William Churchill.

Club types of nuclear Polynesia online

. (page 9 of 21)
Online LibraryWilliam ChurchillClub types of nuclear Polynesia → online text (page 9 of 21)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


double band-and-zigzag making 10 complete turns in 23.5
inches; interspaces filled with band-and-zigzag, herring-bone, and basketry
units without uniformity. Blade covered with same elements without uni-
formity, except that at point of beginning of blade i-inch strap of 5 units of
zigzag with band at each end, this followed by a 2.5 inch strap of basketry;
on blade a composition of human figures suggesting victory in battle, the two
exterior figures headless.



70 CLUB TYPES OF NUCIyEAR POIvYNESIA.

Length, 34 inches.

Haft: Circumference, 3.5 inches, flanging to 4.25 inches; P 2268.
shghtly domed. 0?dman

Blade: Indicated by strap; width, 3.25 inches at 2 inches; piate XIV 64
thickness, 0.75 inch. 65; XV, 86, 107;

Ornament: 4 longitudinal bands throughout; at flange of XVI, 127, 130;
haft 4 straps band-and-zigzag; 6 straps band-and-zigzag at XVII, 141.
3, 6, 9, 1 1.5, 14, and 16.5 inches; shaft uniformly longitudinal band-and-zig-
zag, same at tip of blade ; elsewhere on blade slight use of basketry design ;
groups of 7 figures, human and animal.

Length, 43.5 inches.

Haft: Circumference, 4 inches, flanging to 5.25 inches; lug triangular, ver-
tical to plane of blade.

Blade: Width, 4 inches at 2.25 inches; thickness, 1.75 inches. pfx^^'

Ornament: Transverse band-and-zigzag for 18 inches. Blade: oi(iman.
one face basketry and transverse band-and-zigzag in alternate
panels; other face, small panels band-and-zigzag and basketry, the whole
crossed frequently by bands of dextral diagonal, producing appearance of
lashing.

CARINATED CLUBS.
Plate III, m; Kramer 211, b, c, d, 213-77, c, e. Provenience: Samoa.

In this group is associated a number of clubs in which the distinctive
character is the keel adown the blade and generally a rib at the point
of maximum breadth. In a few pieces these distinctions may not have
been treated with distinct carving, but their structural presence is
clearly indicated by formative angles. With the exception of two
pieces none of this group represented by 7 specimens carries any orna-
mentation. Kramer draws several designs of varying head-forms and
attributes them to foreign influence, yet in connection with unmis-
takably similar forms now in Berlin he accepts without hesitation the
attribution to Samoa. There is every reason to regard this type as a
distinct Samoan creation; if other museums show pieces from other
sources we should prefer to assign them to Samoan influence.

We have now to consider the cross-bars and the longitudinal rein-
forcement. The cross-bar has already presented itself to view^ in the
case of some of the lapalapd and some of the paddle clubs, and we have
suggested that it is typical of a tie of sennit put across for the purpose
of strengthening the weak points of the weapon. This explanation
does not seem to account for the longitudinal band of the carinated
clubs and of some of the serrated group ; yet in the latter group we shall
find conclusive evidence in continuity of design beyond these some-
what considerable bands that they are regarded as something applied
after the pattern of ornament has been completed; that is to say that,
although part of the structure, they represent a reinforcement rather
than a structural feature. The resolution of the problem is not yet
in view; we simply present it for consideration.



TYPES OF THE CLUBS.



71



While these clubs show a range of nearly 7 inches in total length,
the length to the cross-rib Ues within 2 inches, apparently a proof that
the rib-ends were to serve as the effective point in delivering the stroke.
All the hafts are flanged except 2291 and 2499 ; these also lack lugs along
with 2286; the lugs are triangular and pierced in 2285, 2287, and 2284,
pentagonal and pierced in 2283. Diagonal perforation is found with-
out lug in 2286, and in 2287, after the septum of the lug had been shat-
tered, a diagonal perforation was added. The hafts are cut square,
except that 2284 is cupped and 2499 has a flat cap after the Fijian
manner.

The critical dimensions of these 7 clubs are presented in table 32.



Table 32.





Piece No.

2286
(inches) .


Piece No.

2285
(inches) .


Piece No.

2287
(inches) .


Piece No.

2291
(inches) .


Piece No.

2284
(inches) .


Piece No.

2499
(inches) .


Piece No.

2283
(inches) .




