.5 inches, flanging to 6 inches.
Lug semicircular in plane of blade, perforated, and partially pierced again
in V-hole.

Handle: Length, 29 inches, expanding to circumference of 11 P 2272.
inches. The sharp shoulder of other clubs of this type here merges oidman.
indistinguishably in serrations.

Blade: 16.5 inches long, uniform width of 5.75 inches; serrated in a checker-
board pattern uniformly 2 inches on each face of squares ; terminal unit corre-
sponding to pyramidion is a square of 4 inches, in which longitudinal angle is
carved as a rib 0.12 inch wide and 0.12 inch thick, outer edges slightly curved ;
thickness at end, 1.5 inches.

Ornament: 5 triple ties of sennit spaced along shaft, as shown by stains,
4 of which persist.


Length, 43.5 inches; circumference of haft, 4 inches, flanging to 5.5 inches.
Lug pentagonal, vertical to plane of blade, V-hole perforation.

Shaft: Median angles continued down blade to grip; length, 29.5 P 3099 a.
inches, expanding to circumference of 7 inches; sharply shouldered Samoa,
toward blade.

Blade: Length, 14 inches; uniform width, 3.5 inches throughout, strongly-
serrated on two edges; teeth carried back to median line; intervals approxi-
mately I inch deep; 9 teeth on each edge; thickness, 1.5 inch throughout.

Pyramidion angled only on median line and merged with upper pair of teeth.

Length, 31.5 inches; circumference of haft, 3.75 inches, flanging to 5 inches.
Lug semicircular, full width of haft, in plane of blade, perforated.

Shaft: Median angles continuous through blade to grip; -_gg
length of handle, 17 inches, expanding to circumference of Samoa.
4.25 inches, passing from circle to flattened diamond in sec- Pepper- Voy.
tion; sharply shouldered toward blade. Plate III, e.

Blade: 14.5 inches long, diamond section, tapering from width on each face
of diamond of i inch to 1.75 inches at final pyramidion; strongly serrated at
edges; teeth from 0.87 inch to 1.75 inches long, carried back to median line
with interspaced triangles along that line; intervals 1.5 inches deep.

Pyramidion strongly angled; width, 3.5 inches; height, 1.75 inches; thick-
ness, 1.5 inches.

Ornament: Panel 4.12 inches long on one side of shaft nearest blade com-
pleted in band-and-zigzag ; outline of spirals in two directions to form panel
2.25 inches.


Plates III, h, i, j; Kramer, 210 I, /, 213-77 o. 213-78 c, d, 216 c. Provenience: Samoa,

Tonga, Rotuma, Fiji.

For this type of weapon there is not only the consenting statement
of all the islanders who employ it that it is really carved in representa-
tion of the stalk of the coconut leaf, but the raw stalk itself is in fre-
quent use as a club in fencing contests. In the vocabularies are found
the Samoan lapalapa and its congener ahaahai in Tongan, used both of
the weapon and of the leaf-stem in its peaceful aspect, and the Samoan
supplies the two verbs saulu and tuulu in the sense of trimming the
stalk so that it may be used as a club. It is found in one of the Samoan
legends of the origin of social custom. The boy Pava was filled with
curiosity as to the errand which called his father away from home in
the earHest morning of every day. One day the lad followed on earth
and into heaven after heaven until he came to the abode of the gods,
where kava was being served. The prying youngster was discovered
by the gods in the hush tabu, which even now accompanies the kava
service on earth when the liquor is ready to drink. Vexed at the inter-
ruption, one of the gods picked up a coconut-stalk and addressed a
blow at the intruder and burst his belly asunder. The subsequent
repair of the damaged boy and the introduction of kava to the earth
form an interesting continuation of the narrative.

The coconut leaf is a portentous object of the vegetable world, for
all ordinary measurements of common botany must be multiplied an


hundredfold. It consists of the expanded portion, which embraces the
stem from which the leaf grows, a stalk which is bare for several feet
and is quite strong enough to serve as a club, last of all the many leaf-
lets. The wings of the part of the stalk which engages with the parent
trunk become at their edges so thin as to lack substantial character ; it
is for that reason that they are trimmed off, leaving a considerable
body which on its natural lower face offers the two faces of a mass
whose section is a rhomb, and in the trimming of the wings the rhomb
is naturally completed. Inasmuch as the trunk with which the leaf-
stalk engages is circular, the end of the stalk has a corresponding de-
pression. This establishes all the critical dimensions of the club carved
in imitation of this stalk, so much so that the hardwood club marked h
reproduces quite distinctly the proportions of the natural stalk.