46 5
30.5
16

4-5

I
4-25


44

30

15
3-75
15
4


43

30.5

12.5

4

I

4


47
31
15 5

4

15

4


41

29

12

6

2
4 5


45-25
31

14 25
4-75
• 75
4-5


40.5
24 5
16

65

2

4-5


To rib


Head


Width


Thickness

Haft





Length, 46.5 inches; circumference at haft, 4.25 inches, flanging to 5 inches;
width at cross-rib, 4.5 inches. Haft transversely pierced at end. Longitu-
dinal rib not distinguishable, transverse rib lightly carv^ed, some-
what semicircular, convex toward blade.

Ornament: Beginning of double zigzag from end of cross-rib to
middle of shaft.



P 2286.
Samoa.
Oldman.



Length, 44 inches. Cross-rib at 30 inches; lug at 28 inches. Circum-
ference of haft, 4 inches, flanging to 5.5 inches. Width at cross-rib, 3.75
inches. Ribs strongly present, but not carv-ed. Lug at end of
haft triangular, full width of haft, pierced. At 30 inches ring g^^f'
carved around shaft. At 28 inches pierced lug, unusual device, oidman.
suggests point of attachment for some light ornament, as in clubs
of Santa Cruz. It appears that cross-rib just beyond this lug had been blocked
out but never carved.



Length, 43 inches. Cross-rib at 30.5 inches. Circumference of haft,
4 inches, flanging to 5 inches. Width at cross-rib, 4 inches, p 2287.
Longitudinal rib strongly present, but not carved; cross-rib carved.
Lug triangular, full width of haft, perforation broken through;
second perforation diagonally through head and shaft.



Samoa.
Oldman.



Length, 47 inches. Cross-rib at 31 inches,
haft, 4 inches. Width at cross-rib, 4 inches,
blade.



Circumference of P 2291.
Strongly ribbed on Samoa^^



72



CLUB TYPES OF NUCLEAR POLYNESIA.



Length, 40.5 inches, of which blade is 16 inches; heavy cross-rib at 24.5
inches.

Shaft: Haft cut square; lug pentagonal, vertical to plane of p 2283,
blade; section of shaft quadrangular through one-third next blade, samoa!

Blade : Width, 6.5 inches at 8 inches from tip ; thickness, 2 inches, Oldman.
heavily carinated for full length.

Ornament: None.

Length: 45.5 inches, of which blade is 15 inches.

Shaft: Circumference at haft, 4.5 inches, at flat knob, 5.25 inches; longi-
tudinal angles carried into grip; cross-rib at 31 inches.

Blade: Width, 5 inches; transverse band, 0.25 inch thick, pjj?^^^'
0.67 inch wide; width near tip, 2.75 inches; thickness, 0.75 ciark-Oldman.
inch.

Ornament: Double band-and-zigzag transverse on flange of knob; grip,
4.75 inches longitudinal same; strap transverse same; panel 4.75 inches same,
alternately longitudinal and transverse, 2 units unfinished.

Length, 41 inches. Cross-rib at 29 inches. Circumference of haft, 4.5
inches, flanging to 6.5 inches. Width at cross-rib 6 inches; thickness 2
inches. Haft cupped. Lug triangular, full width of haft, p 2284.
vertical to plane of blade, perforated. Strong longitudinal Samoa,
keel on blade slowly merging into shaft. Cross-rib some- p}^™^ j^
what semicircular, convex toward blade. '

SERRATED CLUBS.
Plate I, d, e,f; Kramer, 210 g, 212-76, 214 b. Provenience: Samoa, Fiji.

It can not be doubted that 2470 represents a different type, for the
critical detail of the serration and the sharp angle just above the cross-
rib are absent. Yet in gross the resemblance in form is sufficient to
admit of at least temporary grouping of this piece with others clearly
serrated. A specimen very similar to this was given me by the late
King Malietoa Laupepa and passed on to the National Museum in
Washington. The dimensions are given in table 33.

Table 33.





Piece No.

3790 b

(inches) .


Piece No.

3790
(inches) .


Piece No.

3790 a
(inches) .


Piece No.

3176 a
(inches) .


Piece No.

2470
(inches) .


Piece No.

3187
(inches) .


Piece No.

2690
(inches) .


Piece No.

2498
(inches) .


Piece No.

2496
(inches) .


Piece No.

2497
(inches) .


Length


415

15

26

4-5

9

I


46
20
25

5-75

6

1-25


42
16
28

4
8

I


42
17
25

4-75
13 -75

1-75


53
26
28

6.5
14

2


47

18

28
4-75
9-5
125


49-5
19

30.5
5-5

12.75

I


36
II

25
3-5

7-5

.75


45

17

28
4-5
9-5
15


29
9

20

2.75
5-5
• 75


Blade


Rib


Haft


Width


Thickness



All of these pieces have the characteristic Fijian flat cap at the end
of the shaft, except that 2498 is finished with the frustum of a cone and
2497 is finished with the unusual ornament of a ball. The same
condition as to suspension holds in this type as before explained, and



TYPES OF THE CLUBS. 73

therefore we find but two clubs pierced, V-perf oration in 3790 b and
diagonal in 2496.

Length, 41.5 inches, of which blade is 15 inches. Circumference of haft
(oval section), 4.5 inches; of flat knob, 6.5 inches; V-hole. Transverse rib
at 26 inches, i inch wide, 0.5 inch thick. vShaft begins to ,ygQ j,.
merge 1.5 inches from rib. Width at rib, 9 inches, at 0.5 Fiji,
inch 7 inches, at 2 inches 5.25 inches, at 13 inches 3.5 inches. Pepper-Voy.
Longitudinal angles scarcely noticeable on shaft. Serration coarse and
irregular. No ornament.

Length, 46 inches, of which blade is 20 inches. Transverse rib at 25 inches,
1.25 inches wide, 1.5 inches thick, median ridge throughout. Circumference
of haft, 5.75 inches; circumference of knob, 7 inches, sharply
domed. Width of blade at 2 inches, 5.5 inches; at 6.75 379o-
inches, 5.5 inches; at 10 inches, 5.75 inches; at 13.25 inches, Pepper-Voy.
6 inches; at 16.75 inches, 6.5 inches. Thickness on median
line of blade, 1.25 inches. Serrations 24 in number, extending for 6.75
inches.

Ornament : Ties of screw-palm leaf near blade.

Length, 42 inches, of which blade is 16 inches. Circumference of haft,
4 inches; of domed knob, 6 inches. Transverse rib at 28 inches, 0.75 inch
wide, 0.5 inch thick. Width at rib, 8 inches; at 0.5 inch, ^700 a.
6 inches; at 2 inches, 4.5 inches; at 12 inches, 2.75 inches. Fiji.
Serrations within 2 inches Median angles accentuated in Pepper-Voy.
blade, deliquescent in shaft.

Ornament : Coarse punctation on portion of transverse rib.

Length, 42 inches, of which blade is 17 inches. Circumference of haft,
4.75 inches; of cap-shaped knob, 5 inches. At 25 inches _
transverse rib, 0.5 inch thick, 0.75 inch wide; shaft begins pifi.^
to merge at 1.5 inches above. Width at rib, 13.75 inches; Pepper-Voy.
at 0.5 inch, 11 inches; at 2.5 inches, 7.5 inches; at 14 inches,

4 inches. Serration very coarse and irregular within 2 inches.

Length, 53 inches, of which blade is 26 inches. Circumference of haft,
6.5 inches; of flat knob, 9 inches. At 18 inches shaft begins to merge in blade
and begins longitudinal rib 0.5 inch thick, 0.75 inch wdde,
extending to end of blade. At 28 inches transverse rib of p.i?47o.
same dimensions, slightly convex toward handle. Width at ciark-Oldman
transverse rib, 14 inches; at 3 inches from crossing ribs, 13 Plate I, f.
inches; at 12 inches, 10 inches; at 20 inches, 8.5 inches.

Ornament : Pattern continuous under both ribs. Blade edged by continu-
ous border of blank teeth extending inward and alternating basketry pattern
outward. Carving (coarsely executed) of small dentelle in rows, which in
but few instances have been developed into zigzags. In the four angles of
the cross-ribs blank circles 2 inches in diameter, and in approximating these
circles the basic hues of dentelles seem to suggest a distortion of the design ;
one circle is distinguished by an inner concentric ring irregularly scored.

Length, 47 inches, of which blade is 18 inches. Circumference of haft,
4.75 inches; of flat knob, 6 inches. At 29 inches transverse rib 0.25 inch
thick, 0.75 inch wide. Shaft begins to merge at 2 inches
above rib. Moderately fine serration within 4.5 inches, p.^^^'^'
Width at rib chipped; at 9 inches, 6.5 inches: at 14 inches, w.*H. Miller gift.

5 inches.