Dr. Kramer, relying too confidently upon Samoan information, has
set into the same class both the lapalapa and the talavalu, and in the
case of the latter he interprets the lateral teeth as symbolic of the per-
sisting stems of the leaflets. Several vital objections oppose this
assignment of source. The leaflets of the coconut leaf are remote from
the naked stem and knob, which are used for clubs ; in the talavalu the
teeth are so close to the knob that in several of these instances they
merge therewith. The stalk of the leaf is tough and of considerable
size; the stalk of the leaflets is short and comparatively insubstantial
and could serve no weapon purpose. The end of the head of the
talavalu is a considerable pyramidal body; the end of the lapalapa is
characterized by a depression. In the museum specimens this is so
constant that there are but four pieces in which it is cut square off
and only one in which it is domed.

The purpose of trimming off the wings of the soUd end of the leaf-
stalk is to prevent the sphtting of the temporary club in the fencing.
Even after the trimming this tendency to sliver downward into the
stem persists and is capable of very simple correction. Rather than
lose his bout through damage to his weapon, the fencer using the green
stalk frequently reinforces it by ties lashing it from side to side, and
these ties may be either sennit or pandanus leaf, both of which are fre-
quently met with in these collections. As a detail of ornament the
sennit tie is susceptible of interpretation as the source of the rather
prominent cross-ribs on certain of these clubs (fig. i) and the pandanus
ties (Plate II, c) as the source of the bands on certain others (fig. /).
Herein is a criterion upon which to erect three subdivisions of the type :

A. No cross-ribs; head diamond-section, in which the two axes are
nearly equal. 2281 in respect of the head is transitional to species B.

B. Single cross-rib; head diamond section in which the minor axis is
considerably the less. 3178 in respect of the head somewhat resem-
bles species A.



C. Multiple cross-ribs, head wide and thin: (i) Ribs vertical to
median line; (2) ribs obliquely set toward median line (2278, 2279).
Table 27 sets a convenient record of the critical dimensions of species
A — that which lacks cross-ribs.

Table 27.

Piece No.

(inches) .

Haft girth

Blade face
(inches) .

(inches) .

3178 a


1.75 by 1.25








4 by 2

5 by 3.25
3-75 by 2
5.5 by 1.25
3.25 by 2.5

In 2270 is found the unusual diamond section of the stem and haft,
and for that reason the dimensions are given in terms of the two axes.
The haft flanges in 3099, 2280, and 2281; all the ends carry a lug — a
square knob in 2270, triangular in 3099, semicircular in 2280 and 3178 a.

Table 28.



(inches) .

Haft girth
(inches) .

Blade face
(inches) .

(inches) .









4.25 by I
4 by 1.25

pentagonal in 2281 ; all the lugs are pierced, 2270 and 3178 a exhibiting
the V-perf oration. All the heads have rhomboidal ends; one is cut
square across, one domed, three cupped.

The dimensions of species B, the clubs which have but a single cross-
rib, are presented in table 28.

Table 29.



Haft girth

Blade face



(inches) .

(inches) .

(inches) .

(inches) .





3-5 by 1.75





4 by 1.5

3172 a




6 by 1. 12

J>-i.T2 b




3 by I





4-75 by 1.5





4-5 by 1.5





4 by 1.25





3 by .75





3 by .75

The haft flanges in 3173 and 3178, and they have perforated lugs,
respectively semicircular and pentagonal, while 3172 lacks flange and
lug and perforation. The ends are cut square in 3 1 72 and 3 1 73, cupped
in 3178. The dimensions of species C are shown in table 29.


Flanging at the haft is found in 2279, 3172 b, 2273, 2277, 2274, 2266.
All save 2266 have pierced lugs, triangular in 2279 and 2274, pentagonal
in 2278 and 2277, semicircular in 3172 a, 3172 b, 2273, 2276; the V-
perf oration is found in 3172 6 and 2273. All the heads are cupped
except 2266 (cut square) and 31726 (too worn for determination);
2273 carries an unusual band over the curve.

Length, 37 inches.

Shaft: Longitudinal ridges throughout; end of haft diamond-shaped, 1.75
inches by 1.25 inches; lug square, in plane of blade; V-per-
foration. P 2270.