74



CLUB TYPES OF NUCLEAR POLYNESIA.



Fig. I.



P 2690.
(?) Samoa.
L. Myers-
Oldman.
Plate I, d.



Ornament: Shaft covered with close-set spiral cord of nassa shell wound
over leaf -tie foundation.

Length, 49.5 inches, of which blade is 19 inches. Circumference of haft
(oval), 5.5 inches; of flat-topped knob, 7.5 inches. At 30.5 inches, transverse
^..^ rib 0.5 inch thick, i inch wide. Shaft begins

fW to merge at 4 inches above rib. Width at

rib, 12.75 inches; at i inch, 9.5 inches; at 12
inches, 6 inches; at 15 inches, 5 inches.

Ornament: Grip of 8.5 inches band-and-
zigzag in longitudinal strips crossed by 2
spirals of same and final strap of same. Blade decoration
begins at point where shaft swells to merge into blade, its
continuity under rib clearly indicated ; on face of blade diamond
panels carrying various combinations of band-and-zigzag.

Note: The author has seen this type of clubs in Samoa; cf. Kramer,
"Samoa," Vol. II, Bild. 79 b, with the label "Fidji-Keulen in Stuttgart
mit Samoa bezeichnet," proof that others have found the same
attribution.

Circum-




P 2498.

Fiji.

Oldman (as-
cribed to New
Caledonia).

rib. Serration



Length, 36 inches, of which blade is 11 inches
ference of haft, 3.5 inches; of conical knob
(frustum) at base, 4.5 inches, at top, 4 inches,
with height of 0.75 inch. At 25 inches, trans-
verse rib 0.25 inch thick, 0.5 inch wide. Width
at rib, 7.5 inches; at 0.5 inch, 5.25 inches; at
2 inches, 3.75 inches; at 9 inches, 2.87 inches.
Shaft merges into blade at i inch above
coarse, within 2 inches.

Length, 45 inches, of which blade is 17 inches. Circum-
ference of haft (oval section), 4.5 inches; of lightly domed
knob, 5.5 inches, pierced at angle through
edge. At 28 inches median rib 0.5 inch wide, pjj^'*^
0.25 inch thick. Shaft begins to merge into ciark-Oldman.
blade 2 inches above transverse rib. Width
at rib, 9.5 inches; at 0.5 inch, 7.5 inches; at i inch, 6.5 inches;
at 3 inches, 5 inches; at 14.5 inches, 3.33 inches. Longi-
tudinal angles strongly marked throughout. Serration very
fine, within i inch.

Length, 29 inches, of which blade is 9 inches. Circum-
ference of haft, 2.75 inches; of knob, 3 inches. At 20 inches
transverse rib 0.25 inch thick, 0.25 inch wide. Width of
blade at rib, 5.5 inches; at 0.5 inch, 4 inches; at 2 inches,
3 inches; at 8 inches. 1.67 inches. Shaft begins to merge into
blade at i inch from rib. Serrations extend for 2 inches and
appear on one flange toward the shaft. Median angular ridge
found in slight trace on one side of blade and adjacent shaft.

Manuscript label (possibly autographic) : "Fijian Club, Polynesian Islands,
H. M. Denham, 1854."

Captain Denham, R. N., visited Fiji in 1854; author of the Voyage of the
Herald.



P 2497.

Fiji.

Clark-Oldman.

Plate I, e (ac-
cession number
16205).



TYPES OF THE CLUBS.



75



Length, 29 inches. Circumference of haft, 3.25 inches, flanging to flat
knob 4 inches in circumference. At 9.75 inches, round shaft becomes oval
with circumference of 3 inches. At this point begins on each
face a longitudinal rib 7.5 inches long, 0.37 inch wide, 0.12 pj?jf°^*
inch thick, meeting a transverse rib of same dimensions ciark-Oldman.
convex toward handle. Width of blade on chord of the arc,
7.5 inches, developing in smooth curves from shaft; width of blade, 7 inches
to distance of 8.75 inches from transverse rib; end of blade semicircular,
with radius of 3.5 inches; thickness of blade, 0.25 inch.

No ornament. Very light black wood, with varnish of Bischoffia javanica.



CRESCENT TYPE.

Plate I. h; Kramer, 210 m, 212,-11 f, 214 c- Provenience: Fiji, Tonga.

This is a small group of clubs of extreme beauty of design, the three
distinctive curves of the head being struck with great grace and pre-
The type is represented in the museum by 3 pieces, and not



cision.