Blade: Planes of face 2.25 inches wide; end diamond- otSnan
shaped, 4 by 2 inches; strongly cupped. Plates III, h; IX,

Ornament: Unit i, 3.75-inch alternate panels transverse 4; xni, 54, 55;
band-and-zigzag, much condensed, and three longitudinal XIV, 62, 63, 70,
band-and-zigzag extended, with in each caseasohd triangle 7^ Je-'xv^' iii-
in middle of line. Unit 2, 3 inches, same design on opposite xvn, 142, 143. '
faces. Unit 3, 3 inches, same design on same faces as unit i.
Unit 4, 3.5-inch transverse band-and-zigzag as in unit i on panels i and 3;
on panel 2, two stripes of longitudinal band-and-zigzag and one of loop-and-tie ;
panel 4, loop-and-tie and one element of basketry. Unit 5, 3-inch panels of
triangles of basketry with band-and-zigzag in comers. Unit 6, 3.25 inches,
same. Unit 7, 3 inches, two adjoining panels of one face, same as unit 5; on
opposite face one panel basketr>^ the other herring-bone. Unit 8, 2.5-inch
panels herring-bone and basketry on same face as unit 7, but alternating
panels ; on opposite face panel of 2 band-and-zigzag transverse condensed and
3 herring-bone; next panel 3 transverse band-and-zigzag condensed and
2 band-and-zigzag longitudinal arranged quarterly. Unit 9, on one face
2 panels as in unit 5; other face one panel herring-bone longitudinal, the
other herring-bone transverse. Unit 10, one face panel herring-bone trans-
verse, the other herring-bone longitudinal; other face, panel herring-bone
transverse, panel diagonally divided into herring-bone longitudinal and band-
and-zigzag longitudinal. Unit 11, one panel continues ornament last
panel of unit 10; adjacent panel i element herring-bone, i element basketry,
separated by longitudinal loop-and-tie; other face, i panel basketry and
longitudinal herring-bone, one panel of one element transverse band-and-zigzag
condensed, 4 elements herring-bone. Unit 12, one panel transverse herring-
bone, panel longitudinal herring-bone with one element basketry; other face,
panel transverse herring-bone, last panel continued ornament of correspond-
ing panel in units 9, 10, 11. Unit 13, 2 inches on median line, 2.5 inches at
edges, panels of basketry, herring-bone, and band-and-zigzag irregularly

Human and animal figures on all four sides ; on one face such designs are
restricted to units ir and 12, on other face distributed as far up the shaft
as unit 7.

Length, 28 inches.

Shaft: Circumference of haft, 5 inches, flanging to 6 inches; lug triangular,
vertical to plane of blade, perforated.

Blade: Planes of face, 3 inches \ride; end diamond-shaped, 5 by gg^^^"
3.25 inches; ridge along major, diagonal.

Ornament: Panels of band-and-zigzag, some completed, others merely
blocked out; grip, 4 inches; 4 dextral spirals partly cut.


Length, 31 inches.

Shaft: Circumference of haft, 3.75 inches, flanging to 4 inches; lug semi-
circular, in plane of blade, perforated; ridges extend from blade

, sr 22q0.

mto grip. Samoa.

Blade: Planes of face, 2 inches wide; end diamond-shaped, 3.75 oidmaii.
inches by 2 inches, slightly cupped.

Ornament : None.

Length, 35 inches.

Shaft: Circumference of haft, 4.5 inches, flanging to 5.5 inches; lug pentag-
onal, in plane of blade, perforated; ridges distinguishable on shaft
as far as grip. ^ 22^^-

Blade: Planes of face, 3 inches wide; end diamond-shaped, 5.5 otdmaii.
by 1.25 inches, slightly cupped.

Ornament: None.

Length, 35.5 inches.

Shaft: Circumference of haft, 4.5 inches; lug semicircular, vertical to plane
of blade, V-perforation. p _g ^_

Blade : Planes of face, 2 inches wide ; end diamond-shaped, Samoa.
3.25 by 2.5 inches, strongly domed. Oldman.

Ornament: 22 band-and-zigzag straps; panels of herring- ^^^^^ ^^' 77.
bone and band-and-zigzag; 2 panels of basketry carrying lll^^Q2,?oi\o4.
bird-and-man designs on opposite faces in conjunction.

Length, 49 inches, single band at 34.5 inches. P 3i72-_

Shaft: Circumference of haft, 3.5 inches; end clumsily whittled; gj*]^;
circumference at band, 5.25 inches.

Blade: Planes of face, 2.5 inches wide; end diamond-shaped, 4.25 by i inch;
blade covered with transverse ridges running 9 to the inch.

Ornament: At grip traces of poor carving marked out but not executed.