Table 34-





Piece No.

2263
(inches) .


Piece No.

3186 d
(inches) .


Piece No.

2500
(inches).


Length

Haft


24 25
3-5
8
I 25


38.5
4-5

14
1-75


34
4

12.5
■25


Width


Thickness



very many are found in other collections, a satisfactory argument that
it v^as a rare form in island use. Two of the pieces are attributed to
Tonga, one simply on the authority of the vendor, Oldman of London,
one on the authority of the collector, E. S. Clark, who ranks as accu-
rate, and this passed through Oldman's hands also. One piece, pur-
chased through Oldman, lacks attribution and authority of the collec-
tor; it was accessioned with a suggested attribution to Tonga, but Fiji
is quite as possible, for I have seen the type in that archipelago.
Kramer figures a fine specimen at Stuttgart as attributed wrongly to
Samoa, but I agree with him in this instance, inasmuch as Samoans
have assured me that the club is Fijian and Tongan and was not in
Samoan use. It is a cutting club, for the curves arising from the shaft
are sharp and the cusps form effective points for a pecking blow. The
measurements of the three pieces are given in table 34.

The dimensions of length and circumference of haft agree in making
it clear that these weapons were designed for single-handed use. The
ends of the hafts are finished in two pieces with a flat knob which is
finished as a square ; the third has a highly domed knob, as shown in
Plate I. There is neither lug nor perforation.



76 CLUB TYPES OF NUCLEAR POLYXESL\.

Lengfth, 24.25 inches. Circumference of haft, 3.5 inches; elegantly finished
fiat knob nearly square, 5.67 inches perimeter; angles continuous throughout;
midrib not present on blade. At 17 inches (circumference 4 inches)
blade begins to swell; at 22.5 inches, width of blade 8 inches; j^^^^'
height of arc between cusps, 1.75 inches; maximum thickness of oidman.
blade, 1.25 inches, tapering to cusps.

Ornament: Inlay of 14-pointed star of cachalot ivory at end of knob and
1 7-pointed star at center of end of blade. Except for the knob and the end of
blade, surface completely covered with band-and-zigzag pattern. Grip 5.5
inches longitudinal band-and-zigzag, ending in a single transverse band. Shaft
from grip to 14.5 inches diamond pattern of double band-and-zigzag with
sinistral spiral of triple band-and-zigzag making 2.5 turns, alternating with
similar spiral of double band-and-zigzag. Above point of ending of triple
spiral 2 complete diamonds of double band-and-zigzag. Face of blade occupied
by trapezoid of zigzag, with triple band continued in 2 diamonds to edge
of club nearest shaft of same type, and other 2 triangles occupying each cusp
respectively filled with double band-and-zigzag.

Length, 38.5 inches. Circumference of haft, 4.5 inches; of fiat knob,
5.5 inches. Haft angular throughout; knob neatly squared; haft flattening
to circumference of 7 inches and thickness of i inch at point where
median ribs begin. ^Median ribs continuous from handle to end, Tpj^jQ^ga
10 inches long, 0.12 inch wide, 0.12 inch thick. At 7 inches from
beginning of median ribs, 14 inches. Height of arc at end of club above line
drawn between cusps, 3.25 inches. Width at beginning of median ribs,
1.75 inches, tapering to cusps. Flat faces of blade flaring from haft to end.

Ornament: Ties of sennit of 3 parts at base of knob, at i, 3.5, 6, 9.5, and
12.5 inches along shaft, as shown by stains.

Club repaired by original owner, as shown by gum derived from the berries
of Cordia aspera and by the employment of V-holes, of which 2 are found on
one face at each end of break and i in center of break on other face.

Length, 34 inches, of which 12 inches is blade. Circumference of haft,
4 inches; rounded knob, 5.5 inches; at beginning of blade, 4.75 inches ; section
of haft diamond-shaped. Blade reinforced on each face by
longitudinal rib in center 0.25 inch wide, 0.12 inch thick, ter- P 2500.
minating 0.25 inch from end. Width of blade at 9.5 inches, cfSk-Oldman.
12.5 inches; height of end arc, 3 inches along median rib above pja^g I, h.
cusp secant; thickness at end, 0.25 inch, fining to 0.12 inch
at cusps. Curve of cutting-edges developing smoothly from beginning of
blade to cusps. Flat faces of club flaring from haft to end.

Ornament: None.