Length, 42.5 inches; single band at 28 inches, 0.25 inch wide, 0.12 inch
thick, lateral points 0.5 inch.

Shaft : Circumference at haft, 4.5 inches, flanging to 6 inches ; end P 3i73-
cut square; lug semicircular, in plane of blade; circumference at ^Qt^^^.)
band, 6 inches.near end 8 inches, flanging to 9 inches.

Blade : Planes of face 2.25 inches wide ; end diamond-shaped, 4 by 1.25 inches,
cut square.

Ornament: None.

Length, 35 inches; double strap at 21 inches, 0.12 inch wide and thick,
lateral points, 0.25 inch.

Shaft: Circumference of haft, 5 inches, flanging to 6.5 inches; P 3i78.
end cut square; lug pentagonal, in plane of blade, perforated. (R^uma.)

Blade : Planes of face, 3.5 inches wide ; end diamond-shaped, 6 by
2.75 inches, cupped.

Ornament: None.

Length, 40.5 inches, of which blade is 19 inches; at 21 inches 30° strap of
6 bands, of which first merges in swell of shaft; at 24.75 inches 7 bands; at
28.75 inches 7 bands; at t,3 inches 8 bands; at 38 inches 9
bands to head of club, all at same angle. P 2279-

Shaft: Circumference at haft, 4.25 inches, flanging to 5 Q^JJJan.
inches ; head cut square ; lug triangular, full width, in plane piate III, i.
of blade, perforated.

Blade: JNIedian Hne strongly ridged; head 3.5 inches by 1.75 inches, cupped.

Ornament: None.


Length, 41 inches, of which blade is 19 inches; at 22 inches, transverse strap
of 2 bands, the upper merging in swell of shaft; these bands completed on one
face; at 22.25 inches, 30° strap of 5 bands; at 26.75 inches, same;
at 30.25 inches, strap of 2 bands; at 34.5 inches, of 9 bands; at g^^J^;
38.75 inches, same; all at same angle. Oldman.

Shaft: Longitudinal angles deliquesce in grip; circumference
at haft, 4.25 inches; lug pentagonal, in plane of blade, perforated.

Blade: Median line strongly ridged; head, 4 by 1.05 inches, cupped.

Ornament: 3 ties of 3-part sennit, and stains which show similar treatment
of whole of grip.

Length, 53 inches, of which blade is 20 inches.

Shaft: 4 longitudinal angles continuous throughout; circumference at haft,
3.5 inches; end cut square; lug small, semicircular, vertical P 3172 a^
to plane of blade, V-perf oration, planes of shaft i inch wide ^^^^^f I^^> J! X'
at blade. 16; XV, 91, 92

Ornament: Shaft, alternate panels of incised Unes transverse; blade, double
strap 0.12 inch thick; panel 1.75 inches herring-bone; double strap 0.25 inch
thick; panel 2.75 inches basketry and herring-bone; flat strap 0.37 inch wide;
panel 3 inches herring-bone, basketry ; flat strap i .5 inches wide of 3 strap-units,
of which center is overlaid by herring-bone on one face and double diamonds
on other; panel 3 inches wide, basketry and sinistral diagonal cordage on one
face, cordage and herring-bone on other; double strap 1.5 inches, herring-bone
and sohd diamond on one face, triple angles on other; panel 3 inches wide,
cordage and herring-bone alternate with similar patterns on former panel, on
other face basketry and cordage as on former panel; flat strap 0.25 inch wide;
panel i .25 inches herring-bone on both sides, on each face octopus-star headed
toward median line; acute edges of this panel finished with crenellation of four

End of club, 6 by 1.12 inches, shghtly cupped, pohshed.

Length, 42.5 inches, of which blade is 19 inches; at 23.25 inches strap of
2 bands 0.12 inch thick; at 26.75 inches strap of 7 bands; at 28.75 inches
strap of 8 bands; at 35.25 inches, strap of 10 bands; at 40.25 inches,
strap of 1 1 bands, beyond which band-and-zigzag pattern of blade Qi^^n.

Shaft: Longitudinal angles continuous throughout; circumference at haft
4 inches, flanging to 5.25 inches; lug semicircular, vertical to plane of blade,
V-perforation ; end worn but not cupped.

Ornament: band-and-zigzag throughout.

Length, 44 inches, of which blade is 21 inches; at 23 inches, strap of 2 bands
0.12 inch thick at median line, 0.75 inch thick at edges; at 25 inches, strap
of 5 bands same dimensions; at 28 inches, strap of 9 bands 0.67

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