MUSHROOM TYPE (FA'ALAUTALIGA).
Plate I, g; IV, 4, 5; Kramer, 213-77 d, 214-80. Provenience: Samoa.

While of the same general type as the crescent clubs, this distinc-
tively Samoan type exhibits marked dissimilarities in the head and
shaft. The curves of the head are of a different order; the edges are
not sharp; the cusps are less effective for the pecking blow. It is clear
that the value of this weapon lay in its force of impact. The shaft is
sharply angled throughout. There are here two species of the type
and each is represented in the plates of this volume and in Kramer's



TYPES OF THE CLUBS.



77



work. One species, intended for single-handed use, is distinguished by
a long and slim shaft and smaller head which rises sharply from a little-
expanded shaft. The other has a much
larger head, which begins its formation
little above the grip. In all the speci-
mens which we have observed this club
is most elaborately ornamented. The
dimensions are recorded in table ;^s-

Each of these pieces carries the perfo-
rated lug, semicircular in the former, tri-
angular in the latter. Kramer 's illustra-
tions show the presence of lugs, but the
perforation and form of lug are not clear.

Length, 28.25 inches. Circumference of haft (angular), 3.75 inches, flang-
ing to 4.25 inches; lug semicircular, full width, vertical to plane of blade,
pierced. Circumference at 12 inches, 4 inches; at 18 inches,



T


\BLE }:.






PiereNo.
3789

(inches).


Piece No.

ANSP

15743

(inches).


Length 28.25

Haft 3.75

Width 6.75

Thickness . . 15


-■ 1

8.5
10.5

25

1



3789-

Samoa.
Pepoer-Voy.
Plate I, g; XII,
42.



5 inches; at 23 inches, 7 inches; four angles continuous
throughout, midribs not car\-ed. At 23 inches width across
cusps 7 inches; at 26.12 inches width of blade 6.75 inches;
height of subtending arc, 2 inches; thickness, 1.12 inches;
median angle continuous as a rib across end of club; planes
of blade slightly hollowed.

Ornament : Simple zigzag beginning at 1 2 inches ; double unit of concentric
squares for 3 inches; 3 bands transverse zigzag for i inch; unit of longitudinal
zigzag for 1.5 inches; 5 bands transverse zigzag 1.75 inches to beginning
of cusps. Centers of blades longitudinal-transverse-longitudinal units of 5
zigzags. Wings of blade longitudinal band-and-zigzags ; width 1.25 inches,
of which outer zigzags continuous ; inner zigzags overlaid by pattern of blank
triangles 0.5 inch high, bases touching at apices along median line, vertices
alternately inward and outward; outer units 0.5 inch wide, alternately blank
triangles as above, facing outward, and triangles composite of outward-facing
small triangles in 5 rows; blank edge 0.25 inch.

Samoan: Fa'alautaliga, (fa' a, like; lautaliga, toadstool; lau, broad surface;
taliga, earj.

Length, 27 inches, of which blade is 7.5 inches.

Shaft: Hexagonal; width of faces, 1.5 inches, except two e<^es 1.25 inches;
at end, bevel 0.5 inch wide on median hne at foot of lug;
median hne continuous throughout; lug triangular, vertical
to plane of blade, perforated.

Blade: Width across cusps, 10.5 inches; width, 10 inches
at 2 inches from end; thickness, 2.5 inches; plane faces.

Ornament : Conventional in a high degree ; begins at 1 1
inches and covers part of shaft and all of blade; the designs
are filled with chunam, and on one face the filhng has been picked out of all
the even-numbered transverse units.



XSSP.

15743-

Samoa.

Dr. Reginald
Spear, U. 5. N.

Plates IV, 4, 5;
Xn, a,b.



HORNED CLUBS NIFO OTI).
Plate IV, 6, 7; Kramer, 210 e, 213-78 a, 216 b, 218 a. Provenience: Samoa.

The two clubs here presented are distinctively Samoan. It is only
by reason of the paucity of material that they are set in the same type.



yS CLUB TYPES OF NUCLEAR POLYNESIA.

for the name is properly applicable only to the former. In their gen-
eral resemblance it is to be noted that each has a shaft relatively short,
a sharply distinct blade of considerable height between edges, and a
clearly cut median angle along the length, a member of the extreme
head arising in a cusp. They differ in the cusp, which in one type, the
true nifo'oti, is retroverted and in the other is blunt; and they differ in


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Online LibraryWilliam ChurchillClub types of nuclear Polynesia → online text (page 9 of 21)